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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Shaoyi Xu, Fangfang Xing, Ruilin Wang, Wei Li, Yuqiao Wang and Xianghui Wang

At present, one of the key equipment in pillar industries is a large rotating machinery. Conducting regular health monitoring is important for ensuring safe operation of…

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Abstract

Purpose

At present, one of the key equipment in pillar industries is a large rotating machinery. Conducting regular health monitoring is important for ensuring safe operation of the large rotating machinery. Because vibrations sensors play an important role in the workings of the rotating machinery, measuring its vibration signal is an important task in health monitoring. This paper aims to present these.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the contact vibration sensor and the non-contact vibration sensor have been discussed. These sensors consist of two types: the electric vibration sensor and the optical fiber vibration sensor. Their applications in the large rotating machinery for the purpose of health monitoring are summarized, and their advantages and disadvantages are also presented.

Findings

Compared with the electric vibration sensor, the optical fiber vibration sensor of large rotating machinery has unique advantages in health monitoring, such as provision of immunity against electromagnetic interference, requirement of less insulation and provision of long-distance signal transmission.

Originality/value

Both contact vibration sensor and non-contact vibration sensor have been discussed. Among them, the electric vibration sensor and the optical fiber vibration sensor are compared. Future research direction of the vibration sensors is presented.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Yongxing Guo, Min Chen, Li Xiong, Xinglin Zhou and Cong Li

The purpose of this study is to present the state of the art for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present the state of the art for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the measurement dimension and the principle of the sensing configuration. Some commercial sensors have also been introduced and future work in this field has also been discussed. This paper could provide an important reference for the research community.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is to present the state of the art for FBG acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the measurement dimension (one-dimension and multi-dimension) and the principle of the sensing configuration (beam type, radial vibration type, axial vibration type and other composite structures).

Findings

The current research on developing FBG acceleration sensors is mainly focused on the sensing method, the construction and design of the elastic structure and the design of a new information detection method. This paper hypothesizes that in the future, the following research trends will be strengthened: common single-mode fiber grating of the low cost and high utilization rate; high sensitivity and strength special fiber grating; multi-core fiber grating for measuring single-parameter multi-dimensional information or multi-parameter information; demodulating equipment of low cost, small volume and high sampling frequency.

Originality/value

The principle of the measurement dimension and principle of the sensing configuration for FBG acceleration sensors have been introduced, which could provide an important reference for the research community.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Milos Milovancevic, Vlastimir Nikolic, Nenad T. Pavlovic, Aleksandar Veg and Sanjin Troha

The purpose of this study is to establish a vibration prediction of pellet mills power transmission by artificial neural network. Vibration monitoring is an important task…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish a vibration prediction of pellet mills power transmission by artificial neural network. Vibration monitoring is an important task for any system to ensure safe operations. Improvement of control strategies is crucial for the vibration monitoring.

Design/methodology/approach

As predictive control is one of the options for the vibration monitoring in this paper, the predictive model for vibration monitoring was created.

Findings

Although the achieved prediction results were acceptable, there is need for more work to apply and test these results in real environment.

Originality/value

Artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented as the predictive model while extreme learning machine (ELM) and back propagation (BP) learning schemes were used as training algorithms for the ANN. BP learning algorithm minimizes the error function by using the gradient descent method. ELM training algorithm is based on selecting of the input weights randomly of the ANN network and the output weight of the network are determined analytically.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

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Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Drew van der Riet, Riaan Stopforth, Glen Bright and Olaf Diegel

This paper aims to explore the electronic design of the Touch Hand: a low-cost electrically powered prosthetic hand. The hand is equipped with an array of sensors allowing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the electronic design of the Touch Hand: a low-cost electrically powered prosthetic hand. The hand is equipped with an array of sensors allowing for position control and haptic sensation. Pressure sensors are used on the fingertips to detect grip force. A temperature sensor placed in the fingertip is used to measure the contact temperature of objects. Investigations are made into the use of cantilever vibration sensors to detect surface texture and object slippage. The hand is capable of performing a lateral grip of 3.7 N, a power grip of 19.5 N and to passively hold a weight of up to 8 kg with a hook grip. The hand is also tested on an amputee and used to perform basic tasks. The amputee took 30 min to learn how to operate the hands basic gripping functions.

Design/methodology/approach

Problems of previous prosthetic hands were investigated, followed by ways to improve or have similar capabilities, yet keeping in mind to reduce the price. The hand was then designed, simulated, developed and then tested. The hand was then displayed to public and tested with an amputee.

Findings

The Touch Hand’s capabilities with the usage of the low-cost materials, components and sensory system was obtained in the tests that were conducted. The results are shown in this paper to identify the appropriateness of the sensors for a usage while the costs are reduced. Furthermore, models were developed from the results obtained to take into account factors such as the non-slip material.

Research limitations/implications

The research was restricted to a US$1,000 budget to allow the availability of a low-cost prosthetic hand.

Practical implications

The Touch Hand had to have the ability to supply the amputee with haptic feedback while allowing the basic grasping of objects. The commercial value is the availability of an affordable prosthetic hand that can be used by amputees in Africa and other Lower-Income countries, yet allowing a more advanced control system compared to the pure mechanical systems currently available.

Social implications

The Touch Hand has the ability to give amputees affected in war situations the ability to grasp objects in a more affordable manner compared to the current available options. Feedback from amputees about the current features of the Touch Hand was very positive and it proves to be a way to improve society in Lower-Income countries in the near future. A sponsorship program is being developed to assist amputees with the costs of the Touch Hand.

Originality/value

The contributions of this research is a low-cost prototype system than can be commercialized to allow amputees in the Lower-Income countries to have the ability of a prosthetic hand. A sensory system in the hand is also explained which other low-cost prosthetic hands do not have, which includes temperature, force and vibration. Models of the sensors used that are developed and calibrated to the design of the hand are also described.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Paras Kumar, Harish Hirani and Atul Kumar Agrawal

This paper aims to investigate the effect of misalignment on wear of spur gears and on oil degradation using online sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of misalignment on wear of spur gears and on oil degradation using online sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The misalignment effect on gears is created through a self-alignment bearing, and is measured using laser alignment system. Several online sensors such as Fe-concentration sensor, moisture sensor, oil condition sensor, oil temperature sensor and metallic particle sensor are installed in the gear test rig to monitor lubricant quality and wear debris in real time to assess gearbox failure.

Findings

Offset and angular misalignments are detected in both vertical and horizontal planes. The failure of misaligned gear is observed at both the ends and on both the surfaces of the gear teeth. Larger-size ferrous and non-ferrous particles are traced by metallic particle sensor due to gear and seal wear caused by misalignment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images examine chuck, spherical and flat platelet particles, and confirm the presence of fatigue (pitting) and adhesion (scuffing) wear mechanism. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of SEM particles traces carbon (C) and iron (Fe) elements due to gear failure.

Originality/value

Gear misalignment is one of the major causes of gearbox failure and the lubricant analysis is as important as wear debris analysis. A reliable online gearbox condition monitoring system is developed by integrating wear and oil analyses for misaligned spur gear pair in contact.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Jian Li, Ying Liu, Yan Han and Xianhui Chen

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to achieve omni-directional vibration vector signal acquisition, and use this method to improve the accuracy of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to achieve omni-directional vibration vector signal acquisition, and use this method to improve the accuracy of the underground explosion point localization.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction, this paper describes the design principle of a sensor structure, and discusses the rationality of the spherical structure of the sensor through finite element analysis. The sensor prototype is designed according to the above method, and its performance is tested by the sensor calibration experiment. Finally, applications are also discussed.

Findings

This paper shows that the method for underground omni-directional vibration signal acquisition is reasonable and feasible. The vibration sensor, designed by this method, of which the triaxial dynamic characteristics are consistent, and the three-dimensional vibration information acquired by this sensor can achieve high-precision localization for an underground explosion point.

Originality/value

The paper describes a new method for omni-directional vibration vector signal acquisition. The vibration sensor is developed based on this method, which has a broad application prospect in the positioning of an underground explosion point, the evaluation of explosive power and other underground projects.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Robert Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques and technologies used in a selection of sensors which operate in extreme environments.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques and technologies used in a selection of sensors which operate in extreme environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a short introduction, this paper discusses the technologies used in a range of sensors, principally accelerometers and pressure, temperature and displacement sensors, used in environments characterised by elevated temperatures, radiation and high shock and vibration levels.

Findings

The paper shows that a range of different strategies is employed to allow sensors to operate in extreme environments. These include specialised designs, novel sensing technologies and others which are inherently capable of withstanding extreme conditions and materials which can perform in, or which are resistant to, these environments. Several new technologies are under development which aim to extend sensor performance to new levels.

Originality/value

This paper provides details of the technologies used in a range of sensors aimed at applications in extreme environments.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2020

Adli B. Haddad and Bassem O.F. Al-Bedoor

In this paper, a vibration measuring technique that relies on the use of piezoelectric material and is originally developed to measure the vibration of turbine blade is…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, a vibration measuring technique that relies on the use of piezoelectric material and is originally developed to measure the vibration of turbine blade is adopted to measure the vibration of cutting tool in turning. The piezoelectric material is embedded at the root of the cutting tool. The scope of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using this technique by first conducting ANSYS simulation to solve the coupled field equations that govern the piezoelectric phenomenon followed by experimental work to compare the measured data with those obtained by conventional method to have an insight into the effectiveness of the adopted technique. Both simulation and experimental results show that the use of an embedded PZT sensor at the root of cutting tool is very useful for measuring vibration and can be used for further cutting operation control. In addition, it has captured more information than conventional vibration measurement techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Vibration measurement of root-embedded PZT material to convert the dynamic cutting forces into vibration signals that can be used in cutting process optimization and improvement of cutting quality.

Findings

PZT material is found to be very responsive to high-frequency vibrations such that it can catch Chatter phenomena and can be used in developing control strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Mainly used for turning cutting process in this research. Other manufacturing process like milling special tool holder designs.

Practical implications

Can be used as online monitoring systems for cutting tool holders.

Social implications

Engineer and technician aid in quality assurance and control.

Originality/value

The new approach of embedding PZT material at the cutting tool root and the signals presentation and processing.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Aleksander Olejnik, Robert Rogólski and Michał Szcześniak

The paper describes the application of two different vibration measurement methods for the identification of natural modes of the miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper describes the application of two different vibration measurement methods for the identification of natural modes of the miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this study is to determine resonant frequencies and modes of mini-airplane within the specified range of frequency values.

Design/methodology/approach

Special measuring equipment was used including both contact and non-contact techniques. The measuring systems on equipment of the Institute of Aviation Technology in the Faculty of Mechatronics, Armament and Aerospace of Military University of Technology (Warsaw, PL) were used to conduct measurements. In traditional ground vibration testing (GVT) methods a large number of sensors should be attached to the aircraft. The weight of sensors and cables is negligible in relation to the mass of the large aircraft. However, for small and lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles, this could bring a significant mass component in relation to the total mass of the tested object.

Findings

The real mini-UAV construction was used to investigate its resonant modes in the range of frequencies between 0 and 50 Hz. After receiving the output values it is possible to perform some flutter calculations within the range of operational velocities. As there is no certainty that the computed modes are in accordance with those natural ones some parametric calculations are recommended. Modal frequencies depend on structural parameters which are quite difficult to identify. Adopting their values from the reasonable range it is possible to assign the range of possible frequencies. The frequencies of rudder or elevator modes are dependent on their mass moments of inertia and rigidity of controls. The critical speeds of tail flutter were calculated for various combinations of stiffness or mass values.

Practical implications

In this paper, some specific techniques of performing the GVT test were presented. Two different measuring methods were applied, i.e. the contact method and the non-contact method. Using the dedicated apparatus in relation to the mini-airplane, properly prepared in terms of mass distribution, rudders deflection stiffness and proper support, some resonant characteristics can be determined. The contact measuring system consists of a multi-channel analyzer, piezoelectric accelerometers, electrodynamic exciters, amplifiers, impedance heads and a computer with the Test.Lab Software. As the non-contact method, a laser scanning vibrometer was used. The principle of its operation is based on the separation of the emitted laser beam. The returning beam reflected from a vibrating object is captured by the camera and compared to the reference beam. Dedicated software analyzes collected data and on the basis of it creates animations of structural vibrational shapes and spectral plots within the investigated frequency range.

Originality/value

The object used for research is the mini-UAV Rybitwa – composite mini-plane with a classic aerodynamic layout manufactured in Institute of Aviation Technology Military University of Technology. In the work, both measurement methods and some sample results were presented. Results referenced to dynamic properties of the mini-UAV can be applied in the future for its finite element model tuning, what would be useful for the needs of some parametric analyzes in case of some UAV modifications because of its structural or equipment modifications.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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