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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Iain L. Densten

This paper aims to examine the validity of contingent reward and its relationship to extra effort and to further advance understanding of the leader/follower performance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the validity of contingent reward and its relationship to extra effort and to further advance understanding of the leader/follower performance reward relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of contingent reward has largely remained unchanged since 1985. Consequently, the items of contingent reward were examined in terms of their content validity that was guided by transactional leadership theory, re‐formulated path‐goal theory of leadership, and negotiation theory. Three new contingent reward factors were identified (i.e. framing, clarifying, and rewarding). These were examined using one‐factor congeneric measurement models. Valid factors were identified using a high‐order confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the structural validity of the three new factors of contingent reward. Finally, structural equation models were calculated to examine the relationships among contingent reward factors and extra effort.

Findings

Three distinct factors of contingent reward were identified and their relationships with extra effort was consistent with the integrative negotiation strategies where each factor formed part of a negotiation process. Contingent reward (framing) initiates the negotiation process and directly loads on contingent reward (rewarding and clarifying); contingent reward (framing) did not directly load on to extra effort. Contingent reward (rewarding) supports the negotiation process by loading directly on contingent reward (clarifying). The negotiation process is completed with contingent reward (clarifying) directly loading on extra effort. These three contingent reward factors form a simple negotiation process that highlights several important aspect of the leader/follower reward performance relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses a cross‐sectional design that means that its findings may not be generalisable to other populations. However, the findings of this study should encourage researchers to appreciate that common leadership behaviour, like contingent reward, may have more complex interrelationships with outcome factors such as extra effort than previously expected.

Practical implications

Leaders should view their use of contingent reward behaviours in terms of a process rather than simply exhibiting a single clarifying contingent reward type behaviour. In other words, leaders need to establish the boundaries (i.e. framing), acknowledge involvement (i.e. rewarding), and then elucidate mutual outcomes (i.e. clarifying). This process should enable leaders to negotiate greater flexibilities and create more momentum within their leader/follower performance reward relationships.

Originality/value

This paper challenges the foundation ideas and empirical pedigree of contingent reward and incorporates advances in theories such as the reformulated path‐goal theory and interpret the behaviours in a broader multi‐disciplinary context, i.e. integrative negotiation strategies.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a survey on critical success factor for the maintenance of local public buildings and how reported score values and factor

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a survey on critical success factor for the maintenance of local public buildings and how reported score values and factor rankings depend on characteristics (contingencies) of the local governments that participated.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from a large-scale survey of Norwegian local governments that covered 66 per cent of all local governments and 80 per cent of the population. The authors combine these data with contingent information from public registers on demographics, fiscal, political and geographical characteristics. The authors run regressions to determine whether contingencies affect survey results. They further study how score values vary with a key contingent factor.

Findings

The main result of this paper is that the reported importance of critical success factors is contingent on local government population levels. A comparison of importance rankings based on population quartiles shows that ranking orders change, both between quartiles and from the overall ranking, and that certain factors show systematic changes. Further, the authors find that when controlling for sampling error, groups of factors should be considered as equally important. This result holds both for the full sample ranking and for rankings within population quartiles.

Originality/value

The results of this paper have implications for all survey-based investigations of critical success factors where contingent information on respondents are available. Contingencies need to be taken into consideration, both when assessing rankings according to some criteria and when comparing actual score values.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Wenbin Ni and Hongyi Sun

Literature proposes that implementing supplier assessment and supplier collaboration simultaneously may lead to better sustainable performance. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature proposes that implementing supplier assessment and supplier collaboration simultaneously may lead to better sustainable performance. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the proposition by considering the contingent effects of two contextual factors, the environmental dynamism and the stakeholder pressure on sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

Four configurations of governance mechanisms are identified according to the different levels of implementing supplier assessment and supplier collaboration. The performances of the four configurations are compared against the levels of environmental dynamism and stakeholder pressure. The empirical data from the sixth round of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) are used.

Findings

This paper found that the governance configuration with the highest level of implementing both governance mechanisms leads to the best performance. The synergistic effect that supplier assessment and collaboration complement each other to achieve better performance is verified. However, the synergistic effect holds robust only when the environmental dynamism and stakeholder pressure are high. The synergistic effect vanishes in the social and environmental performance when the environmental dynamism is low. The effect also vanishes in the environmental performance when the stakeholder pressure is low. No synergistic effect was found in business performance.

Originality/value

This paper reveals the complementarity between supplier assessment and supplier collaboration when they are implemented at a reasonably high level. It also reveals the importance of the fit of governance mechanisms under different external contexts. The results contribute to reconciling the disputes about the effectiveness of governing supplier relationship to achieve the sustainability along a supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Vikram Bhakoo, Prakash Singh and Amrik Sohal

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the nature of collaborative arrangements that partners in Australian hospital supply chains use to manage inventories.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the nature of collaborative arrangements that partners in Australian hospital supply chains use to manage inventories.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study involving a supply chain network of ten healthcare organisations (three pharmaceutical manufacturers, two wholesalers/distributors and five public hospitals) was studied. Data included 40 semi‐structured interviews, site visits and examination of documents.

Findings

This study highlights the existence of a variety of collaborative arrangements amongst supply chain partners such as the “Ward Box” system (a variant of the vender managed inventory system) between wholesalers/distributors and hospitals. The materials management departments were more willing than their pharmacy counterparts to participate in a variety of partial and complete outsourcing arrangements with wholesalers/distributors and other hospitals. Several contingent factors were identified that influenced development of collaborative arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the Australian healthcare sector. To improve generalisability, this study could be replicated in other industry sectors and countries.

Practical implications

Application of collaborative arrangements between manufacturers and wholesalers/distributors would improve inventory management practices across the supply chains. Also, learning from materials management departments could be transferable to pharmacy departments.

Originality/value

Several contingent variables for the implementation of collaborative inventory management arrangements between healthcare supply chain partners have been identified. Methodologically, data across three echelons in the supply chains (manufacturers, wholesalers/distributors and hospitals) were collected and analysed.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Zezhong Xiao, Alan Sangster and Jeffrey H. Dodgson

Argues that previous evaluative studies of the impact of information technology (IT) on accounting have focused too much on accountants, and thus have largely neglected…

Abstract

Argues that previous evaluative studies of the impact of information technology (IT) on accounting have focused too much on accountants, and thus have largely neglected broader social and organizational issues. Adopting a contingency perspective, investigates the relationship between IT and corporate financial reporting through the analysis of responses to a postal questionnaire survey of 1,515 UK public companies. Finds that IT use is associated more with internal reporting change (IRC) than with external reporting change (ERC), implying that IT use may have enlarged the information asymmetry between internal and external users. The association between IT use and IRC is found to be stronger in smaller companies than in large ones; and the correlation between IT use and ERC is found to vary depending on the existence of a management compensation plan, and to be conditional on the level of gearing. Discusses the implications of these findings.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2019

Aku Valtakoski, Javier Reynoso, Daniel Maranto, Bo Edvardsson and Egren Maravillo Cabrera

The purpose of this paper is to test how national culture may help to explain cross-country differences in new service development (NSD) by comparing the impact of NSD…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test how national culture may help to explain cross-country differences in new service development (NSD) by comparing the impact of NSD success factors between Mexico and Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight hypotheses based on prior literature on NSD and national culture were tested using covariance-based structural equation modeling and survey data from 210 Mexican and 173 Swedish firms.

Findings

Launch proficiency and customer interaction had a positive impact on NSD performance with no difference between the two cultures. NSD process formalization did not have clear positive impact on NSD performance but had a statistically significantly stronger impact in the structured culture (Mexico). Team empowerment affected NSD performance positively, but the difference between cultures was non-significant.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of national culture depends on the type of NSD success factor. Some factors are unaffected by the cultural context, while factors congruent with the national culture enhance performance. Factors incongruent with national culture may even hurt NSD performance.

Practical implications

When choosing priorities in NSD improvement, managers need to consider the national culture environment.

Originality/value

Paper directly tests how national culture moderates NSD performance using primary data. Findings suggest that the effects of NSD success factors are contingent on congruence with national culture.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Md. Mamunur Rashid, Md. Mohobbot Ali and Dewan Mahboob Hossain

The purpose of this study is to review the empirical studies that have focused on the adoption, benefits and contingencies of strategic management accounting (SMA…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the empirical studies that have focused on the adoption, benefits and contingencies of strategic management accounting (SMA) practices and the effects of adoption on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has highlighted empirical studies conducted on SMA practices in the context of both developed [1] and developing economies. In reviewing the literature, the study focuses on the findings of developed economy separately from that of developing economy to get more insight into the differences in the practices of the two set of economies. Based on the review, avenues for future research studies are outlined.

Findings

The review of extant literature reveals that several SMA techniques such as competitor accounting, strategic pricing, benchmarking and customer accounting have been highly or moderately adopted in several developed countries while majority of other techniques remained at the bottom line of the adoption status. However, the review demonstrates substantial differences in the SMA practices between the two set of economies in terms of the level of adoption, contingent factors and the effects of adoption.

Originality/value

The study attempts to focus on empirical studies that have concentrated exclusively on SMA practices. The adoption status, benefits derived, contingent factors affecting the adoption decision and the effect of adopting a package of SMA techniques on several aspects of firm performance are presented in the context of both developed and developing economies.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Solomon Olusola Babatunde and Srinath Perera

The presence of previous awarded public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects that significantly delays reaching financial close constrain the likely success…

Abstract

Purpose

The presence of previous awarded public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects that significantly delays reaching financial close constrain the likely success of new PPP projects. However, effort at investigating financial close delays of PPP projects through empirical studies by the research community received scant attention. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the factors causing delays in PPP projects from reaching financial close in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted literature review and questionnaire survey. In order to capture a broad perception, a questionnaire survey was adopted, which was administered to three different primary stakeholder categories comprised public sector authorities (i.e. ministries, department, and agencies), concessionaires, and lenders/banks already involved in PPP infrastructure projects implementation in Nigeria. The data obtained were analysed using mean score, Kruskal-Wallis test, and factor analysis.

Findings

The study revealed the mean score ranking of 39 identified causes of financial close delays in PPP projects, and the mean score values for all the identified 39 causes of financial close delays are very high. The study, through factor analysis, categorised the 39 identified causes of financial close delays into eight principal factors. The factors are: decreased bankability of PPP projects; unstable economic policy; weak financial, technical, and managerial capabilities of the concessionaires; weak public institutions; lack of creditworthiness of both the project sponsors and active partner; unfavourable economy of the host country; weak legal and unfavourable environment; and high contingent liabilities, respectively.

Practical implications

The identification and evaluation of the factors delaying PPP projects development from reaching financial close in a reasonable time manner would be useful for PPP primary stakeholders to develop strategies to safeguard the present and future PPP projects implementation in developing countries.

Originality/value

The study findings would be useful for both policymakers considering PPP projects and private investors seeking to finance PPP projects in developing countries. This study is crucial as not many empirical studies have been conducted in developing countries.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Cher-Hung Tseng and Liang-Tu Chen

This study aims to explore the effects of subsidiary–local supplier linkage characteristics in a supply chain and the moderating effects of a multinational corporation’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the effects of subsidiary–local supplier linkage characteristics in a supply chain and the moderating effects of a multinational corporation’s (MNC’s) international experience (IE) and a subsidiary’s innovation orientation (IO) on the subsidiary’s technological capability.

Design/methodology/approach

A new research framework is developed comprising four constructs and six research hypotheses. Applying the regression model, the hypotheses were tested on data from Taiwanese MNC’s subsidiaries of manufacturing industries in Asian developing countries.

Findings

The subsidiary–local supplier linkage characteristics, including economic aspect: asset-specific investment (ASI) of local supplier and social aspect: relational capital (RC) of local linkage, are positively associated with subsidiary’s technological capability. Moreover, the MNC’s IE can enhance the positive effect of RC on the subsidiary’s technological capability and the subsidiary’s IO decreases the positive impact of ASI on the subsidiary’s technological capability.

Practical implications

This study provides useful insights into how MNCs and subsidiaries should concentrate on the factors that increase the subsidiary’s technological capability. Moreover, MNCs’ and subsidiaries’ managers must endeavor to establish long-term linkages with carefully selected local suppliers, induce these suppliers to provide appropriate ASI, and actively develop RC in the subsidiary–local supplier linkage to enhance the subsidiary’s technological capability.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that subsidiary–local supplier linkage characteristics, MNC’s IE and subsidiary’s IO can be applied to examine the technological capability of subsidiaries operating in less advanced countries.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Benjamin E. Goldsmith

Purpose – The main purpose is to provide ideas about an intellectual framework for considering the role of “economic factors” in conflict and to suggest some potentially…

Abstract

Purpose – The main purpose is to provide ideas about an intellectual framework for considering the role of “economic factors” in conflict and to suggest some potentially useful future areas of research. I selectively reference some relevant findings from the other chapters in this volume.

Methodology/approach – This chapter is speculative, but raises important issues. It might seem that economic factors should be considered “hard” constraints on the dynamics of large-scale conflict and peace, whereas political factors are “soft.” I propose the opposite. I argue that we should consider political factors as causally primary and economic factors as contingent on them. I present statistical analyses that call into question some recent research on the apparent primacy of economic factors in international conflict.

Findings – These models challenge a strong belief in the primacy of a “capitalist peace” or “economic peace” over political factors such as democracy. But my purpose here is no more than to suggest that this is a promising area for further inquiry. Economic factors are of course hugely important, but they are filtered through norms and institutions, which are political creations. If the basic logic of my thinking holds, similar results would be obtained for studies of civil conflict initiation and escalation.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter raises the issue of the appropriate place of economic and political factors in understanding organized conflict at various levels of analysis. It suggests how the chapters in this volume help advance thinking about the relationship between economic factors and conflict in this context and provides some novel empirical results to suggest the plausibility of the argument that economic factors may be less theoretically fundamental than political ones.

Details

Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-004-0

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