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Article

Charles Thomas Tackney and Imran Shah

Authenticity/ الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable for the purpose of a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in

Abstract

Purpose

Authenticity/ الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable for the purpose of a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in light of social teachings from Sunni Islam and Roman Catholicism. Authenticity finds initial, shared significance in both religious traditions because of its critically important role in judgments concerning the legitimacy of source documents. It also stands in both traditions as an inspirational goal for human life.

Design/methodology/approach

Particular issues of theological method for cross-cultural analysis are addressed by the use of insight-based critical realism as a transcultural foundation. Workplace parameters, the minimal enabling conditions for the possibility of authentic employment relations, are then identified and compared. The authors explore shared expectations for authenticity enabling conditions in terms of the direct and indirect employer: those national laws, systems and traditions that condition the functional range of authenticity that can be actualized within national or other work settings as experienced in the direct employment contract.

Findings

The study found remarkable consistency in the minimal conditions identified by Roman Catholic and Sunni Islam social teachings for the prospects of authenticity in employment relations. These conditions addressed seven parameters: work and the concept of labor; private property; the nature of the employment contract; unions and collective bargaining; the treatment of wages; the relationship between managerial prerogative and employee participation; and the crucial role of the state as indirect employer.

Practical implications

Specific minimal or threshold conditions of employment are described to ensure the prospect for authenticity in modern employment relations according to religious traditions. These include just cause employment conditions, unions and collective bargaining support, some form of management consultation/Shura, a living wage and a consultative exercise of managerial prerogative.

Social implications

The study offers prescriptive and analytical aid to ensure assessment of circumstances fostering authenticity in employment relations.

Originality/value

The method and findings are a first effort to clarify thought and aid mutual understanding for inter-faith employment circumstances based on Roman Catholic and Sunni Islam social teachings through a transcultural foundation in cognitional operations. The criterion variable specification of authenticity conditions offers a fully developed basis to support further empirical research in management spirituality, corporate social responsibility and enterprise sustainability.

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Article

Mastura Ab. Wahab and Tajul Ariffin Masron

Throughout the extant studies on Islamic work values, many variations in the concept of Islamic work values were found. This has created some confusions and…

Abstract

Purpose

Throughout the extant studies on Islamic work values, many variations in the concept of Islamic work values were found. This has created some confusions and misunderstandings on what is the core of Islamic work values that is highly emphasized by Islam. The unanimity of Islamic work values is fundamental to Islamic organizations, and businesses in particular, as it indicates ethical, effectiveness and religious reputations of the organizations. This paper aims to identify the core Islamic work values based on Islamic legal texts (the Qur‘an and the Hadith as the two main Islamic sources), the writings of Islamic scholars and then to have experts verify whether or not the identified work values are core Islamic work values.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used a qualitative approach where Islamic legal texts (the Qur’an and the Hadith) as well as the writing of Islamic scholars were used as a main reference to identify the core Islamic work values. These identified core Islamic work values were later verified by the muftīs. The verification assessment involved six muftīs from Malaysia.

Findings

The final result revealed that 14 core Islamic work values have been verified by the muftīs. These 14 considered core Islamic work values are essential work values of Islam which are important to achieve effective work performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings presented are useful for managers and employees in Islamic organizations to decide on what Islamic work values that should be given more precedence and to be practised in their organizations.

Originality/value

This is a novel study that combines two approaches, the Islamic legal texts and muftīs verification regarding the work values obtained that can be accepted as the core Islamic work values. Therefore, these findings can be a guide for many future studies in the area of Islamic work values.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Abdallah M Elamin and Hayfaa A. Tlaiss

Cross-cultural studies suggest that while organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational justice have received considerable attention in Anglo-Saxon…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural studies suggest that while organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational justice have received considerable attention in Anglo-Saxon contexts, the same cannot be claimed in non-Western, Arab Middle Eastern contexts. The purpose of this paper is to attend to this knowledge gap by exploring OCB in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its relationship with organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

In cognizance of the extant literature, the study explores the perceptions of Saudi Arabian managers of the five conceptually different dimensions of citizenship behaviour – conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue, courtesy, and altruism. It also explores their perceptions of distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In addition, the current study investigates the relationship between organizational justice and OCB. Using the survey questionnaire method, data was collected from more than 250 Saudi managers at different levels of the managerial hierarchy and working in a wide range of organizations and industries.

Findings

The results indicate that Saudi Arabian managers reported exhibiting OCB at work. They also suggest the salience of various forms of organizational justice in Saudi Arabian organizations as motivated by Arab cultural values and Islamic teachings. In regards to the relationship between the two constructs, our results indicate that interactional justice is most frequently associated with various dimensions of OCB for various reasons, including the emphasis that Islam and Islamic teachings give to demonstrating respect and courtesy in dealings with others.

Originality/value

The literature on OCB and organizational justice is thin in the Arab world. With that in mind, the current study is the first to explore OCB in Saudi Arabia. It is also the first to investigate the relationship between citizenship behavior and justice in Saudi organizations. The findings of this study highlight the need for academics and human resource experts to account for the role of socio-cultural factors and Islam when examining these constructs in the Arab world. The implications of the findings for academics and practitioners are discussed.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article

Rodrigue Fontaine, Gapur Oziev and Hussein Hassan‐Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chris Argyris's ideas from an Islamic perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chris Argyris's ideas from an Islamic perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The main approach is a literature review combined with an analysis based on Islamic principles. At the end, there is a short case study that demonstrates the possible application for practitioners.

Findings

Chris Argyris's work touches on a fundamental point: the lack of congruence between espoused values and theories‐in‐use. Such incongruence is amplified by the existence of organizational defense routines. From an Islamic perspective, such an incongruence is very problematic. The paper discusses two mechanisms in the Islamic tradition – sincerity to others and mutual consultation – to overcome this problem. The case study also suggests that more modern techniques can be useful as well. The implications for management education are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

It is proposed that the points raised by Chris Argyris should be taken very seriously by all researchers. Generally, it is proposed that management education should concern itself more with the congruence between values and behaviour.

Practical implications

The case study demonstrates that there are techniques that can be used to overcome organizational defence routines.

Originality/value

This is the first time Argyris's ideas have been examined from an Islamic perspective.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Mohamed Branine and David Pollard

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and contents of Islamic management practices and their consequent implications for human resource management (HRM) in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and contents of Islamic management practices and their consequent implications for human resource management (HRM) in Arab countries. In addition, it aims to examine the implications for multinational companies (MNCs) operating in Islamic countries and the impact of globalisation before proceeding to an analysis of managerial problems in Arab countries and the need for understanding Islamic management principles by Arab (national) and international managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a qualitative approach based on an extensive review of relevant literature and the employment of examples from selected Arab countries.

Findings

The study reveals that a gap exists between the theory of Islamic management and the practice of management in Arab countries. Management in Arab countries is informed and heavily influenced by non‐Islamic traditional and national cultural values and norms of different countries and by Western management thinking rather than Islamic principles derived from the Holy Quran (words of God) and the Hadith (words of the Prophet Mohamed).

Research limitations/implications

The paper argues that one of the main reasons for the lack of progress in most Arab and Islamic countries is the mismatch between global integration and local responsiveness because of an excess forward diffusion of Western management and business practices with little understanding and, hence, the implementation of Islamic management principles by both local and international managers in Arab countries. It adopts the view that there is a gap between the knowledge possessed by national and international managers in order to manage locally and what is required from the local workforce to be managed effectively. The main limitation of this study is the lack of empirical research evidence to support the points deducted from this review of literature.

Practical implications

Understanding Islamic management principles could help to develop a more appropriate type of management best practice in Arab and Islamic countries while still benefiting from the transfer of relevant Western management techniques and Western technology. The paper also argues that a reverse diffusion of management knowledge and skills by managers of MNCs is very important for the effective management of human resources in host countries. National cultural contexts and different views of work values have made a major impact on the ability of firms to address HRM issues in different cultural settings.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the comparatively sparse literature on Islamic management and its applications by identifying key issues for HRM implementation and in developing Western understanding of Islamic management systems.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article

Khaliq Ahmad and O.K. Ogunsola

The main purpose of the present paper is to document some Islamic leadership principles of management. The paper equally examines the leadership function as adopted by…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of the present paper is to document some Islamic leadership principles of management. The paper equally examines the leadership function as adopted by academic administrators within the International Islamic University, Malaysia vis‐à‐vis Islamic principles of management. The whole process is an attempt to conduct an empirical study of the important role of excellent leadership from an Islamic perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of revealed sources of knowledge (the Quran and Sunnah) and literature reviews were used to document Islamic leadership principles. Then, a questionnaire‐based survey was used to examine the Islamic leadership principles, approaches, and sources of leadership principles adopted in the university. Use of the scale of statistical measurement was done to test the significance and reliability level.

Findings

It was found that academic administrators were imbued with Islamic leadership principles. The research also showed that servant‐leadership approach is preferably used in conjunction with alternative transactional and transformational styles, while the revealed sources of knowledge (Quran and Sunnah) were given the highest priority as sources of developing leadership principles.

Research limitations/implications

Islamic management is a diverse field. This study is, however, limited to Islamic leadership principles in an organization. Perhaps, this study will be little known to adherents of the conventional management principles, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the crossing point between Islam and the management of an organization.

Originality/value

It is aimed at providing some knowledge of Islamic philosophy and practice in order to help today's employers and employees carry on everyday activities imbued with Islamic values and cultures.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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Article

Aikaterini Galanou and Dalia Abdelrahman Farrag

The paper provides some fundamental observations on leadership from an Islamic perspective and the Islamic revealed knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to measure the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper provides some fundamental observations on leadership from an Islamic perspective and the Islamic revealed knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to measure the association between Islamic leadership and the most common western forms of leadership namely; transactional, transformational, authentic, and ethical leadership styles as well as its relationship on leader’s effectiveness and organizational innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical investigation was conducted using portrait value questionnaire recommended by Schwartz (1994b), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) followed by structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

The results indicated that Islamic leadership is positively and significantly associated with perception of leader effectiveness and innovation outcomes. In addition the findings revealed that Islamic leadership is positively correlated with transformational, ethical, and authentic leadership as well and not with the transactional leadership style.

Practical implications

Among the practical implications of this research is that while a large body of leadership research has adopted a variation of leadership theories, our results suggest that we should seize to pay attention to the influential Islamic leadership.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is that it extends scholarly understanding on Islamic perspectives of management which is a relatively new and growing area of interest for academics and practitioners, in terms of both theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Gamila M. Shoib and Matthew R. Jones

Despite discussions of the increasingly global character of information systems (IS), IS research remains highly “Western‐centric” both in terms of its subjects of study…

Abstract

Despite discussions of the increasingly global character of information systems (IS), IS research remains highly “Western‐centric” both in terms of its subjects of study and the nationalities of the authors. Researchers interested in IS in non‐Western settings are thus reliant on a fragmented and not easily accessible literature that presents a potentially distorted picture of IS practice in these regions. This paper explores this situation through an examination of the literature relating to IS in Egypt (both directly, but also as a Middle Eastern, Arab or Islamic country). A macro analysis of these studies indicates that they are predominantly positivistic in epistemology, quantitative in methodology and focused on economic development and national culture. Although many of the studies make comparisons with other countries in the region, the explicit, or sometimes implicit, point of reference is almost invariably with “the West”. This is repeated in a detailed analysis of individual studies. Implications of these findings for research on IS in non‐Western settings are discussed.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article

Mervyn K. Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and structure of Islamic investment funds and evaluate their governance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and structure of Islamic investment funds and evaluate their governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is the conceptual framework of Islamic economics.

Findings

It is found that Islamic investment funds have grown rapidly this decade: in Malaysia alone, the number of shari'a‐compliant funds has grown from 17 in 2000 to 149 in 2008, and at a global level there are 650 funds in operation. However, the industry has developed in a particular way, by focusing on negative screens, and removing from investments those activities deemed to be unacceptable to Islamic precepts, rather than pursuing as well the implementation of other aspects of the Islamic ethos.

Originality/value

The conclusion reached is that, if the Islamic investment fund industry is to provide more completely for the religious and financial aspirations of investors, it needs to go beyond the negatives and to also accentuate the positive and, drawing upon Islamic governance guidelines, actively seek out investments that have a positive impact on society and the environment and promote the welfare of the community. These issues hitherto have been largely unexplored.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Hamid S. Atiyyah

The purpose of this article is twofold: to identify the characteristics of research on organisation and management in Arab countries and to find out whether research…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is twofold: to identify the characteristics of research on organisation and management in Arab countries and to find out whether research results support the culture‐free hypothesis or not. A thorough search of sixteen journals, research monographs, books and theses produced only 35 empirical studies. Most of these studies were exploratory, descriptive, and used small convenient samples. Although some findings supported the culture‐bound hypothesis, major conceptual and methodological weaknesses in these studies throw doubt upon the validity of their results.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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