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Article

Rana Zayadin, Antonella Zucchella, Nisreen Ameen and Craig Duckworth

The purpose of this study is to capture the variation in entrepreneurs' understandings and experiences through which they contextualise cultural factors within a national…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to capture the variation in entrepreneurs' understandings and experiences through which they contextualise cultural factors within a national setting to articulate how they use their knowledge and social capabilities to advance their activity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an interpretivist approach through which culture is investigated at the individual level. Phenomenography is used as a methodology to capture the variation in the entrepreneurs own understanding and experiences of the cultural factors.

Findings

The findings introduce four different understandings and eight experiences to explore how entrepreneurs contextualise culture in their environment. The findings present a change in the role of culture in influencing entrepreneurial social capabilities and confidence; and a change in the local culture from collectivism to individualism. Furthermore, the findings show how entrepreneurs use their knowledge, experience and understanding to achieve socially driven acts to pursue economic value, integration and acceptance.

Research limitations/implications

We encourage further research in the Middle-East region to examine the model and identify other factors that affect entrepreneurial behaviour, including the important developments with regard to women entrepreneurs. While Jordan has embarked on introducing policy level changes to support entrepreneurship, the findings report that the culture of collectivism is changing. This requires a longitudinal research to capture the change and its implication on entrepreneurial activity in Jordan and its impact on unemployment and economic value.

Practical implications

In terms of practical contribution, the study introduces a policy level contribution by answering the question presented by the GEM report (2014) pointing out the high entrepreneurial opportunity identification in Jordan, yet the country has the lowest entrepreneurial activity in the region. Although the report pointed out issues in policy and institutional support the role of culture was not addressed. The study recommendation is to celebrate and entrepreneurial activity and introduce entrepreneurial studies at schools to influence a positive change.

Social implications

We addressed some of the several calls to further investigate and understand the role of culture, how entrepreneurs contextualise it (Foss and Klein, 2012; Garud et al., 2016; Zahra et al., 2014; Welter et al., 2019). Our research provides a fertile ground for further enquiries that pose questions such as “What other factors do entrepreneurs contextualise in their environment?” and “how these factors are contextualised?” The use of phenomenography as an interpretive methodology might therefore assist in revealing further shared understandings of the variation in entrepreneurs' behaviours. Further research on capturing “understanding” presents the complex forms of interactions and mechanism in the cognitive world of the entrepreneurs (Barandiaran et al., 2009; Brannback and Carsrud, 2016).

Originality/value

In this study, phenomenography has enabled new insights into the multiplicity and idiosyncratic role of culture within a national setting and introduces a model of social capability and integration which capture the contextualisation of cultural factors. The study contributes to entrepreneurship literature as follows: first, the implicit assumption in this research is that culture is an active construct that entrepreneurs understand, experience and also influence; second, the variation in entrepreneurs' outcomes is based on their subjective and personal understandings which form the ways of contextualisation. Third, the variation in understanding and experiences captures the different ways entrepreneurs use their social capabilities to achieve integration and economic value.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Book part

Melissa Archpru Akaka, Hope Jensen Schau and Stephen L. Vargo

This chapter explores the nature of the cultural context that frames value creation and provides insight to the way in which value is collaboratively created, or…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the nature of the cultural context that frames value creation and provides insight to the way in which value is collaboratively created, or co-created, in markets.

Methodology/approach

We develop a conceptual framework and research propositions for studying the co-creation of value-in-cultural-context through the intersection of consumer culture theory (CCT) and service-dominant (S-D) logic and the integration of a practice-theoretic approach for value co-creation.

Research implications

The integration of CCT, S-D logic, and practice theory provides a conceptual framework for studying the co-creation of value among multiple stakeholders and the (re)formation of markets.

Practical implications

Drawing on this framework, marketers can contribute to the co-creation of new markets by influencing changes in cultural contexts – practices, norms, meanings, and resources – that frame value co-creation and exchange.

Originality/value of chapter

This chapter explores the integration of CCT and S-D logic by focusing on value co-creation and applying a practice approach to further weave together these distinct research areas. In addition, the proposed framework elaborates the conceptualization of value-in-context to consider the cultural context that influences and is influenced by the co-creation of value.

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Article

Lisa Marini, Jane Andrew and Sandra van der Laan

The purpose of this paper is to explore how accountability practices are affected and potentially transformed when mediated by translation. Adopting a postcolonial lens…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how accountability practices are affected and potentially transformed when mediated by translation. Adopting a postcolonial lens, the authors consider the ways in which translation functions and how intermediaries act as cultural translators in the context of microfinance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors take a qualitative approach to a case study of a microfinance organization based in South Africa. Fieldwork allowed for the collection of data by means of direct observations, interviews, documents and a fieldwork diary.

Findings

The study demonstrates the presence of spaces of hybridity that co-exist within the same organizational context (Bhabha, 1994). Two spaces of hybridity are highlighted, in which translation processes were possible because of the proximity between borrowers and fieldworkers. The first space of hybridity was found locally and here translation shaped an accountability that aimed at leveraging local cultures and favoring cultural framing. The second space of hybridity was characterized by the interaction between oral and written cultures and the translation of responsibilities and expectations was predominantly unidirectional, prioritizing accountability practices consistent with organizational requirements.

Originality/value

This research offers in-depth insights into the links between intermediation, translation and accountability practices. It differs from prior research in considering intermediaries as active translators of accountability practices who act in-between cultures. The authors contend that the translation process reinscribes culture allowing dominant accountability practices to prevail and local cultural traditions to merely contextualize accountability practices.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article

Kevin D. Lo, Richard D. Waters and Nicklas Christensen

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions are reflected on the official corporate Facebook pages from 259 organizations on Fortune

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions are reflected on the official corporate Facebook pages from 259 organizations on Fortune magazine’s Global 500 list. This is the first attempt to create a conceptualization of Hofstede’s dimensions for organizational social media use.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine how Facebook is used by the Global 500 corporations, a content analysis was carried out based on the 2013 listing of the highest revenue corporations throughout the world. As a research method, content analysis allows researchers to examine the actual practices of communication by focusing on the information provided through textual and visual messages.

Findings

The results paint a mixed picture indicating that the global nature of these corporations is echoed in a somewhat similar overall presence on Facebook; but when the individual elements (About Us, updates, and media) are examined, statistical differences emerge in relation to the reflection of the cultural dimensions.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work to match Facebook behaviors with Hofstede’s dimensions. This work needs to be replicated with other organizations to determine its staying power. In addition, future research might tap into agency and any consciousness on the part of social media managers in a specific direction. Depending on those findings, they might make important statements on the emergence of a global social media culture.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article

Michael E. Meyer and Jean Steyn

The article aims to report on an examination of South African Police Service (SAPS) recruits for indicators evincing the presence of the police culture theme of isolation…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to report on an examination of South African Police Service (SAPS) recruits for indicators evincing the presence of the police culture theme of isolation. The research also seeks to determine if the presence of isolation as characteristic of SAPS recruits is gender neutral as well as whether indicators of social isolation change over the period of basic recruit training as well as during the first period of encounter, field training.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey format, the research employs a quasi‐experimental pre‐test/post‐test repeated measures research (longitudinal) design: a pre‐test at the beginning of SAPS recruit basic training; post‐test at the end of the SAPS basic training; and a second post‐test upon completion field training.

Findings

Although there is significant variance among the police recruits, overall there are indicators of police isolation already present among the recruits upon arrival at the police training colleges. These indicators became stronger during the period of basic training but appeared to weaken during field training. However, upon closer observation this change was true only for female recruits. Indicators of isolation were also stronger among female recruits at all three times despite the decrease following field training.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the basic training be evaluated for its differential, and somewhat negative, impact on female recruits. That attitudes evincing isolation from the public are present among police recruits also raises a serious question regarding community policing as the preferred mode of police service delivery.

Originality/value

This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the police culture theme of isolation among South African Police Service recruits entering basic police training in January of 2005 and changes that may have occurred in these attitudes over the period of the six‐month basic training and the subsequent six‐month field training experience.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Culture of Women in Tech
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-426-3

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Article

Perry Stanislas

The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to social and cultural leadership in the area of family matters as they relate to black and disadvantaged communities. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to social and cultural leadership in the area of family matters as they relate to black and disadvantaged communities. It seeks to reject and qualify the prevailing notions of victim status attributed to such groups in debates around the family and crime, while highlighting and challenging the various rationalities of the key actors involved. The paper calls for greater responsibility from those who view themselves as disadvantaged, and others who seek to advocate on their behalf.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on data gained from interviews carried out with black men, community activists, and participatory observation.

Findings

Black leaders for their own political motives continue to uncritically promote notions of female victimhood in the context of discussions around the family, youth delinquency, and crime. However, black lone‐parents are not passive victims and are often rational actors in the pursuit of personal goals, albeit often short‐sighted in terms of their social consequences.

Practical implications

More research is required especially reflecting black male perspectives about parenthood and lone‐parent families. Research is also called for on the issue of policing, crime prevention, and related strategies utilised by community activists in addressing the complex range of problems experienced by their communities. The paper calls for a stop to the practice of demonising black men in the context of debates around family matters, and the adoption of a more balanced approach to the issues in question.

Social implications

The paper contributes to a more informed debate on the topic, especially within affected communities, and discussions about parenting support/education, and the cultural specificity of some of the issues in question.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the role of black women's decision making in the context of family formation, and the role of sexism in black cultural practices in privileging female behaviour.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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Article

Beichen Liang, Rodney C. Runyan and Wei Fu

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the context of ad pictures differs between Chinese ads and US ads and whether it can influence consumers' ad attitudes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the context of ad pictures differs between Chinese ads and US ads and whether it can influence consumers' ad attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

An ad content analysis and a laboratory experiment were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Findings suggest that contextualized ads appear more frequently in Chinese magazines because East Asians have a context‐dependent mode of thinking while westerners have a context‐independent mode of thinking. However, the effect of culture on advertising is moderated by product class (goods vs service), product category, and magazine category. Moreover, East Asians prefer contextualized ads to non‐contextualized ones, while westerners prefer non‐contextualized ads to contextualized ads. However, the effect of culture on ad attitudes may be moderated by ad involvement.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study stem from its being based on ad samples from China and its use of students to test ad attitudes.

Practical implications

The findings allow managers to better determine whether and under what conditions to use contextualized or non‐contextualized advertisements.

Originality/value

The study's examination of the effect of culture on the context of ad format and effect of context on persuasion in this context constitutes a unique and valuable contribution to the literature. The paper also contributes much to the literature by checking cultural differences across 17 magazine categories, compared to the vast majority of studies analyzing ad content between eastern and western cultures, which have been based on ads from only a few sources.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article

Shaista E. Khilji and Candice D. Matthews

The purpose of this paper (editorial) is to take a stock of the research focused upon South Asia, in order to evaluate if it has produced useful results, and to discuss…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper (editorial) is to take a stock of the research focused upon South Asia, in order to evaluate if it has produced useful results, and to discuss its future directions as per the scope and mission of the South Asian Journal of Global Business Research. In view of pleas for greater attention to context effects, the authors use the concept of contextualization as the basis for analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative content analysis of research published in 21 top‐tier business journals is employed, including a total of 96 articles focusing upon South Asia or any South Asian country.

Findings

A contextualization typology is presented, related to purpose (whether context guides the research or not) and methodology (whether new or old framework and/or scales are used) and continuum of attention to contextualizations for hypotheses and/or research questions, and research findings in order to discuss the status of published South Asian research.

Research limitations/implications

The authors discuss limitations of their philosophical underpinning and epistemological standing that have influenced their analytical approach and results.

Originality/value

This paper presents a contextualization typology as a starting point to discuss contextualization in international business theory and practice. The paper also provides directions for future research for scholars interested in South Asian research.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

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Article

Vlad Burtaverde and Dragos Iliescu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of both work-related and emic contextualization of personality measurement in the prediction of work-related outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of both work-related and emic contextualization of personality measurement in the prediction of work-related outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 224 employees completed work-contextualized and non-contextualized Big Five model measures, as well as contextualized emic personality measures, together with a number of measures for work-related outcomes.

Findings

Results showed that, after controlling for demographic variables and non-contextualized etic factors, etic contextualized factors predicted occupational stress, work engagement, job satisfaction, work frustration, turnover intention, career satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. After controlling for demographic variables, non-contextualized etic factors and contextualized etic factors, emic contextualized personality factors predicted work engagement, job satisfaction, absenteeism, counterproductive workplace behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a number of limitations. First, the sample contained participants recruited from a low number of professional areas. Second, the sample consisted mostly of women, and relying on unbalanced samples may lead to construct irrelevant variance.

Practical implications

By using a combination of etic personality measures and contextualized emic personality measures, organizations can better predict a number of organizational outcomes related to extra-role performance, such as those considered in the present study.

Originality/value

This research showed that, in the case of personality assessment, using a double form of contextualization – frame of reference and culture – an increment in the prediction of organizational behaviors can be obtained.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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