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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Andrea G Capodaglio, Arianna Callegari and Daniele Molognoni

Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the…

Abstract

Purpose

Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the establishment of Member States’ water resources monitoring, presence of hazardous contaminants in effluents, and perception of vulnerability of water distribution system to attacks, have spurred technical and economic interests. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

As alternative to traditional analyzers, chemosensors, operate according to physical principles, without sample collection (online), and are capable of supplying parameter values continuously and in real-time. Their low selectivity and stability issues have been overcome by technological developments. This review paper contains a comprehensive survey of existing and expected online monitoring technologies for measurement/detection of pollutants in water.

Findings

The state-of-the-art in online water monitoring is presented. Application examples are reported. Monitoring costs will become a lesser part of a water utility budget due to the fact that automation and technological simplification will abate human cost factors, and reduce the complexity of laboratory procedures.

Originality/value

An overview of applicable instrumentation, and forthcoming developments, is given. Technological development in this field is very rapid, and astonishing advances are anticipated in several areas (fingerprinting, optochemical sensors, biosensors, molecular techniques). Online monitoring is becoming an ever-important tool not only for compliance control or plant management purposes, but also as a useful approach to pollution control and reduction, minimizing the environmental impact of discharges.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

Tim Knowles, Richard Moody and Morven G. McEachern

This paper aims to chart the wide range of food scares reported throughout the EU over the period 1986‐2006 and explores their impact on EU policy.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to chart the wide range of food scares reported throughout the EU over the period 1986‐2006 and explores their impact on EU policy.

Design/methodology/approach

There is much extant research that solely investigates the occurrences of specific food scares, however; little emphasis is given to the responses of policy makers. This research aims to narrow this gap in the literature by reviewing the major food scares, which have occurred throughout the EU and the subsequent policy responses.

Findings

A number of food scares have dominated media reports over the last two decades, but this study reveals the increasing emergence of rare serotypes of foodborne pathogens, as well as a rising trend of EU‐wide contaminant and animal disease‐related food scares. Simultaneously, there is evidence of evolution from a product‐focused food policy to a risk‐based policy, which has developed into a tentative EU consumer‐based food policy. Inevitably, in a market of 25 member‐states the concept of food quality varies between countries and therein justifies the need for responsive policy development, which embraces the single market philosophy.

Research limitations/implications

A typology of EU food scares is advanced and discussed in detail, with comments being made on their impact. In addition, the paper highlights the complexity of a EU consumer, which has led to a need for research into the maximisation of the satisfaction of purchasers by reinsuring their individual “right to choose”.

Originality/value

This paper provides a unique insight into a wide range of European food scares (e.g. microbiological, contaminants, animal disease‐related) and EU policy makers' responses to such food scares.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2018

Martina Tunegová, Eva Samková, Lucie Hasoňová, Marcela Klimešová, Aneta Marková, Robert Kala and Róbert Toman

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of chemical contaminants in animal products before and after CR entered the European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from e-databases of the SVA from 1999–2016 and sorted into categories (game animals and fish; livestock; food and raw material of animal origin) and time periods (one before entry and two after entry of CR to the EU). Analyses of the samples were categorized as “positive samples” (any presence of contaminants) and “samples above the MRL” (presence of contaminants exceeding the maximum residue levels).

Findings

Results showed a significant decrease in the number of positive findings of contaminants during the monitored years 1999–2016, especially after CR entered the EU. Most encouragingly, the number of samples that exceeded the MRL was less than 1 percent from all the tested samples of animal origin and, after entry to the EU, in one category (food and raw materials of animal origin) it was even less than 0.1 percent. Findings of banned substances indicate continued environmental contamination in CR; however, this remains a problem in most of Europe due to their extensive use in the past and slow degradation.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the occurrence of chemical contaminants and their levels in food of animal origin in view of the changing legislative requirements before and after CR entered the EU.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

Work has now begun at BAF Engineering's base at Southend Airport to expand their maintenance facilities.

Abstract

Work has now begun at BAF Engineering's base at Southend Airport to expand their maintenance facilities.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Michael J. Laird

The scope of this undertaking is to categorize that sector of the environment affecting managerial decision making that makes up the “legal environment.” The term legal…

Abstract

The scope of this undertaking is to categorize that sector of the environment affecting managerial decision making that makes up the “legal environment.” The term legal environment encompasses the federal and state legislative and regulatory powers, plus the common law or court‐developed law that impacts an organization's domain. I have set out to divide the project into three chapters with each chapter emphasizing a major regulatory impact on corporate direction; some predictable, some unpredictable. Moreover, predictability will be dealt with as to controlling the legal environment. Historically, the legal environment crosses over two of the sectors: the government sector, city, state, federal laws and regulations, the court system, and political processes; the sociocultural sector, affirmative action, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, values, beliefs, etc. Certain regulatory powers were anticipated by the frames of the Constitution in order to maintain a system of prosperity and strength. However, many of our regulatory agencies have come into being at the behest of the very industries that are regulated, such as antitrust. Furthermore, many of the regulatory laws came about due to the negligence of the business community in not self‐regulating and thereby permitting intolerable conditions for the sociocultural sector.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 36 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1961

Users of lubricating oil filters expect them to remove every particle of contamination, even particles of one or two microns are sometimes expected to be removed. They…

Abstract

Users of lubricating oil filters expect them to remove every particle of contamination, even particles of one or two microns are sometimes expected to be removed. They also expect water to be taken out, although turbine oils are usually centrifuged for this purpose. However, the exacting requirements of lubricating oil filters are not, in many ways, so searching as those required for the filtration of aviation fuel oil. Apart from the removal of all solid contaminants, it is vitally necessary that all moisture be removed. This is not difficult to understand because if water in the fuel system freezes to lumps of ice, one or more engines can cut out without warning.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 13 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

A.J. Bannan and B.J. Inglis

Melt filtration systems are widely employed across polymer production industries. It is common for the filters used in such systems to be chemically cleaned and…

Abstract

Melt filtration systems are widely employed across polymer production industries. It is common for the filters used in such systems to be chemically cleaned and reinstalled for repeat process application. These “regenerable” filters can be characterised by their performance and reliability and their selection is a major issue, in terms of both plant economics and technical justification. This paper considers the factors surrounding the economics of filter cleaning together with a case study on recycling efficiency and filter failure modes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

B.N. Ellis

This paper summarises briefly all the substitutive techniques for CFC‐113 and 1,1,1 ‐trichloroethane blend cleaning, including the use of ‘no‐clean’ and controlled…

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Abstract

This paper summarises briefly all the substitutive techniques for CFC‐113 and 1,1,1 ‐trichloroethane blend cleaning, including the use of ‘no‐clean’ and controlled atmosphere soldering, with emphasis on high‐reliability applications. Each technique is discussed with regard to its influence on the final reliability of the assembly under normal and abnormal storage and working conditions. Reliability is determined by numerous other parameters which are frequently ignored, such as the component layout for best cleaning quality. The requirements of conformal coating are also frequently given scant attention. In practical terms, this paper may help those selecting a substitutive soldering/cleaning process to choose one which will meet their quality requirements at minimum cost.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Gerard A. Finnigan

The rapid deterioration of the earth’s natural ecosystems are increasing the risk of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hydrometeorological hazards are concentrating…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid deterioration of the earth’s natural ecosystems are increasing the risk of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hydrometeorological hazards are concentrating contaminants from the damaged environment and exposing large vulnerable populations to life threating illnesses and death. This study performed a retrospective health risk assessment on two recent events where such impacts unfolded, namely, the 2015 south east Equatorial Asia smoke haze disaster and the 2016 Melbourne thunderstorm asthma epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to test if the characterisation of health risk warranted earlier and more effective risk reduction activities prior to the disasters occurring.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective health risk characterisation assessment was performed combing United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Health Aspect in Disaster Risk Assessment (2017) framework with a thematic and targeted word literature review to identify the level of risk knowledge prior to each event. A risk characterisation matrix was then created to characterise the health risk of each hazard event.

Findings

The 2015 south east Equatorial Asia smoke haze disaster risk assessment was characterised as “extreme” health risk and the 2016 Melbourne thunderstorm asthma epidemic was characterised as “high” health risk.

Practical implications

Reaching the goals of the Sendai Framework require strategies and plans which urgently address the catastrophic level of mortality risk posed by exposure to environmental contaminants.

Originality/value

Innovative approaches and partnerships are necessary to mitigate the risk from the deteriorating health of the environment and natural ecosystems, along with disaster response initiatives that reduce exposure of vulnerable people on a large scale.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

David C.E. Roberts

Identifies the specific laws which operate to prevent contaminationof food in the United Kingdom and the duties of local authority foodenforcement officers, the Ministry…

Abstract

Identifies the specific laws which operate to prevent contamination of food in the United Kingdom and the duties of local authority food enforcement officers, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Department of Health in administering that law. Discusses the importance of the need for co‐operation and rapid exchanges of information within the UK and in Europe; recommends the need for traders to act positively in crisis situations.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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