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Article

Hong T.M. Bui, Jonathan Pinto and Abhishek Srivastava

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between sexualization of the work environment and emotional exhaustion, and develop some key antecedents of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between sexualization of the work environment and emotional exhaustion, and develop some key antecedents of sexualization of the work environment. It was conducted in an emerging society, India, which has a high rate of crime against women, particularly related to sexual harassment and sexual assault.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was performed. The hypotheses were tested with data from 1,098 white collar workers in India in three ways.

Findings

Contact with other gender and flexible work arrangements were positively associated with sexualization of the work environment; and sexualization of the work environment was positively associated with emotional exhaustion. In addition, sexualization of the work environment mediated the relationship between the two antecedent variables and emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

There is a possible bias arising from the use of cross-sectional data. However, a number of methods were implemented to minimize it, including survey design and data analysis.

Practical implications

The study offers some important suggestions for workplaces with a greater proportion of young male employees, particularly in a societal context like India.

Originality/value

The paper provides evidence of the negative impact of sexualization of the work environment, and thereby contributes to current understanding of the “dark side” of behavior at work that might have significant impact on society.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Diane Irvine and G. Ross Baker

This paper outlines a theoretical framework for studying the integration of ethnically diverse workforces in public service organizations. Individual and work group…

Abstract

This paper outlines a theoretical framework for studying the integration of ethnically diverse workforces in public service organizations. Individual and work group characteristics are viewed as determinants of social identity and organizational identification. Social Identity theory suggests that individuals develop self‐concept through identification with salient groups, including ethnic groups and organizational roles. The extent to which these identifications are competitive or synergistic may depend upon organizational and work group characteristics and on organizational policies concerning selection, performance appraisal, and rewards. Cross‐functional teamwork may provide an integrative mechanism which can promote intergroup relations and encourage greater organizational commitment among an ethnically diverse workforce. Cross‐functional teams can contribute to reduced intergroup conflict and promote the development of organizational identification. The benefits of cross‐functional teams will be particularly important in situations where the workforce is diverse, but work groups are ethnically homogeneous.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Hendrik P. van Dalen and Kène Henkens

The purpose of this paper is to see whether attitudes toward older workers by managers change over time and what might explain development over time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to see whether attitudes toward older workers by managers change over time and what might explain development over time.

Design/methodology/approach

A unique panel study of Dutch managers is used to track the development of their attitudes toward older workers over time (2010–2013) by focusing on a set of qualities of older workers aged 50 and older. A conditional change model is used to explain the variation in changes by focusing on characteristics of the manager (age, education, gender, tenure and contact with older workers) and of the firm (composition staff, type of work and sector, size).

Findings

Managers have significantly adjusted their views on the so-called “soft skills” of older workers, like reliability and loyalty. Attitudes toward “hard skills” – like physical stamina, new tech skills and willingness to train – have not changed. Important drivers behind these changes are the age of the manager – the older the manager, the more likely a positive change in attitude toward older workers can be observed – and the change in the quality of contact with older workers. A deterioration of the managers’ relationship with older workers tends to correspond with a decline in their assessment of soft and hard skills.

Social implications

Attitudes are not very susceptible to change but this study shows that a significant change can be expected simply from the fact that managers age: older managers tend to have a more positive assessment of the hard and soft skills of older workers than young managers.

Originality/value

This paper offers novel insights into the question whether stereotypes of managers change over time.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

John Berry

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse two features of multicultural societies: diversity and equity. The author argues that both these features are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse two features of multicultural societies: diversity and equity. The author argues that both these features are necessary for multicultural societies and their institutions to be successful. Diversity is understood to include variations in culture, ethnicity, religion, age, gender and sexual orientation. Equity is understood to include inclusive participation and the removal of barriers to such participation. Diversity without the opportunity for equitable participation can lead to a form of separation; equity without diversity can lead to a form of assimilation; the absence of both can lead to marginalisation; and the presence of both can lead to a full integration.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper with a focus on better understanding of how to manage multicultural societies and institutions.

Findings

The author distinguishes between three meanings of multiculturalism; as demography; as policy; and as ideology. He proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate the various ways in which intercultural relations may take place at three levels (society, institutions and individual), and with two kinds of groups (dominant and non-dominant). An analysis of multiculturalism policy in Canada and internationally reveals three principles needed for success in such societies: the multiculturalism principle; the integration principle; and the contact principle.

Research limitations/implications

The use of these concepts for better management of intercultural relations in multicultural societies and institutions through mutual adaptation is proposed.

Originality/value

With much debate and confusion about the meaning and value of multiculturalism, this paper has sought to clarify many of the concepts and distinctions.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article

Donald G. Ellis and Ifat Maoz

This paper describes a communication and cultural code approach to ethnonational conflicts. More specifically, it describes theory and research emerging from…

Abstract

This paper describes a communication and cultural code approach to ethnonational conflicts. More specifically, it describes theory and research emerging from transformative communication events aimed at building constructive relationships betwetact necessitated by conflict. These are dialogue groups organized according to principles established by Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis including sustained contact, cooperative interdependence, and norms of equality. Secondly, we state the assumptions of an interactional approach to conflict, which assumes that conflict is, by definition, interactive making communication impossible to avoid. These assumptions also include an emphasis on the relational aspects of communication, and the fact that interaction sequences become patterned over time and become constitutive of the defining characteristics of the conflict. Moreover, the participants are influenced by communication codes, which are culturally based orientations to producing and interpreting interactions. These codes are grounded in the work of Katriel (1986), Carbaugh (1990), Ellis (1994, 1999) and Philipsen (1997) and have implications for the meaning potential of individuals in conflict situations. Finally, we explicate these issues by describing research that is representative of this communication approach to conflict. This research conceptualizes reconciliation‐aimed contacts and demonstrates how communication codes are modified by situational constraints.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 14 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Shengnan Zhao and Dallen Timothy

Despite the significance of tour guiding and interpreting in the tourism system, relevant research is lacking in both depth and breadth. Current scholarly work tends to…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the significance of tour guiding and interpreting in the tourism system, relevant research is lacking in both depth and breadth. Current scholarly work tends to ignore tour guides’ self-expectations and assumes they are altruistic mediators who carry out their tasks without question. Considering tourism intermediaries are rational individuals who attempt to maximize their own benefits, the purpose of this paper is to situate tour guiding and interpreting practices in a larger political and social context, to explore the external and intrapersonal factors that might influence the content and approaches of interpreting Chinese communist heritage.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering tourism intermediaries are rational individuals who attempt to maximize their own benefits, this study situates tour guiding and interpreting practices in a larger political and social context, to explore the external and intrapersonal factors that might influence the content and approaches of interpreting Chinese communist heritage.

Findings

The study reveals that institutional arrangements, environmental settings, characteristics of tourists and tourist-intermediary onsite interactions can have salient repercussions on intermediaries’ job skills, career attitudes and orientation, and self-perceived roles, and further shape their way of interpreting the past. Several managerial implications regarding enhancing the effectiveness of tour guiding and interpreting are also discussed.

Originality/value

It is mentioned above. The Chinese government has invested enormously in red tourism to achieve a political end. In reality, however, there are always gaps between official narratives and actual interpretation. To lessen such deviation, efforts are needed to understand the dynamics of tour guiding practices. Anchoring interpretation and guiding practices in a broader political, social, and economic context, this paper attempts to improve the static research by comparing two major types of intermediaries, site interpreter and tour guide, with regard to the content of, and approach to their interpretation of red heritage. It provides an in-depth insight into the meaning-making process of the communist heritage tourism in China.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article

Ronald J. Burke and Carol A. McKeen

Reports on a study which examined the incidence, antecedents andconsequences of social‐sexual behaviours at work. These include anynon‐work related behaviour having a…

Abstract

Reports on a study which examined the incidence, antecedents and consequences of social‐sexual behaviours at work. These include any non‐work related behaviour having a sexual component, such as harassment, flirting, posters and pin‐ups, and sexual jokes. Data were collected from 267 Canadian managerial and professional women using questionnaires completed anonymously. Women experiencing more harassing and non‐harassing social‐sexual behaviours at work were less satisfied and less committed to their organizations and reported poorer emotional wellbeing. Few demographic characteristics were related to social‐sexual behaviours experienced. Work environment characteristics, however, were more strongly related to experienced social‐sexual behaviours at work. Managerial and professional women reported experiencing harassing and non‐harassing social‐sexual behaviours with the same frequency as working women in general.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Book part

Natalia Fey

International experience (IE) has been acknowledged to be the most useful method for developing global leaders. However, not everyone benefits equally from IE. During the…

Abstract

International experience (IE) has been acknowledged to be the most useful method for developing global leaders. However, not everyone benefits equally from IE. During the last two decades, our understanding of why this is the case and how global leaders learn from IE has rapidly increased. Several individual and organizational enablers facilitating global leader learning from IE have been identified in the literature, as have learning mechanisms that make such learning possible. However, the literature remains fragmented, and there is a great need to integrate the findings in the field. Therefore, the present paper systematically examines peer-reviewed studies on global leaders' learning from IE published between 1998 and 2019. The study contributes to the extant literature by identifying and integrating individual enablers, organizational enablers, and key learning mechanisms from global leaders' IE and by suggesting topics for future research.

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Article

Nicole Lee and Trent Seltzer

The purpose of this paper is to explore how online interaction with an organization impacts not only those users participating in the exchange, but also those that witness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how online interaction with an organization impacts not only those users participating in the exchange, but also those that witness the interaction and are influenced as suggested by social cognitive theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a mixed methodological approach. First, 20 interviews with social media users were conducted to explore their perceptions of observed two-way communication between organizations and other users within social media spaces. An experiment then compared the effects of interacting with an organization via social media vs simply observing organizations interacting with other users.

Findings

The findings from both studies support the assertion that publics do not have to actively participate in two-way communication with an organization for an observed exchange to have an impact. When an organization has a conversation with one follower, others see that interaction and are affected by it.

Practical implications

This study has implications for the practice of online communication by organizations. Practitioners must consider how interactions impact those publics who are observing rather than only the few who are engaging. In the social media realm, priority should be given to followers posting legitimate questions or concerns. Responding to positive comments can also improve perceptions of the organization but is seen as going above and beyond.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the concept of vicarious interaction – a phenomenon warranting further investigation by strategic communication scholars. Distinguishing between the effects of “vicarious interaction” and direct interaction could have significant consequences for the study of relational or symmetrical approaches to social media.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article

Kim Stephens and Richard L. Baskerville

Physical social cues can influence the buyer and seller in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. The current behavioural model does not account for the role of implicit…

Abstract

Purpose

Physical social cues can influence the buyer and seller in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. The current behavioural model does not account for the role of implicit bias. The purpose of this paper is to present that relationship and introduce a process model to weaken implicit bias through training with the employment of transformational conversation.

Design/methodology/approach

With social cues as the predecessor to inferences, there is the potential for implicit bias to derail relationship building in a B2B context. The author’s qualitative field study offers guidance for businesses to make informed decisions about implicit bias training.

Findings

The study findings show that an interactive workshop following a process model with the addition of transformational conversation can weaken implicit bias.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted with a small cohort of information technology professionals. More research should be done specifically with sellers and buyers in various industries over a longer period of time with periodic follow-up on sales performance and relationship building.

Practical implications

Minority groups had a combined buying power of $3.9tn in 2018. For sellers to succeed, they have to be able to modulate the implicit biases that interfere with good sales relationships.

Originality/value

This paper introduces implicit bias as a moderator into the conceptual framework of the behavioural response to social cues in the B2B context and offers a model of implicit bias training using a process model with transformational conversation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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