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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

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Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Tracy Harwood

Despite a multitude of papers on selling and even negotiation, there has been very limited investigation of what leads to successful negotiation. This paper begins to…

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6035

Abstract

Despite a multitude of papers on selling and even negotiation, there has been very limited investigation of what leads to successful negotiation. This paper begins to tackle that shortfall and outlines the findings of exploratory research into negotiation styles of customer‐supplier dyads engaged in strategic relationship development. First, it reviews two distinct styles of negotiation approach: the competitive (adversarial or distributive) approach and the collaborative (problem‐solving or integrative) approach. Then it discusses the findings that support the argument that there are commonalities in the adoption of negotiating stances across industries and at different stages of relationship development. In conclusion the paper suggests that negotiation can be seen as a process of information exchange and highlights the practical implications of this research in terms of business development.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Wendell C. Lawther

The effectiveness of innovative procurement practices, illustrated at the US federal level by Performance Based Service Contracting and other best value approaches…

Abstract

The effectiveness of innovative procurement practices, illustrated at the US federal level by Performance Based Service Contracting and other best value approaches, depends upon changes in the public procurement organizational culture. These changes require agency officials to establish new relationships with contractors, as the challenges of acquiring complex as well as highly customized goods/services is best met through flexibility and negotiation throughout the life of the acquisition. Using procurement approaches that provide maximum flexibility provide challenges to public managers, as choices regarding negotiation include the content as well as the intensity and duration of negotiation sessions. The use of the Invitation to Negotiate (ITN) approach by the State of Florida is one example of an approach that allows flexibility and facilitates different relationships with contractors. Two case studies, from the Departments of Transportation and Management Services illustrate the use of ITN.

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Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Debbie Keeling, Amna Khan and Terry Newholm

Internet forums are an important arena for information exchange between consumers. Despite healthcare being one of the most accessed information categories on the…

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1540

Abstract

Purpose

Internet forums are an important arena for information exchange between consumers. Despite healthcare being one of the most accessed information categories on the internet, knowledge of exchange between patients in online communities remains limited. Specifically, little is known about how patients negotiate knowledge in online forums to understand and manage their diseases. This paper aims to illustrate this by presenting data that demonstrate the construction of tacit knowledge within online health communities, and how consumers exercise their “voice” within complex professional services.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports an exploratory single case study of an online discussion forum for breast cancer sufferers, in which participants discuss their experience with healthcare services and related pharmaceutical products. Textual data were collected and analysed from the forum retrospectively from an 11-month period, entailing contributions from 252 participants.

Findings

The paper challenges prevalent managerial and professional perspectives that evaluate online health information in terms of its correspondence with conventional medical information. In the absence of normative assumptions that broadly guide health service encounters, forum participants negotiate their understandings in the context of their personal experience.

Practical implications

This novel culture offers potential for developing rich and sometimes more appropriate understandings of health than available from the medical establishment. It discusses how service providers can exploit such opportunities towards improving service provision, facilitating the consumer voice within a complex service.

Originality/value

Re-evaluating the value of online forums, the paper identifies the mechanisms through which health consumers co-create knowledge within online communities, and how these mechanisms can inform and complement future service provision.

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Ingmar Geiger and Christoph Laubert

This study aims to compare predictions from media synchronicity theory (MST) with the influence of personality variables in an attempt to explain how negotiators choose…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare predictions from media synchronicity theory (MST) with the influence of personality variables in an attempt to explain how negotiators choose the communication media for negotiation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine media choice in two scenario-based experimental studies with students (n = 209) and professionals (n = 302) in a negotiation setting. For the analysis of the data, the authors use multilevel modeling.

Findings

This study offers support for the central proposition of MST, namely, that the type of communication subtask (conveyance or convergence) determines the degree of media synchronicity needed and therefore media choice (face-to-face or email). The support for its boundary conditions and contingent situational determinants is weaker. With the affect for communication channel scale, this study also captures individual media preferences for face-to-face or email communication, which have consistent influences on negotiators’ media choice. The personal influence variables on average account for similar variance in the data compared with the MST-based determinants.

Originality/value

This study sheds new light on diverging empirical results concerning media influences in negotiation and offers some reconciling suggestions. Furthermore, this study is the first to test boundary conditions of MST. Also, it stresses the importance of negotiators’ media preferences for media choice.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Ricardo Sousa

The conflict in Angola saw some of its most intense periods after the end of the Cold War, missing a favorable period of conflict resolution in this transition. This…

Abstract

The conflict in Angola saw some of its most intense periods after the end of the Cold War, missing a favorable period of conflict resolution in this transition. This chapter analyzes the reasons that were behind the failure to reach a successful peace process at this specific time when Namibia worked out a peaceful solution but Angola failed with the Gbadolite initiative. The analysis uses a “ripeness” model focusing on agency and processes over the 1989 Gbadolite Accords and its immediate context of the 1988 New York Accords and the aftermath of the 1991 Bicesse Accords. It is proposed that there was a lack of “ripeness” in Angola. On one hand, a resolution of the Angola conflict was not essential to finding a regional solution for Southern Africa, and on the other hand, both parties, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), lacked the conditions to effectively engage in a political solution. Namely, the parties were monolithic, the military process had not reached a point of hurting stalemate, and the incentive structures in terms of oil and diamond wealth in the country hindered both party predispositions. It concludes that finding a point of “ripeness” might take time; it is an agency envisioned process and as such can be possible within virtual new solutions that accommodate old power concerns.

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Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Kai Krüger

Markets for public contracting are in the process of transition. Various public/private partnership arrangements replace conventional purchasing, especially within the…

Abstract

Markets for public contracting are in the process of transition. Various public/private partnership arrangements replace conventional purchasing, especially within the local and regional government area. Municipal entities may not be in a position to define their needs up-front because they would not have the overview of what the market may have to offer. So one should ask: Is the traditional ban-on-negotiations in mandatory tender procedures (sealed bidding) - such as it is in EU public procurement law - counter-effective to genuine best value for public money? The article displays significant differences between European Union (EU) law, U.S. law and other regimes such as United Nations Model law, The World Trade Organisation’s Government Procurement Agreement (WTO/GPA), The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). New avenues for public/private demand a new agenda and the recent EU 2004 directive scheme attempts to respond to the market challenges. The author accepts that the new directive on public contracting facilitates a more smooth approach than in current EU law with regard to high-tech complicated contract awards, but questions whether the ’competitive dialogue’ really can afford tailor-made solutions to cope with long-term public/private partnership arrangements of the kind now spreading all over Europe

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Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Kun Ma and Bo Yang

This paper aims to study a bibliography acquisition approach to verify the bibliography by author name from the integrated system and the metadata from the digital object…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study a bibliography acquisition approach to verify the bibliography by author name from the integrated system and the metadata from the digital object identifier (DOI) content negotiation proxy. As managed scientific research papers increase at a higher rate, an accurate and automated scheme for bibliography acquisition is desirable.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a framework using DOI content negotiation proxy as context for the entering of the bibliography. The bibliography acquisition architecture is composed of three point of views to reduce the complexity: terminal UI, service deployed in the cloud and DOI content negotiation proxy. To simplify the service interface and support many kinds of bibliographic formats, this paper presents the independent BibModel and its template-based model transformation engine to support rich bibliographic records.

Findings

An important finding of this article is that we do some significant development work to combine the open CrossCite DOI content service and DOI resolvers of registry agencies. As more than 95 per cent of DOIs are owned or managed by CrossRef, DataCite, ISTIC and mEDTA DOI registry agencies, it is a common universal approach for the scientific research paper results with DOIs.

Practical implications

Through a simple method built quickly from freely available parts, it is partially successful, suggesting the scheme can be integrated with third-party systems, such as the management system of scientific research results and the electronic journal management system. The analysis of the application’s effect shows the ability to verify the authenticity of the paper by author name from the system and the metadata from our DOI content negotiation proxy.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an original and simple framework to acquire the metadata of bibliographies automatically. No detailed evaluative study has been carried out supporting both DOI content negotiation and resolver. This work shows how to implement the acquisition approach and how to integrate this framework with the current system.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Nina Reynolds, Antonis Simintiras and Efi Vlachou

Global companies increasingly rely on the effectiveness of business negotiations for their survival and growth. As an important business function for creating and…

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9469

Abstract

Global companies increasingly rely on the effectiveness of business negotiations for their survival and growth. As an important business function for creating and maintaining successful relationships, international business negotiations during the last decade (1990‐2000) have attracted considerable attention among researchers. Although these research efforts have shed light on several aspects of international business negotiations, there has been neither a comprehensive assessment of the knowledge gained, nor a systematic analysis of the issues that this research appears to have left unexplored. It is the purpose of this study to provide a thorough review of the publications on international business negotiations generated in the last decade, identify trends, assess where the discipline currently is and where it might be going.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

Laurie R. Weingart, Leigh L. Thompson, Max H. Bazerman and John S. Carroll

This paper examined negotiator behavior in a variable‐sum two‐party negotiation task and its impact on individual and joint negotiator out‐come. Specifically, we examined…

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4009

Abstract

This paper examined negotiator behavior in a variable‐sum two‐party negotiation task and its impact on individual and joint negotiator out‐come. Specifically, we examined the role of negotiator opening offer, reciprocity and complementarity of the use of tactics, systematic progression of offers, and information sharing in a negotiation with integrative potential. Results indicated that initial offers affect final outcome differently across buyers and sellers. The buyer's initial offer was curvilinearly related to his or her final outcome in the form of an inverted‐U. The seller's initial offer was positive‐linearly related to seller's outcome. Second, negotiators reciprocated and complemented both distributive and integrative tactics. In addition, highly integrative dyads differed from less efficient dyads in their reciprocation of integrative behaviors and complementarity of distributive behaviors. Third, approximately forty percent of offers made represented systematic concessions, but the proportion of offers reflecting systematic concessions was not related to the efficiency of the joint outcome. Finally, while information sharing did appear to have a positive effect on the efficiency of agreements, differences in the amount of information provided did not affect the proportion of outcome claimed by each party.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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