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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Jing Yang and Juan Mundel

This study aims to explore the role of consumersexpectation violation in brands’ negative eWOM management on social media. The effects of brand feedback strategies (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the role of consumersexpectation violation in brands’ negative eWOM management on social media. The effects of brand feedback strategies (i.e. compensation and causal attribution) and brand type (i.e. full-service vs low-cost) in consumersexpectation violations and the impact of such violations on consumers’ satisfaction and responses to a brand (i.e. brand love and brand hate) were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a 2 (causal attribution: external/brand) × 2 (compensation: present/absent) × 2 (brand type: low cost vs full service) × 2 (industry: airline and hotel) between-subjects experimental design.

Findings

Results indicated that the presence (vs absence) of compensation can result in positive consumer expectation violations, which can lead to consumer satisfaction and brand love. Alternately, the absence of compensation can result in negative consumer expectation violations, which can lead to consumers dissatisfaction and brand hate. Moreover, brand type (i.e. full-service vs low-cost) significantly interacted with the presence of compensation in influencing consumers’ responses. The attribution of the cause did not significantly influence consumers’ responses.

Practical implications

This study highlights the importance of knowing consumersexpectations when responding to negative eWOM on social media. Offering compensation is an effective strategy for restoring consumer satisfaction. Specifically, for low-cost brands, offering compensation can lead to even more favorable responses.

Originality/value

This study pioneers in exploring the roles of different brand feedback strategies and brand type in influencing consumers’ responses to brands’ handling of negative eWOM. This study revealed the underlying mechanism through the theoretical lens of expectancy violation and examined the impact of expectation violations on consumer satisfaction and brand love and brand hate.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Emma Tonkin, Julie Henderson, Samantha B. Meyer, John Coveney, Paul R. Ward, Dean McCullum, Trevor Webb and Annabelle M. Wilson

Consumers’ trust in food systems is essential to their functioning and to consumers’ well-being. However, the literature exploring how food safety incidents impact consumer

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers’ trust in food systems is essential to their functioning and to consumers’ well-being. However, the literature exploring how food safety incidents impact consumer trust is theoretically underdeveloped. This study explores the relationship between consumersexpectations of the food system and its actors (regulators, food industry and the media) and how these influence trust-related judgements that consumers make during a food safety incident.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, two groups of purposefully sampled Australian participants (n = 15) spent one day engaged in qualitative public deliberation to discuss unfolding food incident scenarios. Group discussion was audio recorded and transcribed for the analysis. Facilitated group discussion included participants' expected behaviour in response to the scenario and their perceptions of actors' actions described within the scenario, particularly their trust responses (an increase, decrease or no change in their trust in the food system) and justification for these.

Findings

The findings of the study indicated that food incident features and unique consumer characteristics, particularly their expectations of the food system, interacted to form each participant's individual trust response to the scenario. Consumer expectations were delineated into “fundamental” and “anticipatory” expectations. Whether fundamental and anticipatory expectations were in alignment was central to the trust response. Experiences with the food system and its actors during business as usual contributed to forming anticipatory expectations.

Originality/value

To ensure that food incidents do not undermine consumer trust in food systems, food system actors must not only demonstrate competent management of the incident but also prioritise trustworthiness during business as usual to ensure that anticipatory expectations held by consumers are positive.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Sangyoon Yi and Jae-Hyeon Ahn

Consumer expectation not only influences purchase decision but also post-purchase satisfaction and word-of-mouth (WOM). This study aims to develop theories of initial…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer expectation not only influences purchase decision but also post-purchase satisfaction and word-of-mouth (WOM). This study aims to develop theories of initial expectation management by suggesting when it is desirable for new products to raise or lower consumer expectations. It systematically examines the interplay of product value and consumer heterogeneity in the dynamic process of new product diffusion under competition.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on traditional diffusion and choice models, this study develops an agent-based model to formalize and analyze how consumers’ initial expectations of a new product influence the interdependent processes of product sales, consumer satisfaction and WOM. The simulation analyses in controlled settings help understand the underlying mechanisms in a stepwise manner.

Findings

The results show that, although the optimal strategy for low-value products is to induce consumer expectations higher than product value, high-value products are better introduced with expectations formed close to it. The results also highlight an important drawback of “under-promising” strategies in reducing the base and volume of WOM. Further, the analysis illustrates how consumer heterogeneities in product valuation and initial expectation affect the effectiveness of expectation management. For high-value products, both heterogeneities reduce the effectiveness of the optimal strategy. For low-value products, however, value heterogeneity enhances the effectiveness, whereas expectation heterogeneity reduces it.

Practical implications

Firms introducing new products should be sensitive to how consumers value the product and form expectations about it. Different from firms that must rely on aggressive advertising to sell inferior products by building up high expectations, those with superior products can rely more on the power of consumer WOM, which is much less costly and thus gives them a competitive advantage. Firms should also pay attention to how diversified the consumers are in product valuation and expectation. The expectation management strategy is more effective when consumers form more similar expectations. Inferior firms may leverage this mechanism to neutralize their disadvantages.

Originality/value

The articulated mechanisms help push forward the research on new product diffusion and consumer expectation management. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to systematically analyze the impact of consumer heterogeneity on the effectiveness of expectation management.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Lawrence O. Hamer

The paper seeks to provide a theoretical and empirical investigation of the relationship between consumer expectations and consumer perceptions of service quality.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to provide a theoretical and empirical investigation of the relationship between consumer expectations and consumer perceptions of service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory of cognitive reference points, adaptation‐level theory, and assimilation‐contrast theory are used to formulate hypotheses concerning the relationships between perceived service quality, consumer expectations, and perceptions. These hypotheses were empirically investigated through an experiment that manipulated expectations and perceptions while measuring perceived service quality.

Findings

The principal finding is that consumer expectations are positive predictors of perceived service quality (i.e. higher expectations lead to higher perceptions of quality). Another finding is that the relationship between expectations and perceived service quality is much stronger than prior literature suggests.

Practical implications

The practical implication of this study is that practitioners should seek to actively manage their customers' expectations to increase those expectations.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable to practitioners who are seeking to use expectations to achieve higher perceptions of quality among their customers. It is also valuable to researchers who are seeking to understand the relationship between expectations and quality perceptions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Cynthia Webster

Provides insight into the concept of quality in the service marketby investigating possible influences on consumer expectations of qualityand how these expectations may be…

Abstract

Provides insight into the concept of quality in the service market by investigating possible influences on consumer expectations of quality and how these expectations may be better met. Reports on a study examining the effects of certain stimuli on expectations regarding different types of service. Discovers that significant differences were found regarding the nature of the expectations as the stimuli werevaried, differences which remained after involvement and the removal of personal need effects. Offers recommendations to service providers and includes an explanation of the methodology used in the study.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2020

Ming-Yang Li, Xiao-Jie Zhao, Lei Zhang, Xin Ye and Bo Li

In recent years, the updating speed of products has been significantly accelerated, which not only provides diversified styles for consumers to select from but also makes…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the updating speed of products has been significantly accelerated, which not only provides diversified styles for consumers to select from but also makes consumers face selection problems sometimes. In addition, a large number of online reviews for products emerge on many e-commerce websites and influence consumers’ purchasing decisions. The purpose of this study is to propose a method for product selection considering consumer’s expectations and online reviews to support consumers’ purchasing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The product attributes are divided into two categories, i.e. demand attributes and word-of-mouth (WOM) attributes. For the demand attributes, for which the consumers can give specific quantified expectations, the value function of prospect theory is used to determine the consumer’s perceived values to the alternative products according to consumersexpectations for these attributes and products’ specifications. For the WOM attributes, for which the consumers cannot give specific quantified expectations, the sentiment analysis method is used to identify the sentiment strengths for these attributes in the online reviews, and then the consumer’s perceived values to the alternative products are determined. On this basis, the product selection methods for single consumers and group consumers are given respectively.

Findings

Finally, taking the data of JD.com (https://www.jd.com/) as an example, the practicability and rationality of the method proposed in this paper is validated.

Originality/value

First, a new product selection problem considering consumer’s expectations and online reviews is extracted. Second, the product attributes are considered more comprehensively and are classified into two main categories. Third, the bounded rationality of the consumers in the decision-making process is described more reasonably. Fourth, the sentiment dictionaries for each WOM attribute are constructed and the algorithm step of identifying the sentiment strengths is designed, which can help to identify the sentiment strengths in the online reviews more accurately. Fifth, the situation that a group plans to purchase the same products and the members have inconsistent expectations for the product attributes is considered.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 50 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Yang Xu, EunHa Jeong, Ahmed E. Baiomy and Xiaolong Shao

This study aims to investigate consumers’ intention to use onsite restaurant interactive self-service technology (ORISST) using a modified value attitude-behavior model…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate consumers’ intention to use onsite restaurant interactive self-service technology (ORISST) using a modified value attitude-behavior model. To extend the understanding of how consumers’ dining value focus could influence their intention to use ORISST, this study examines the conditional indirect effects of restaurant type (quick-service vs fine-dining) within the proposed model.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was developed and distributed to randomly selected respondents in the USA. A total of 588 (quick-service: 295; fine-dining: 293) responses were used for the data analysis. Structural equation modeling with a robust maximum likelihood method was used to examine the proposed model. To investigate the moderated effects of restaurant type, a latent moderated mediation model was used.

Findings

The results showed that consumers’ value perceptions toward technology use in restaurants influenced their intention to use ORISST via both hedonic and utilitarian expectations. Latent moderated mediation analyzes revealed that the mediation effect of hedonic expectation between perceived value and the intention was stronger in fine-dining than in quick-service restaurants.

Originality/value

This study extends the understanding of consumer intentions to use interactive self-service technology in restaurants by building on a model that is customer-oriented instead of tech-specific. Furthermore, the conditional effects of restaurant type are investigated using the latent moderated structural equation method. The findings of this study provide guidelines for managers of quick-service and fine-dining restaurants to better incorporate ORISST in their restaurants, to boost customer experiences and to increase operational efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Kenneth E. Clow and John L. Beisel

Service firms operating on low margins per transaction mustgenerate a high volume of business to survive the competitiveenvironment of the 1990s. Firms must raise the…

Abstract

Service firms operating on low margins per transaction must generate a high volume of business to survive the competitive environment of the 1990s. Firms must raise the expectations of consumers to increase patronage, then successfully meet these expectations. Examines the antecedents to consumer expectations of low‐margin, highvolume service firms, and gives managerial implications, illustrating how to manage a service firm, successfully operating on low margins successfully.

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Mahesh S. Bhandari, Yelena Tsarenko and Michael Jay Polonsky

The purpose of this paper is to extend thinking on service recovery processes and satisfaction with service recovery, using multi‐dimensional consumer outcomes. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend thinking on service recovery processes and satisfaction with service recovery, using multi‐dimensional consumer outcomes. The objective of the work was to propose that satisfaction with service recovery should be based on customers' expectations of the recovery encounter, which would be shaped by their expectations of “non‐failed” encounters.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a theoretical approach. Using the existing service recovery literature as well as the traditional services literature, the conceptual framework and associated research propositions are developed.

Findings

The proposed framework suggests that service recovery is a service encounter it its own right. The effectiveness of recovery encounters will be based on how encounters operate relative to customer expectations and experiences with regard to the recovery activity.

Research limitations/implications

The research propositions and proposed framework need further empirical investigation.

Practical implications

The proposed framework suggests that managing service recovery should be undertaken in a similar fashion to managing any service, and thus managers need to understand customers' recovery expectations. Organisations also need to consider how a recovery action impacts on a range of customer outcomes, as focusing on one aspect will not capture consumers' full set of behaviours.

Originality/value

The proposed model identifies that service recovery should be evaluated with regard to consumers' recovery expectations and satisfaction is not based on expectations with regard to non‐failed encounters.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Amy R. Hubbert, Annette Garcia Sehorn and Stephen W. Brown

Boundary‐spanning personnel such as tax preparers, travel agentsand hairdressers interface directly with customers. In their uniqueposition, between the organization and…

Abstract

Boundary‐spanning personnel such as tax preparers, travel agents and hairdressers interface directly with customers. In their unique position, between the organization and customer, these service providers market the service to consumers while they simultaneously carry out operational functions. Both the customer and the provider bring certain expectations to the service encounter. These expectations then shape the perceptions of the service encounter. The research reported uses script methodology to compare the expectations between boundary‐spanning service providers and consumers of the same service. Draws its theoretical foundation from the expectations and scripts literatures. In Phase One, scripts of the service were elicited in order to test hypotheses based on the discovery and comparison of consumers′ and service providers′ subgoals for a typical service encounter (H1). A hypothesis also tested the point at which providers and consumers enter their respective scripts of a typical service encounter (H2 ). In Phase Two, the subgoals mentioned most frequently in Phase One were used as stimuli to elicit the specific actions which comprise the complete script. These complete scripts enabled a comparison of the elaborateness of provider and consumer scripts (H3). The results of Phase One revealed that a portion of consumers′ subgoals for a service encounter are shared by providers of the service while other subgoals are unique, supporting H1. The point of activation of the script differed dramatically between customers and providers, supporting H2. The Phase Two findings provide support for the hypothesis that service providers have more elaborate scripts. Overall, the results support the notion that scripts operationalize expectations. Closes with implications for management and suggestions for future research.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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