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Article

Robin Bell and Peng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected from 24 focus groups of educators who had been tasked with embedding constructivist entrepreneurship education into their teaching and curriculum, at four different vocational colleges situated in four different provinces in China. The data were coded and analysed for emerging themes using a process of bottom-up thematic analysis.

Findings

A range of concerns were identified from the focus groups and these could be divided into five main challenges, which were the role of the educator in the constructivist learning process and their ability to control the process; the educators perceived student reaction to the process and their engagement with it; the time and technology required to deliver the process; the link between the learning and industry; and the educators’ perception of the requirements to meet internal expectations.

Research limitations/implications

This research explores the educators’ perceptions of the challenges they face in developing and delivering active and experiential constructivist entrepreneurship education. Whilst these concerns may impact how the educators’ approach the task, these concerns are only perceived, as the educators’ have not yet implemented the introduction of constructivist entrepreneurship education when other challenges may become evident.

Originality/value

Encouragement by the Chinese Government to develop and deliver constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education has resulted in a number of tensions and challenges. Entrepreneurship education in China is still relatively young and under researched and this research contributes to the literature by exploring the challenges that educators face in developing and delivering constructivist entrepreneurship education in Chinese vocational colleges.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Yanto Chandra and Liang Shang

Qualitative research suffers from “contestation” and a lack of “boilerplate” problems to assessing and presenting qualitative data, which have hampered its development and…

Abstract

Purpose

Qualitative research suffers from “contestation” and a lack of “boilerplate” problems to assessing and presenting qualitative data, which have hampered its development and the broader acceptance of qualitative research. This paper aims to address this gap by marrying the constructivist methodology and RQDA, a relatively new open-source computer-assisted qualitative data analysis (CAQDAS)-based R extension and demonstrate how the software can increase the rigor, transparency and validity of qualitative research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper highlights the constructivist approach as an important paradigm in qualitative research and demonstrates how it can be operationalized and enhanced using RQDA. It provides a technical and methodological review of RQDA, along with its main strengths and weaknesses, in relation with two popular CAQDAS tools, ATLAS.ti and NVivo. Using samples of customer-generated e-complaints and e-praises in the electronics/computer sector, this paper demonstrates the development of a process model of customer e-complaint rhetoric.

Findings

This study offers step-by-step instructions for installing and using RQDA for data coding, aggregation, plotting and theory building. It emphasizes the importance of techniques for sharing coding outputs among researchers and journal gatekeepers to better disseminate and share research findings. It also describes the authors’ use of RQDA in classrooms of undergraduates and graduate students.

Research limitations/implications

This paper addresses the “contestation” and “boilerplate” gaps, offering practical, step-by-step instructions to operationalize and enhance the constructivist approach using the RQDA-based approach. This opens new opportunities for existing R users to “cross over” to analyzing textual data as well as for computer-savvy scholars, analysts and research students in academia and industry who wish to transition to CAQDAS-based qualitative research because RQDA is free and can leverage the strengths of the R computing platform.

Originality/value

This study offers the first published review and demonstration of the RQDA-based constructivist methodology that provide the processes needed to enhance the rigor, transparency and validity of qualitative research. It demonstrates the systematic development of a data structure and a process model of customer e-complaint rhetoric using RQDA.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Mark Bevir

This paper offers a constructivist theory of governance. It begins by challenging rational choice and institutionalist accounts for neglecting meanings. If we are to take…

Abstract

This paper offers a constructivist theory of governance. It begins by challenging rational choice and institutionalist accounts for neglecting meanings. If we are to take meanings seriously, we need to allow for the constructed nature of governance − governance depends on concepts that are themselves in part products of wider webs of belief. The rest of the paper argues, first, that constructivism is compatible with various forms of realism, and, second, that constructivism is strengthened by recognition of situated agency.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part

Anthony Cerqua, Clermont Gauthier and Martial Dembélé

More than ever before, globalization has linked the socioeconomic development of nations to the performance of their educational systems. One of the consequences of this…

Abstract

More than ever before, globalization has linked the socioeconomic development of nations to the performance of their educational systems. One of the consequences of this new focus on improving the quality of teachers is the acknowledgment of the importance of engaging more directly with what is at the center of action, that is, pedagogy (Alexander, 2008). In this perspective, we conduct research aimed at describing, analyzing, and establishing a critical portrait of the scientific bases of the pedagogical choices made by three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO, and World Bank) with respect to teacher education and development. In terms of methodology, we conducted a fine-grained analysis of the documents produced in the framework of TALIS and semi-structured individuals interviews with five staff members of OECD. The idea of pedagogical pluralism constitutes a rhetorical artefact through which constructivist teaching approaches are favored.

Details

The Impact of the OECD on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-539-3

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Article

Tomaz Schara and Richard Common

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the constructivist-grounded theory in elite interviews, the methodology used for this research.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the constructivist-grounded theory in elite interviews, the methodology used for this research.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is about the challenges of the EU rail industry integration in the context of EU integration as seen and told by the involved actors. In particular, the integration process requires leadership in the multi-level governance context of the EU and in the transition from state monopolies to businesses providing services on the integrated market. This provides a potential source of theoretically and practically relevant research questions; and second rigorous grounded research methodologies will bring insight that transcends the currently accepted formal and public statements about the phenomena. The work is situated within social constructivist ontology, enacted through a rigorous grounded theory approach to understanding the current challenges of the industry and seeking more effective developments for the future.

Findings

Findings place the concepts of leadership and debt into a relationship that could offer profound understanding of certain social relations and contribute to the growth of theory and practice. These findings are also elaborated in this paper as reflections on the methodological process.

Research limitations/implications

Contribution to theory and practice supports the relevance and rigor of “constructivist-grounded theory in elite interviews” as a methodological approach.

Practical implications

In particular, it supports qualitative research in complex political environments, such as the multi-level governance structures of the EU.

Social implications

A clearer understanding of leadership within such dynamic contexts can make a substantial contribution to better policy-making in the EU and better outcomes for its citizens.

Originality/value

Further analysis and research of the concepts of leadership and debt and their relationship could offer profound understanding of certain social relations and contribute to the growth of theory and practice.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article

Markus Reihlen and Birgit Alexandra Apel

Internationalization process research has conceptualized the cross‐border move of firms as a process of learning. Yet, little attempts have been made to develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

Internationalization process research has conceptualized the cross‐border move of firms as a process of learning. Yet, little attempts have been made to develop a constructivist learning theory of the internationalizing firm. The aim of this paper is to apply a contemporary learning theoretical framework to analyze the internationalization of professional service firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A constructivist theory of learning is applied.

Findings

The paper explains learning during the internationalization process of professional service firms as a process of social interaction with the socio‐cultural environment. The paper outlines specific individual and social mechanisms through which firms acquire new knowledge when moving across borders and embed themselves into a new socio‐cultural market domain.

Research limitations/implications

The argument is theoretical in nature and has particular implications for future empirical research, which may investigate the specific social learning mechanisms of the internationalizing firm in particular professional service industries and cultural settings.

Originality/value

The application of a constructivist theory of learning to the internationalization of professional service firms is unique until now to the research field.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article

Neal King and Toni Calasanti

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the argument that scholars' imputations of agency serve modern professional/institutional purposes other than the refinement of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the argument that scholars' imputations of agency serve modern professional/institutional purposes other than the refinement of testable theories.

Design/methodology/approach

Data include articles from twenty‐first century issues of four gerontological journals. Content analysis involved coding articles for imputations of agency, constructivist analysis thereof, and the parties to whom authors directed their imputations.

Findings

Most authors rehearse theories of “structuration” and call for more imputations of agency to old people. They do this without imputing agency to privileged groups or to policy makers; and without settling theoretical question of how much agency people have or how scientists could demonstrate that. One article in ten provides constructivist critique.

Research limitations/implications

Patterns in imputations of agency in other scholarly realms (such as books) may support another interpretation.

Practical implications

Scholars should treat their imputations of agency as political activities and not refinements of testable theories. They position professional scholars as advocates for an oppressed group.

Originality/value

This paper provides a sociological context for interpreting routine imputations of agency in social scientific and humanist scholarship.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Tiia Randma and Urve Venesaar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the national education standard (curriculum, NC) supports the development of enterprising behaviour and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the national education standard (curriculum, NC) supports the development of enterprising behaviour and the constructivist approach to learning at the general education level?

Design/methodology/approach

New methodology was designed based on the assessment of the evidence and frequency of the incidence of the indicators supporting enterprising behaviour in the text of the NC. A content analysis method is used to systematically code and categorize the target indicators from the text of the NC. According to the frequency of indicators that support enterprising behaviour the extent of support is assessed in different parts of the NC.

Findings

The findings of this study show that, while the general part of the NC fully reflects the development of attitudes and skills related to enterprising behaviour, in the competences and learning outcomes of the other parts of the NC, some indicators of enterprising behaviour have only moderate support. This shows that entrepreneurial attitudes are not fully recognized as an educational aim in general education, and for the purposes of moving from a behaviourist to a constructivist educational approach, rethinking and reformulating the learning outcomes in the NC is necessary.

Research limitations/implications

The critical aspects are: first, NC formats may differ between countries, and hence, the suggested analysis may suffer from limited replicability; second, the most critical aspect is that the present work analyses only the learning outcomes of the written NC, which is the basis for real action in the classroom.

Practical implications

The contribution of the current study may be summed up in three main issues: first, methodology for evaluating the extent to which the NC supports the development of enterprising behaviour; second, the need to rethink and reformulate the learning outcomes in the NC (e.g. for natural sciences); and third, evidence of the conflict between the expectations of society and the aims of education. The research results are providing objective feedback to educational experts, policymakers and practitioners to help schools innovate and support the education of enterprising people in general education.

Social implications

The research is an initiative supported by society and directed to support the learning of entrepreneurial behaviour of pupils at the schools of general education and use of constructivist learning approach.

Originality/value

The current study is contributing to the methodology of analysing the written national curricula at the general education level for identification the evidence and frequency of the indicators of enterprising behaviour in different parts of curriculum. The methodology elaborated and the results of this study may be considered applicable for the analysis of NC in other countries. In the future, the NC in connection with real teaching practice should be studied, focusing on finding new solutions to support the education of enterprising people in schools.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article

Huyen Thi Ngo, Alison Jane Pickard and Geoff Walton

This study aims to identify the ways in which information literacy (IL) in-practice initiatives are framed for Vietnam’s upper secondary students and to suggest an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the ways in which information literacy (IL) in-practice initiatives are framed for Vietnam’s upper secondary students and to suggest an appropriate IL teaching model for schools in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a qualitative multiple case study approach, including two phases of data collection. The first phase gathered data from semi-structured student interviews. The second phase included semi-structured professional interviews and an analysis of documents.

Findings

The research found that time pressure, teaching method, resource issues, students’ awareness of IL and support from family are challenges for the development of IL programmes. These factors impinge upon the development of an IL teaching model for Vietnam’s upper secondary schools.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of this study was limited to two schools to gain the depth of data needed to provide a holistic picture of the practice of IL teaching in Vietnam’s upper secondary schools.

Practical implications

This study could provide some guidance to the Ministry of Education and Training in the development of educational policies and initiatives through identifying the possible contributions of IL to Vietnam’s education system.

Originality/value

The study provides an understanding of the development of IL in the education system in transition, from a didactic to a constructivist approach.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article

Hevina S. Dashwood

The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for the global influences and dynamics that have led major mining companies to adopt corporate social responsibility

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for the global influences and dynamics that have led major mining companies to adopt corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, and frame them in terms of sustainable development. Bad reputations stemming from environmental disasters and social disharmony led mining multinationals to adopt CSR policies and improve their practices. Rationalist expectations about what is driving firm responses to external pressures are a necessary, but insufficient, explanation of how and why mining companies have sought to improve their reputations. Three elements are necessary to explain firm responses, including strategic adaptation to external pressures, learning processes associated with CSR, and internalization of sustainable development norms, understood as standards of appropriate behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a multidisciplinary theoretical framework for explaining the adoption of CSR policies and practices on the part of mining companies, and applies that framework to case studies of two major mining companies with global operations.

Findings

An account of learning processes and norms socialization as they relate to CSR provide a more comprehensive explanation of how and why mining companies adopt CSR policies. Incorporation of these elements provides a better explanation of why mining companies began to frame their CSR policies in terms of the global norm of sustainable development.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of how and why firms adapt to changing societal expectations about appropriate corporate behavior by integrating two sets of literatures; constructivism from international relations theory, and learning from organization theory.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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