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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Henri Kuokkanen and William Sun

Many consumer-focused corporate social responsibility (CSR) studies suggest a positive link between the responsibility demonstrated by a company and consumers’ intention…

Abstract

Purpose

Many consumer-focused corporate social responsibility (CSR) studies suggest a positive link between the responsibility demonstrated by a company and consumers’ intention to favor the company in their purchases. Yet an analogous causal effect between corporate social and financial performances is not evident. This chapter conceptualizes how social desirability and cynicism contribute to the discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual purchase behavior, and analyzes why consumer choices indicated in surveys do not consistently convert into actions.

Methodology/approach

We develop a conceptual framework based on hybrid choice modeling to estimate the impact of two new variables, Corporate Social Desirability and Corporate Social Cynicism, on CSR research. The model presented synthesizes research findings from the fields of CSR and psychology with a discrete choice methodology that allows inclusion of psychological aspects as latent variables.

Findings

The goal of the framework is to bridge the gap between choices stated by consumers in CSR surveys and their actual choices by quantifying and extracting the effects of biases that otherwise threaten the validity of such survey results. As the next step, the practical value of the model must be evaluated through empirical research combining a CSR choice study with social desirability and cynicism measurement.

Originality

The framework proposes a novel way of controlling CSR surveys for potential biases created by social desirability and cynicism and enables quantification of this impact, with potential application to other fields where psychological aspects may distort research results. Future empirical evidence based on the framework may also offer new insights into the mechanisms by which the two biases distort findings.

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Michael Christofi, Demetris Vrontis, Erasmia Leonidou and Alkis Thrassou

The purpose of this paper is to construct a conceptual framework of the effects of customer engagement on cause-related marketing (CRM), with the goal of providing a solid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct a conceptual framework of the effects of customer engagement on cause-related marketing (CRM), with the goal of providing a solid scientific foundation for the development and stimulation of future research on the critical intersection of these two topics.

Design/methodology/approach

The research defines customer engagement in CRM campaigns as the conditions under which consumers are allowed to choose the cause that receives the donation, the cause proximity (geographical proximity) and the type of donation in a CRM campaign.

Findings

The paper conceptualizes the role of customer engagement in enhancing the effectiveness of a CRM campaign, in terms of coverage, customization and reduced consumer skepticism, as well as in triggering positive word-of-mouth (WOM) persuasion behaviors.

Practical implications

The conceptual framework provides several practicable directions toward effective control of CRM campaign outcomes, for both local and global firms.

Originality/value

The paper rests on established empirical foundations to develop a comprehensive preliminary multi- disciplinary framework on the subject, setting the path for further research in the fields of CRM, customer engagement and International Business Research, and reaching findings of both scholarly and executive worth.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Joseph P. Redden and Stephen J. Hoch

This paper aims to outline a decision process for how consumers choose among two‐part tariffs which consist of a flat fee plus a per unit charge for usage over an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline a decision process for how consumers choose among two‐part tariffs which consist of a flat fee plus a per unit charge for usage over an allowance. The paper also seeks to examine what types of decision aids help consumers choose lower cost tariffs.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used is two experimental studies.

Findings

Most consumers do not choose a tariff by calculating an expected cost because of usage uncertainty. They instead rely on simple comparisons of the overage rate, usage allowance, and flat fee attributes. These heuristics lead to systematic biases, beyond what actual true cost justifies, for favorable comparisons on these attributes. An online calculator improved choice of the lower cost option from 65 percent to 80 percent, yet this increased to 91 percent if people were also forced to consider a range of usage levels.

Practical implications

Consumers struggle to choose the lowest cost tariff, especially with uncertain usage. Consumers should realize the biases in their decision shortcuts and use the presented decision aids. Firms can leverage these biases by offering larger usage allowances (often done) and smaller overage rates (often not done), or correct them with decision aids.

Originality/value

Much work on tariffs assumes consumers calculate a cost, but the authors question this assumption, and show that consumers instead use simple attribute comparisons to deal with uncertain usage. An understanding of the specific heuristic consumers use allows the authors to better account for past effects, predict and establish new effects, and design effective decision aids. Results indicate tariff biases largely result from information processing shortcomings.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Milos Bujisic, Vanja Bogicevic, Wan Yang, Cihan Cobanoglu and Anil Bilgihan

A Hobson’s choice is a free choice in which only one option is offered. The aim of this study is to examine dimensions of “Hobson’s choice” servicescape and their effect…

Abstract

Purpose

A Hobson’s choice is a free choice in which only one option is offered. The aim of this study is to examine dimensions of “Hobson’s choice” servicescape and their effect on affective responses and to understand how affective responses drive consumer decisions in “true choice” and “Hobson’s choice” servicescapes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies have been conducted. The first study used mixed methods approach (focus groups and online survey) to examine dimensions of “Hobson’s choice” servicescape. The second study used a scenario-based experimental design to compare the effect of enjoyment and anxiety on consumer decisions in “true choice” and “Hobson’s choice” servicescapes.

Findings

Study 1 results indicate that hedonic and utilitarian servicescape attributes have a different effect on contrasting emotional responses. This study reveals a positive relationship between consumer enjoyment and hedonic stimuli in Hobson’s choice servicescape. Furthermore, inadequate utilitarian servicescape dimensions cause consumer anxiety. Study 2 results indicate that enjoyment plays a more important role in consumer decision-making in true choice settings, whereas anxiety is more important in Hobson’s choice settings.

Research limitations/implications

Hobson’s choice settings should focus on servicescape features that reduce anxiety and thus lead to affirmative consumer decisions. On the other hand, true choice settings should try to improve consumer enjoyment to create affirmative consumer decisions.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine and compare drivers of consumer’s emotions and their effect on consumer decisions in Hobson’s choice and true choice servicescapes.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Ian Clarke, Alan Hallsworth, Peter Jackson, Ronan de Kervenoael, Rossana Perez‐del‐Aguila and Malcolm Kirkup

The “food deserts” debate can be enriched by setting the particular circumstances of food deserts – areas of very limited consumer choice – within a wider context of…

Abstract

The “food deserts” debate can be enriched by setting the particular circumstances of food deserts – areas of very limited consumer choice – within a wider context of changing retail provision in other areas. This paper’s combined focus on retail competition and consumer choice shifts the emphasis from changing patterns of retail provision towards a more qualitative understanding of how “choice” is actually experienced by consumers at the local level “on the ground”. This argument has critical implications for current policy debates where the emphasis on monopolies and mergers at the national level needs to be brought together with the planning and regulation of retail provision at the local, neighbourhood level.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Sophie Ghvanidze, Natalia Velikova, Tim Dodd and Wilna Oldewage-Theron

Over the last few decades, consumers’ concerns for healthier lifestyles and the environment have become the driving forces for forming food-buying intentions. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last few decades, consumers’ concerns for healthier lifestyles and the environment have become the driving forces for forming food-buying intentions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of product attributes regarding nutrition and health benefits of products, the environmental impact of production and social responsibility of producers on consumers’ food and wine choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is based on an online survey conducted in the USA, the UK and Germany, and incorporates a discrete choice experiment with visual shelf simulations.

Findings

Price and nutrition information are much more influential on consumers’ food choices than information about social responsibility of producers or the ecological impact of production. Product attributes emphasizing the ecological impact of production and social responsibility of food producers are specifically valued by consumers with high levels of environmental consciousness and by those concerned about goods production. Consumers who are health conscious regarding their lifestyle and diets derive high utility values from the nutritional information of the product.

Practical implications

The study contributes to an understanding of how to promote healthier food and wine choices and social and environmental responsibility of food and wine producers in various markets.

Originality/value

The study offers a comparison of product attributes concerning ecological, social, nutrition and health benefits of the product; as well the investigation of congruent interrelationships between the consumers’ values and related product attributes in three culturally distinct consumer groups.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Roger Straughan

Examines various problems concerning the practical implementationof the principle of free choice. These are exemplified in a specificeveryday context – the consumer′s…

Abstract

Examines various problems concerning the practical implementation of the principle of free choice. These are exemplified in a specific everyday context – the consumer′s freedom to choose food and drink products. Identifies a number of actual constraints on that freedom before the main question is tackled: what further restrictions might be considered justifiable and desirable? Suggests three categories of factor which might justify such restrictions – psychological factors associated with the maximizing of freedom of choice; safety factors concerned with the minimizing of risk; and ethical/social factors involving such issues as animal welfare and socio‐economic needs. Concludes that certain restrictions on the consumer′s freedom of choice may at times be justified by an appeal to other principles and considerations.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 97 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Susan Danissa Calderón Urbina, Antonios Stamatogiannakis and Dilney Goncalves

This study aims to introduce the duration of uniqueness, an important dimension of unique products. It studies how choices between products with long versus short duration…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce the duration of uniqueness, an important dimension of unique products. It studies how choices between products with long versus short duration of uniqueness are influenced by the interaction between pressure and consumers’ need for uniqueness (NFU).

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a multi-method study approach. A pilot field-study tested the novelty and importance of the research by asking retail professionals to predict the choice of a hypothetical consumer. A retrospective study assessed the importance of duration of uniqueness in unique product choices, by asking consumers about a real and recent unique product purchase. Four additional experimental studies directly tested hypotheses by manipulating pressure and by measuring or manipulating uniqueness motivations.

Findings

The pilot field-study showed the novelty and relevance of this research for professionals. Study 1 revealed that, retrospectively, uniqueness duration was considered important for the choice of unique products, by high-NFU consumers under pressure. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that pressure increases the tendency of high-NFU, but not low-NFU, consumers to choose products with long over short uniqueness duration. Study 4 provided initial evidence for the process behind the effect. Study 5 showed that considerations of uniqueness duration when choosing mediated the effects.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the pilot field-study and retrospective study might be affected by recall bias or lay theories. The findings need to be replicated with other sources of pressure and uniqueness. This calls for further research.

Practical implications

Results are important for companies marketing unique products and they suggest that pressure-based marketing appeals can be used strategically to increase sales of products with long uniqueness duration but decrease sales of products with short uniqueness duration. Although the research provides these guidelines, managers should consider the ethical implications of pressure strategies.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to empirically investigate the duration of uniqueness. Although extant research has examined choices between products with different degrees of uniqueness, this research studies choice of products with similar degrees of uniqueness, but different uniqueness duration. Thus, this research adds to the scarce literature studying the duration of symbolic benefits. Moreover, although pressure and NFU frequently co-exist in uniqueness consumption settings, this study is the first to study their joint effects.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Kenneth F. Hyde

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation…

Abstract

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Shouwang Lu, Gong (Gordon) Chen and Kanliang Wang

This study aims to explore the effect of two digital nudging technologies that is overt digital nudging (ODN) and covert digital nudging (CDN), on consumerschoices of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the effect of two digital nudging technologies that is overt digital nudging (ODN) and covert digital nudging (CDN), on consumerschoices of nudged options in the context of online customization systems (OCS).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper designed a 2 (ODN: yes/no) by 2 (CDN: yes/no) full factor between-subject lab experiment in the context of online travel package customization. This paper collected and analyzed the number of nudged options (the intermediate options) of choices among consumers in these four scenarios.

Findings

ODN and CDN have positive effects on consumerschoices of nudged options in online customization (OC). In addition, mixed nudge (a combination of ODN and CDN) has a more significant effect on consumerschoices of nudged options in OC than using CDN only.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused only on the choice behavior of consumers in the customization context and did not analyze their attitude change. The present study used vendor recommendation as the proxy variable of ODN and default option as the proxy variable of CDN. A future study could explore other instances of ODN and CDN.

Practical implications

This study explores the effects of digital nudging technologies in the context of OCS. The study provides clear guidance for customization vendors on whether to use digital nudging tools and their combinations, and which tools should be preferred.

Social implications

Vendors can adopt digital nudging technology to persuade consumers to choose nudged options. This nudging effect can make consumerschoices predictable and less uncertain, thus adding profits for vendors.

Originality/value

First, the study focuses on the impact of digital nudging on consumerschoices and enriches the understanding of the impact of customization system design on consumerschoices. Second, this paper put forward a new classification method for digital nudging and proposed, respectively, the effect mechanisms on consumers’ customization choices. Third, this study explores the effect of combining multiple nudging tools in OC context on consumerschoices, which deepens the understanding of the interactive effects of different types of nudging tools.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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