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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Ching‐Chiao Yang and Hsiao‐Hsuan Wei

The aim of this study is to empirically identify crucial dimensions of security management in the container shipping sector in Taiwan and assess their impacts on security

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to empirically identify crucial dimensions of security management in the container shipping sector in Taiwan and assess their impacts on security performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected by questionnaire survey. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify crucial security management dimensions in the container shipping sector. Multiple regression analysis was then performed to examine the effect of security management on the security performance.

Findings

Four crucial security management dimensions were identified: facility and cargo management; accident prevention and processing; information management; and partner relationship management. Multiple regression analysis revealed that information management and partner relationship management had significant positive effects on safety performance, whereas partner relationship management had a significant positive effect on customs clearance performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study primarily focuses on the effect of security management on security performance. Future research could identify the drivers and barriers to comply with supply chain security initiatives.

Practical implications

Container shipping firms can improve safety and customs clearance performance by focusing security management efforts on facility and cargo management, accident prevention and processing, information management, and partner relationship management.

Social implications

Government administrators or other authorities may want to consider using crucial container shipping security management dimensions as criteria for assessing security performance in container shipping firms.

Originality/value

This study presented is the first to assess the effect of security management on security performance in the container shipping sector. Particularly, partner relationship management is found to be the key dimension for supply chain security success.

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Girish Gujar and Sik Kwan Tai

It is commonly known that numerous incidents of container security failure are detected on a daily basis for which nobody is held legally liable. This state of affairs is…

Abstract

Purpose

It is commonly known that numerous incidents of container security failure are detected on a daily basis for which nobody is held legally liable. This state of affairs is essentially due to the shippers providing erroneous information, either inadvertently or by design. However, none of the stakeholders such as the carrier, the port operator, the inland transporter or the dry port operator are saddled with the legal responsibility of verifying the correctness of the information provided by the shippers or moving against them legally for misrepresentation of facts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the issue of container security from a legal perspective with a specific focus on the liability for security failure. While discussing the reasons for non-development of a globally standardized legal regime for container security, this paper also endeavors to suggest possible solutions for the abysmal state of affairs.

Findings

This state of affairs persists despite the shipper being saddled with the additional responsibility of providing documentary evidence of verified gross mass of the cargo stuffed in the container by International Maritime Organization.

Originality/value

There is apparently no visible legal action that appears to have been taken against the culprit responsible for the security failure. Thus, the loopholes in the existing legal regime are exploited by all concerned for commercial reasons.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Chia-Hsun Chang, Jingjing Xu, Jingxin Dong and Zaili Yang

Container shipping companies face various risks with different consequences that are required to be mitigated. Limited empirical research has been done on identifying and…

Abstract

Purpose

Container shipping companies face various risks with different consequences that are required to be mitigated. Limited empirical research has been done on identifying and evaluating risk management strategies in shipping operations with different risk consequences. This paper aims to identify the appropriate risk mitigation strategies and evaluate the relative importance of these strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review and interviews were used to identify and validate the appropriate risk mitigation strategies in container shipping operations. A questionnaire with a Likert five-point scale was then conducted to rank the identified risk mitigation strategies in terms of their overall effectiveness. Top six important strategies were selected to evaluate their relative importance under three risk consequences (i.e. financial, reputation and safety and security incident related loss) through using another questionnaire with paired-comparison. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was then conducted to analyse the paired-comparison questionnaire.

Findings

After conducting a systematic literature review and interviews, 18 mitigation strategies were identified. The results from the first questionnaire show that among the 18 strategies, the top three are “form alliances with other shipping companies”, “use more advanced infrastructures (hardware and software)” and “choose partners very carefully”. After conducting fuzzy AHP, the results show that shipping companies emphasize more on reducing the risk consequence of financial loss; and “form alliance with other shipping companies” is the most important risk mitigation strategy.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates the risk mitigation strategies against three risk consequences. Managers can benefit from the systematic identification of mitigation strategies, which shipping companies can consider for adoption to reduce the operational risk impact.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Ioannis N. Lagoudis

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming…

Abstract

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming at the documentation of works related to container terminals.

An effort to review, collect and present the majority of the works present in the last 30 years, between 1980 and 2010, has been made in order to picture the problems dealt and methods used by the authors in the specific research field. To facilitate the reader, studies have been grouped under five categories of addressed problems (productivity and competitiveness, yard and equipment utilization, equipment scheduling, berth planning, loading/unloading) and four modelling methodologies (mathematics and operations research, management and economics, simulation, stochastic modelling).

The analysis shows that most works focus on productivity and competitiveness issues followed by yard and equipment utilisation and equipment scheduling. In reference to the methodologies used managerial and economic approaches lead, followed by mathematics and operations research.

In reference to future research, two fields have been identified where there is scope of significant contribution by the academic community: container terminal security and container terminal supply chain integration.

The present chapter provides the framework for researchers in the field of port container terminals to picture the so far works in this research area and enables the identification of gaps at both research question and methodology level for further research.

Details

Maritime Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-340-8

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Hokey Min

Despite a hangover from the worldwide economic crisis, international trade rebounded nicely with a record-level growth in late 2010. A sharp rise in international trade…

Abstract

Despite a hangover from the worldwide economic crisis, international trade rebounded nicely with a record-level growth in late 2010. A sharp rise in international trade has sparked the international traffic growth. A majority of this traffic growth originated from maritime logistics which could move cargoes in large volume and at cheaper freight costs. Due to its cost-efficiency and easy access, maritime logistics typically accounts for more than half of the worldwide freight volume. However, maritime logistics poses a greater supply chain risk, since ocean carriers used for maritime logistics are more vulnerable to unpredictable weather conditions, piracy attacks, terrorist hijacking, and cargo damages on the open sea than any other modes of transportation. Also, given the vast areas that maritime logistics covers, it is more difficult to protect maritime logistics activities from potential hazards and threats.

To better protect maritime logistics activities from potential security lapses, this chapter introduces and develops a variety of systematic security measures and tools that were successfully used by best-in-class companies and government entities across the world. Also, this chapter proposes a total maritime security management model as a way to formulate maritime risk mitigation strategies. To elaborate, this chapter sheds light on the roots of maritime security measures and tools, the ways that those measures and tools are best utilized, the roles of advanced information technology in maritime security from the global supply chain perspectives, the visualization and identification of potential maritime and its related supply chain risks, and policy guidelines that will help enhance maritime security.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2017

Shih-Liang Chao and Ya-Lan Lin

This study has two purposes. The first is to identify the determinants influencing the selection of a container number recognition system via a quantitative method to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has two purposes. The first is to identify the determinants influencing the selection of a container number recognition system via a quantitative method to thereby establish an evaluation structure. The second purpose is to conduct an empirical study to determine the weights of the criteria and alternatives.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) were applied to determine the evaluation structure and weights of the criteria and alternatives, respectively.

Findings

An empirical study based on a dedicated terminal at Keelung Port is conducted. The result demonstrates that the radio-frequency identification (RFID) system is a suitable system for the terminal under consideration in this study.

Originality/value

The value of this study is twofold. First, EFA was applied to extract common factors from a wide questionnaire survey, thereby establishing a hierarchical analysis structure. This method and comprehensive evaluation structure are useful references for both practitioners and researchers to deal with problems of gate automation. Second, fuzzy AHP was used to decide the weights of the hierarchical structure. The weights obtained by this method are more objective and rational as the imprecision expressions in returned samples have been considered and dealt with.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Roberto Cigolini, Margherita Pero and Andrea Sianesi

The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of organizational and cultural tools to increase supply chain security within the intermodal rail and road industry. Three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of organizational and cultural tools to increase supply chain security within the intermodal rail and road industry. Three main research questions are set, regarding: what organizational and cultural tools are used by companies within the intermodal rail and road industry; how these tools impact on security performance; and what environmental factors trigger the use of each tool.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 13 companies within the intermodal rail and road industry have been studied in detail through in-depth case studies.

Findings

Results suggest that organizational and cultural tools impact positively on supply chain security, by reducing collusion and both operative and planning mistakes. In particular, such tools mitigate the effect of lack of cooperation and communication between partners and of inadequate partners.

Practical implications

Results point out that the ability of organizational and cultural tools to increase supply chain security has not been fully exploited yet. Tools to mitigate the negative effects on security of inadequacy of partners are not popular or they are not considered as powerful enough, despite it has been highlighted as the most relevant causal factor of lack of security.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a thorough overview of the effects of cultural and organizational tools on supply chain security and a detailed study of these tools in the area of intermodal rail-and-road transport.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

John Z. Ni, Steve A. Melnyk, William J. Ritchie and Barbara F. Flynn

The purpose of this paper is to focus on adoption of certified management standards, specifically public standards. Such standards play an increasingly important role in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on adoption of certified management standards, specifically public standards. Such standards play an increasingly important role in today’s business environment. However, to generate adoption benefits, they must be first widely accepted – a situation where they have become viewed as the de facto norms. For this state to occur early adopters play a critical role. Past research has argued that early adopters, in exchange for assuming more risk, are rewarded with higher economic returns. Yet, these findings are based on private, not public standards. With public standards, early adopters do not receive such benefits. There is evidence that public standards are becoming more important. This situation leads to a simple but important question addressed in this study – if early adopters assume the risks of embracing a new public standard without economic benefits, then what is their motivation? To resolve this question, this study draws on agency theory and prospect theory. The authors argue that early adopters embrace such standards because of their desire to minimize risk resulting from failure to support the goal at the heart of the public standards.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) Partners Cost Benefit Survey and analyzed through structural equation modeling.

Findings

Early adopters of public standards are not driven by economic benefits but rather by the need to minimize their exposure to the risks associated with failing to satisfy the goals associated with a public standard. In other words, they were motivated by the need to minimize costs. In the case of C-TPAT, these costs are those of failing to provide or improve network security.

Research limitations/implications

This study has shed new light on the standards adoption process by clarifying the specific motivations that drive early adoption of a public standard. In addition to identifying the loss aversion motives of early adopters and economic benefit motives of later adopters, the authors have also elaborated on the notion that standards have differing levels of precedence, particularly when comparing private with public standards.

Practical implications

In a world characterized by increasing demands for outcomes such as improved security and where governmental funding is falling, due to growing deficits and governments that are becoming more conservative, the authors expect the use of public standards to increase.

Originality/value

Different from prior research on private standard, the paper focuses on the organizations involved in the adoption and diffusion of a public standard, with special attention being devoted to the early adopters. The paper provides a theoretical explanation for the actions of early adopters of a public standard through the theoretical lens of prospect theory.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Hsin-Li Chang and Jinn-Guang Wu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to measure the difficulties of items required to achieve Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) validation and investigated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to measure the difficulties of items required to achieve Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) validation and investigated companies’ abilities to obtain AEO certification based on an empirical analysis of 201 supply chain-related companies in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

The Rasch model was applied to convert the ordinal raw data collected from questionnaire surveys into values on an interval scale to measure companies’ abilities and item difficulties for AEO validation. The model was estimated using WINSTEP, which is an iterative computer program.

Findings

The study results show that self-risk assessment and the formulation of security policies are the most difficult items to accomplish for AEO validation, whereas establishing security facilities is the easiest task to accomplish. Additionally, a company’s ability to obtain AEO validation was found to be positively correlated with a company’s turnover volume and its number of staff.

Research limitations/implications

This research focusses on supply chain-related companies in Taiwan. Thus, the findings may not be transferable directly to other companies, circumstances, or countries.

Practical implications

Using the Rasch analysis, both company’s abilities and item difficulties could be measured numerically and compared meaningfully. The study results could be used as references for the government to create polices to guide companies to meet the requirements of AEO validation in the future.

Social implications

According to the study results, only 43.28 percent of the respondent companies have sufficient confidence to completely comply with all 26 security items for AEO validation; this implies that AEO validation criteria should be adjusted or some programs should be provided by the government to improve companies’ abilities for AEO validation, if the government genuinely wants to effectively encourage companies to obtain AEO certification.

Originality/value

This study introduced a method to estimate items’ difficulties and companies’ abilities for AEO validation with values on a consistent interval scale. Thus, a comparison between companies’ abilities and items’ difficulties could be graphically illustrated. The results of this study provide a useful tool to investigate whether the AEO validation criteria are appropriate for the potential companies that can apply for AEO validation.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Photis M. Panayides and Dong-Wook Song

Abstract

Details

Maritime Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-340-8

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