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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Gonzalo Muñoz, José Weinstein and Matías Sembler

This paper aims to describe the levels and type of contingency faced by school principals in Chile and the way certain aspects of the Chilean school system result in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the levels and type of contingency faced by school principals in Chile and the way certain aspects of the Chilean school system result in a greater or lesser presence of these contingencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The results reported here are based on the application of a structured questionnaire to 381 elementary school principals in Chile. A “Leadership Contingency Index” was created to analyze the extent and characteristics of this phenomenon, which was complemented with a multiple regression analysis to observe the variables that influence the levels of contingency.

Findings

This study has shown that the main contingencies faced by school leaders in Chile revolve around the relationship between actors: assist families, relationship with and among students and resolution of school staff problems. Also shows that the level of contingency faced by principals is strongly conditioned by the socio-educational context of the school and is not related to the individual characteristics of the leaders. This level of contingencies is significantly higher in the public system, although the most recurrent contingencies are the same in each type of school administration (public, private subsidized and privately funded schools).

Originality/value

This paper addresses an important but relatively unexplored dimension in specialized research on leadership: variable contingencies under which the leadership role is performed daily, including significant gaps between schools. Understanding and analyzing school leadership from the perspective of the complexity of tasks currently faced by principals, many of them highly unpredictable, ensures a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of leadership in action and, consequently, provides better tools to strengthen the school leadership role and its contribution to improving student learning.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2022

Wafaa A.H. Ahmed, Bart L. MacCarthy and Horst Treiblmaier

Blockchain is increasingly being considered for applications in operations and supply chain management. However, evidence from practice is still scarce on why, where and…

Abstract

Purpose

Blockchain is increasingly being considered for applications in operations and supply chain management. However, evidence from practice is still scarce on why, where and how organizations seek to apply the technology in the supply chain across different industries. The study develops a comprehensive framework to enhance understanding of the application areas of blockchain technology in the supply chain, as well as organizations' motivations in seeking blockchain solutions and relevant contingency factors influencing applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate 50 use cases of blockchain applications in the supply chain, covering six industries. Contingency theory is applied in conducting a qualitative textual and correlation analysis to identify and compare blockchain adoption motivations, application areas and contingency factors across different industries.

Findings

The analysis develops an evidence-based framework that captures ten principal motivations in seeking blockchain solutions, three main blockchain application areas along with important application sub-categories and five clusters of contingency factors that influence blockchain deployment and its uses in different industrial sectors.

Research limitations/implications

The study expands the limited cross-sectoral research on blockchain applications and motivations in the supply chain. Using contingency theory, it presents a comprehensive framework that captures the drivers and factors relating to blockchain adoption in the supply chain in a nomological network. The study lays the foundation for further theoretical perspectives and empirical research to investigate relevant sectoral characteristics and their importance for different types of blockchain application in the supply chain.

Practical implications

The study informs practitioners about potential supply chain application areas that can be enhanced through blockchain technology, taking account of the specific characteristics of their products, business and manufacturing processes, supply network configurations, industry standards, regulations and market demand.

Originality/value

The study is the first to provide cross-sectoral evidence on the relevance of organizations' motivations and numerous contingency factors on blockchain application areas in the supply chain.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 42 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

K.L. Lo, W.P. Luan, M. Given, M. Bradley and H.B. Wan

Automatic contingency selection aims to quickly predict the impact of a set of next contingencies on an electric power system without actually performing a full ac load…

Abstract

Automatic contingency selection aims to quickly predict the impact of a set of next contingencies on an electric power system without actually performing a full ac load flow. Artificial neural network methods have been employed to overcome the masking effects or slow execution associated with existing methods. However, the large number of input features for the ANN limits its applications to large power systems. In this paper, a novel feature selection method, named the Weak Nodes method, based on a heuristic approach is proposed for an ANN‐based automatic contingency selection for electric power system, especially for the voltage ranking problem. Pre‐contingency state variables of weak nodes in the power system are adopted as input features for the ANN. The method is tested on the 77 busbar NGC derived network by Counter‐propagation Method and it is proved that it reduces the input features for ANN dramatically without losing ranking accuracy.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Olav Torp, Ingemund Jordanger, Ole Jonny Klakegg and Yvonne C.B. Bjerke

The purpose of the paper is 1) to address the importance of contingency at the right level when defining project control baseline, including cost reserves / “room to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is 1) to address the importance of contingency at the right level when defining project control baseline, including cost reserves / “room to manoeuvre” and 2) present proactive uncertainty management as a regime to ensure cost effective management of project reserves and contribute to project success.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The paper is a combination of literature study and quantitative research on how contingency develops during the lifetime of a case project. The investigation into the case project includes document study into quantitative material from the case project. The combination of empirical material and theory makes the discussion robust.

Findings

Unrealistic low cost uncertainty will lead to unrealistic low contingency. The case study from a Norwegian mega project shows a contingency of 15 per cent in addition to expected costs. The case study shows that by continuous opportunity management and risk reduction, the needs for management reserves are systematically reduced and the contingency is controlled.

Research Limitations/Implications

This research is limited to one case study. A higher number of cases are necessary to generalise the findings. However, the authors would claim that the systematic mapping of need for management reserve towards the project contingency, and a continuous uncertainty management system will help to obtain cost effective management. The findings from the case study could be applied on similar cases.

Practical Implications

The case study shows a way of setting contingencies and managing contingencies through systematic uncertainty management.

Originality/Value

Improved management of project provisions will increase the value of future projects.

Details

10th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-051-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2012

Cameron K. Tuai

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library…

Abstract

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library administrators. To understand how to control the costs of integration, this study uses structural contingency theory to study the coordination of librarians and technologists within the information commons.

Design/methodology/approach – This study tests the structural contingency theory expectation that an organization will achieve higher levels of performance when there is a positive relationship between the degree of workflow interdependence and the complexity of coordinative structures necessary to integrate these workflows. This expectation was tested by (a) identifying and collecting a sample of information common; (b) developing and validating survey instruments to test the proposition; and (c) quantitatively analyzing the data to test the proposed contingency theory relationship.

Findings – The contingency theory expectations were confirmed by finding both a positive relationship between coordination and interdependence and a positive relationship between perceptions of performance and degree of congruency between interdependence and coordination.

Limitations – The findings of this study are limited to both the context of an information common and the structures tested. Future research should seek to both broaden the context in which these findings are applicable, and test additional structural relationships as proposed by contingency theory

Practical implications – This study contributes to the library profession in a number of ways. First, it suggests that managers can improve IC performance by matching coordination structures to the degree of interdependence. For instance, when librarians and technologists are strictly co-located, managers should coordinate workflows using less resource-intensive policies rather than meetings. Second, the instruments developed in this study will improve the library manager's ability to measure and report unit interdependence and coordination in a valid and reliable manner. Lastly, it also contributes to the study of structural contingency theory by presenting one of the first empirical confirmations of a positive relationship between interdependence and coordination.

Originality/value – This study represents one of the first empirical confirmations of the structural contingency theory expectations of both a positive relationship between workflow interdependence and coordination, and a positive relationship between performance and coordination's fit to workflow interdependence. These findings are of value to both organizational theorists and to administrators of information commons.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-313-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Abdallah Amhalhal, John Anchor, Nicoleta S. Tipi and Sara Elgazzar

The research investigates the effectiveness of the performance measurement alignment approach which claims that measurement diversity (multiple performance measures…

Abstract

Purpose

The research investigates the effectiveness of the performance measurement alignment approach which claims that measurement diversity (multiple performance measures) should be aligned with organisational contingencies to enhance organisational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is contingency theory. The study is an empirical investigation of the indirect relationship between three contextual factors (business strategy, information technology and organisation size) and organisational performance via multiple performance measures. The results are derived from cross-sectional questionnaire survey data from 132 Libyan companies (response rate of 61%). For data analysis, the research uses mediation regression analysis via Preacher and Hayes' (2004) macro.

Findings

There is a significant indirect effect of business strategy and information technology, but not organisation size, on organisational performance. The measurement diversity approach plays a core mediating role in the relationship between the contingencies and organisational performance.

Practical implications

The study helps to provide a better understanding of the usefulness of the fit/match between contingencies and Multiple Performance Measures in improving organisational performance.

Originality/value

The empirical evidence supports the central proposition of contingency theory that there is no universally appropriate performance measurement system which applies equally to all organisations in all circumstances. It also provides evidence relating to non–manufacturing and an emerging market context. This research significantly extends the relevant literature by highlighting the relationship between information technology, multiple performance measures and organisational performance. This study is the first to use Preacher and Hayes' (2004) macro to analyse mediation design in the field of contingency-based performance measurement.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Shuhei Ogawa and Michio Kojima

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to validate the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to validate the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals and, second, examine the association between contingencies of self-worth and subjective adjustment to school.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-report was used to examine both contingencies of self-worth and subjective adjustment to school in adolescents with ASD and typically developing individuals.

Findings

First, the validity and reliability of the CSWS was verified. Second, the scale was not significant correlation with subjective adjustment to school and contingencies of self-worth in adolescents with ASD. As the reason for this, it has been suggested that there are adaptive aspects and maladaptive aspects in contingencies of self-worth.

Originality/value

This is an original research designed to examine contingencies of self-worth in adolescents with ASD.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Britta Søgaard, Heather Dawn Skipworth, Michael Bourlakis, Carlos Mena and Richard Wilding

This paper aims to explore how purchasing could respond to disruptive technologies by examining the assumptions underlying purchasing strategic alignment and purchasing…

1121

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how purchasing could respond to disruptive technologies by examining the assumptions underlying purchasing strategic alignment and purchasing maturity through a contingency lens.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a systematic review across purchasing maturity and purchasing strategic alignment literature. This is supplemented with exploratory case studies to include practitioners’ views.

Findings

This research demonstrates that neither purchasing maturity nor purchasing strategic alignment are suitable approaches to respond to disruptive technologies. Purchasing maturity does not allow purchasing managers to select relevant practices. It also shows no consideration of any contingencies, which practitioners highlight as important for the selection of practices. Purchasing strategic alignment includes the company strategy as a contingency but does not provide any practices to choose from. It does not include any other contextual contingencies considered important by practitioners. The findings indicate that linking the two research streams may provide a more suitable approach to responding to disruptive technologies.

Research limitations/implications

This research demonstrates the requirement to develop a new approach to responding to disruptive technologies, by linking purchasing maturity and purchasing strategic alignment to contextual contingencies. This is a currently unexplored approach in academic literature, which refutes the generally accepted premise that higher maturity unilaterally supports a better positioning towards technological disruption. This research also highlights a requirement for practitioners to shift their approach to “best practices”.

Originality/value

This is the first research to systematically review the relationships between purchasing maturity and purchasing strategic alignment. It adds to contingency theory by suggesting that purchasing maturity models can support the achievement of strategic alignment. Also, future research directions are suggested to explore these relationships.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2019

Jeffery S. Smith, Jayanth Jayaram, Frederic Ponsignon and Jeremy S. Wolter

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of different antecedent factors (contingencies) on the design of a service recovery system (SRS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of different antecedent factors (contingencies) on the design of a service recovery system (SRS).

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was framed and a series of hypotheses generated and tested using data from 158 practicing managers using a multivariate general linear modeling technique.

Findings

The analyses indicated that firms, by and large, mainly considered environmental factors in the SRS design. Additional evidence suggests that managers do consider other contingencies but may do so in a fragmented manner. The results presented herein indicate that firms design back-office aspects of SRS in response to external factors (i.e. the environmental contingency). In contrast, the front-office components appear to have more diverse antecedents but are strongly influenced by the firm’s recovery orientation. The specific recovery practices appear to be implemented per industry standards. In sum, evidence indicates that there are diverse driving factors to total SRS design.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations are based primarily on the methodology as data were obtained from a single person who represented the entire SRS. Care was taken in the study design in order not to compromise the validity of the findings.

Practical implications

The results indicated that managers responsible for system design need to be holistic in SRS design to more tightly link decisions across multiple contingencies so as to more fully integrate total service system design. This is potentially accomplished through the inclusion of aspects of all relevant contingencies when designing recovery systems.

Originality/value

This paper’s main contribution is that it employs established theory to develop and test a model to show that firms consider multiple contingencies while designing SRS. It contributes to the emerging body of work on SRS design by providing insights that can be considered as driving forces behind the design of SRS.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Akira Kimata

This study is founded on contingency theory, which is derived from organization theory, and in it we examine the structural problems of the modern Japanese recycling…

Abstract

This study is founded on contingency theory, which is derived from organization theory, and in it we examine the structural problems of the modern Japanese recycling business using J. D. Thompson's model of contingency theory. Based on the results of our interviews conducted with 16 companies through the nondirective method, we argue that there are multiple contingency factors in the modern Japanese recycling venture and that these factors increase uncertainty and reduce the stability of the business as a result. We conclude that as an active level of 'sub technology,' recycling businesses created as diversifications of major companies will eventually manage the multiplicity of contingency factors.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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