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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2022

Nishad A. and Sajimon Abraham

A wide number of technologies are currently in store to harness the challenges posed by pandemic situations. As such diseases transmit by way of person-to-person contact

Abstract

Purpose

A wide number of technologies are currently in store to harness the challenges posed by pandemic situations. As such diseases transmit by way of person-to-person contact or by any other means, the World Health Organization had recommended location tracking and tracing of people either infected or contacted with the patients as one of the standard operating procedures and has also outlined protocols for incident management. Government agencies use different inputs such as smartphone signals and details from the respondent to prepare the travel log of patients. Each and every event of their trace such as stay points, revisit locations and meeting points is important. More trained staffs and tools are required under the traditional system of contact tracing. At the time of the spiralling patient count, the time-bound tracing of primary and secondary contacts may not be possible, and there are chances of human errors as well. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm called SemTraClus-Tracer, an efficient approach for computing the movement of individuals and analysing the possibility of pandemic spread and vulnerability of the locations.

Design/methodology/approach

Pandemic situations push the world into existential crises. In this context, this paper proposes an algorithm called SemTraClus-Tracer, an efficient approach for computing the movement of individuals and analysing the possibility of pandemic spread and vulnerability of the locations. By exploring the daily mobility and activities of the general public, the system identifies multiple levels of contacts with respect to an infected person and extracts semantic information by considering vital factors that can induce virus spread. It grades different geographic locations according to a measure called weightage of participation so that vulnerable locations can be easily identified. This paper gives directions on the advantages of using spatio-temporal aggregate queries for extracting general characteristics of social mobility. The system also facilitates room for the generation of various information by combing through the medical reports of the patients.

Findings

It is identified that context of movement is important; hence, the existing SemTraClus algorithm is modified by accounting for four important factors such as stay point, contact presence, stay time of primary contacts and waypoint severity. The priority level can be reconfigured according to the interest of authority. This approach reduces the overwhelming task of contact tracing. Different functionalities provided by the system are also explained. As the real data set is not available, experiments are conducted with similar data and results are shown for different types of journeys in different geographical locations. The proposed method efficiently handles computational movement and activity analysis by incorporating various relevant semantics of trajectories. The incorporation of cluster-based aggregate queries in the model do away with the computational headache of processing the entire mobility data.

Research limitations/implications

As the trajectory of patients is not available, the authors have used the standard data sets for experimentation, which serve the purpose.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a framework infrastructure that allows the emergency response team to grab multiple information based on the tracked mobility details of a patient and facilitates room for various activities for the mitigation of pandemics such as the prediction of hotspots, identification of stay locations and suggestion of possible locations of primary and secondary contacts, creation of clusters of hotspots and identification of nearby medical assistance. The system provides an efficient way of activity analysis by computing the mobility of people and identifying features of geographical locations where people travelled. While formulating the framework, the authors have reviewed many different implementation plans and protocols and arrived at the conclusion that the core strategy followed is more or less the same. For the sake of a reference model, the Indian scenario is adopted for defining the concepts.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2022

Zhonglai Tian, Hongtai Cheng, Zhenjun Du, Zongbei Jiang and Yeping Wang

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contact-consistent object poses during contact-rich manipulation tasks based only on visual sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contact-consistent object poses during contact-rich manipulation tasks based only on visual sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The method follows a four-step procedure. Initially, the raw object poses are retrieved using the available object pose estimation method and filtered using Kalman filter with nominal model; second, a group of particles are randomly generated for each pose and evaluated the corresponding object contact state using the contact simulation software. A probability guided particle averaging method is proposed to balance the accuracy and safety issues; third, the independently estimated contact states are fused in a hidden Markov model to remove the abnormal contact state observations; finally, the object poses are refined by averaging the contact state consistent particles.

Findings

The experiments are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The results show that the method can achieve smooth and accurate pose estimation results and the estimated contact states are consistent with ground truth.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a method to obtain contact-consistent poses and contact states of objects using only visual sensors. The method tries to recover the true contact state from inaccurate visual information by fusing contact simulations results and contact consistency assumptions. The method can be used to extract pose and contact information from object manipulation tasks by just observing the demonstration, which can provide a new way for the robot to learn complex manipulation tasks.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2022

Daniel Dzivy and Alena Pietrikova

The purpose of this paper is to show a possibility to measure a change of a contact angle during the melting in real-time and to reveal significant factors of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show a possibility to measure a change of a contact angle during the melting in real-time and to reveal significant factors of a wettability. Influence of the flux with combination of plasma on copper surface was investigated in experiment as well.

Design/methodology/approach

Laboratory equipment consists of heating and optical part that was developed and tested for real-time contact angle’s measurements. Solder balls based on Sn96.5/Ag3/Cu0.5 and Sn63Pb37 spread out on a copper substrate during a melting process. The wettability of pure copper surface was compared with copper surface treated with flux or combination plasma–flux. The contact angle and spreading rate of a melted solder balls observed by the charged-coupled device camera were analyzed in real-time and measured using the JavaScript.

Findings

Laboratory equipment allows for analysis of contact angle and spreading rate in real-time during the melting process. The contact angle decreases more noticeable after applying the plasma-flux treatment in contrast to no flux or flux treatment only. Using the plasma treatment before application of the flux improves the wettability and the effectivity of the flux activity on the copper surface during the melting process.

Originality/value

The interpretation of the results of such a comprehensive measurement leads to a better understanding of the mutual relation between flux and combination plasma–flux of the wetting during the melting process. The simple, cheap, fast and accurate laboratory equipment, which consists of the heating and the optical part, allows for the wettability evaluation of the melting process in real-time.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2015

Elizabeth Miller

Tribeca is a predominantly wealthy, white neighborhood in New York City and is a microcosm of the service-and-information-based economy that characterizes many communities…

Abstract

Purpose

Tribeca is a predominantly wealthy, white neighborhood in New York City and is a microcosm of the service-and-information-based economy that characterizes many communities in global cities today. Tribeca residents are mostly affluent and work in high-end, service-oriented professions, consuming low-end personal services produced locally. Many of the people who provide these personal services in Tribeca are foreign-born. This chapter explores the nature of intergroup contact between native residents and immigrant service workers to understand how they navigate social boundaries of race/ethnicity, nation-of-origin, occupation, and social class.

Methodology/approach

This chapter is based on six years of ethnographic data collection and participant observation, in addition to interviews with 66 informants, including both immigrant service workers and Tribeca residents.

Findings

This research highlights the importance of local contextual factors in shaping how people perceive one another and interact. Although in Tribeca this intergroup contact fails to alter boundaries of race, class, and nation-of-origin, residents and immigrants still have meaningful interpersonal contact, which is the result of bridging, or overlooking, existing social boundaries.

Originality/value

The results of this research challenge the assumption that relations between natives and immigrants in stratified settings are characterized by resentment or hostility. Instead, contextual factors in Tribeca shape intergroup perceptions and contact in a way that allows for positive interpersonal, albeit largely superficial, relationships to take root.

Details

Immigration and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-632-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2006

Birgitta Niklasson

Formal and informal interactions in the political elite and between the political elite and other actors have attracted a great deal of research (Petersson, 1996; Munk

Abstract

Formal and informal interactions in the political elite and between the political elite and other actors have attracted a great deal of research (Petersson, 1996; Munk Christiansen, Möller, & Togeby, 2001; Moore, Sobieraj, Whitt, Mayorova, & Beaulieu, 2002). However, such research has mainly been concerned with the contacts of leading politicians once they have already become part of the elite, not the role that contacts might have played in their recruitment.

Details

Comparative Studies of Social and Political Elites
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-466-9

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2013

Lijun Song

Purpose – This study examines the association between social integration at work and health in three societies, urban China, Taiwan, and the United…

Abstract

Purpose – This study examines the association between social integration at work and health in three societies, urban China, Taiwan, and the United States.Methodology/approach – It analyzes nationally representative survey data collected simultaneously from those three societies. It measures five indicators of social integration at work (the percentage of work contacts among daily contacts, the number of daily work contacts, the percentage of daily work contacts within the company/organization among all daily work contacts, the number of daily work contacts within the company/organization, and the percentage of work discussants within the company/organization) and two health outcomes (psychological distress and self-reported health limitation).Findings – It finds stronger evidence for the positive health effect of social integration at work in urban China than in Taiwan and the United States.Research limitations/implications – The data set has two limitations: (1) it is cross-sectional; and (2) it was collected from national samples of adults aged 21–64, currently or previously employed, and does not have information on elderly employed adults. This study implies that social integration at work is more likely to protect health in urban China than in Taiwan and the United States.

Details

Networks, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-539-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Peer Smets

This chapter aims at providing insight into how social mixing plays out in the Transvaal neighborhood in Amsterdam — a neighborhood which has gone through various rounds…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims at providing insight into how social mixing plays out in the Transvaal neighborhood in Amsterdam — a neighborhood which has gone through various rounds of urban renewal — in the context of nationwide polarization between native-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch.

Methodology/approach

This chapter is based on research with a neighborhood focus — daily interactions, urban renewal, and use of public space — which took place during 2007–2010. Methods used include participant observation, semistructured interviews, and focus groups.

Findings

The physical renewal implies renovating and pulling down social housing, and building new social or owner-occupier housing. This study provides insight into how residents of different ethnic and income backgrounds live together in the neighborhood, also taking into account the impact of social polarization at the national level.

Social implications

By knowing how people with different ethnic and class backgrounds live together in Transvaal neighborhood, it contributes to the formulation of evidence-based policies for the improvement of social cohesion, livability, safety of the neighborhood, and social capital of local residents.

Originality/value

This study looks at social mix in the context of national-level social polarization between native-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch. This creates a new viewpoint seen against how the general literature on renewal and social mixing tends to do two things: firstly it usually explicitly or implicitly is also a tenure mix strategy, and secondly the policy focus of the social mix is usually around class issues, that is, the mixing of poor social housing tenants with richer owners.

Details

Social Housing and Urban Renewal
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-124-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Natalie Booth

Family life can be seriously disrupted when a mother is imprisoned. The separation changes and often reduces the type, frequency and quality of contact that can be…

Abstract

Family life can be seriously disrupted when a mother is imprisoned. The separation changes and often reduces the type, frequency and quality of contact that can be achieved between family members, and especially for children when their mothers were their primary carers and living with them before her imprisonment. In England and Wales, prisoners are permitted contact with children and families through prison visits, telephone contact and letter-writing through the post, and in some prisons via email. Despite the recent policy interest in supporting prisoners' family ties, research has highlighted the challenges that families and prisoners face using these communicative mechanisms. Building on this, the chapter contributes new knowledge by shifting the lens to explore how family members construct and adjust their practices to promote mother–child contact during maternal imprisonment.

The empirical study draws on semistructured interviews with mothers in prison and family members (caregivers) to children of female prisoners. Guided by a ‘family practices’ theoretical framework (Morgan, 2011), the findings show innovative adjustments, a willingness to make sacrifices and alternative routes to improve contact utilised by mothers and caregivers to prioritise mother–child contact. We see the strength, resilience and autonomy shown by family members to promote their relationships in spite of communicative barriers. There are important lessons to be learned from the families' lived experience for policy and practice, which, without due and genuine consideration, might further hinder opportunities for mother–child contact during maternal imprisonment.

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Arthur Cheng-Hsui Chen, Shaw K. Chen and Chien-Lin Ma

The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between brand experience and customer equity (value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity). We…

Abstract

The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between brand experience and customer equity (value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity). We examine the impacts of different contact points’ experiences (media contact, physical environment contact, people contact, and product usage contact) and different dimensions of brand experience on customer equity. Further we investigate the possible moderating effects of different brand positioning and strategies – hedonic and utilitarian, on this relationship. The data which are collected via online survey includes 410 observations with brand experience and 83 without brand experience, 493 valid samples in total. We found that positive and strong brand experience is the key factor for building strong customer equity. Although the impacts of all four contact points’ brand experiences are significant, product usage contact has the most powerful influence on customer equity and its individual drivers. The results also indicate that the different brand positioning strategies do have moderating effects. For utilitarian brand, only brand experience at product usage contact point has significant impact on customer equity and its three drivers. For hedonic brand, all four contact points’ experiences have significant relationships with customer equity. Finally, the four experience dimensions (sensory, affective, intellectual, and behavioral) have different impacts on customer equity and its three drivers at different experience contact points.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-534-8

Keywords

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