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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Hongping Yuan, Liyin Shen and Jiayuan Wang

The generation of construction and demolition waste in China is a pressing need to be minimized in order to alleviate the environmental burden. The effectiveness of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The generation of construction and demolition waste in China is a pressing need to be minimized in order to alleviate the environmental burden. The effectiveness of implementing construction and demolition waste management in this economy, however, is very limited due to various barriers. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the major obstacles to managing construction and demolition waste in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The views from Chinese practitioners were collected via a questionnaire survey. The respondents were invited to rate a total of 16 obstacles that hinder the effective implementation of construction and demolition waste management as gleaned from previous literature and six semi‐structured interviews. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed by ranking analysis and factor analysis.

Findings

The findings show that “lack of a well‐developed waste recycling market”, “insufficient regulation support” and “waste reduction does not receive sufficient attention in construction design” are perceived as the three barriers of most importance. Furthermore, the 16 obstacles could be grouped into five underlying components including: component 1 – weak awareness and inadequate training, component 2 – insufficient support of the authority, component 3 – economic consideration, component 4 – immature market and component 5 – barriers related to site activity.

Practical implications

Based on the findings, industry practitioners' understandings about the barriers to better performing construction and demolition waste management in China can be deepened. Furthermore, the results also provide useful information for developing strategies to improve the performance of construction and demolition waste management in China.

Originality/value

Major obstacles to improving the performance of construction and demolition waste management in China are identified and analyzed in this study.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Rachit Sharma

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens without and with superplasticizer (SP), silica fume (SF) and fiber (F) to solve the disposal problems of various wastes along with saving the environment. This study aims to investigate the effect of construction waste, WFS along with additives on the stress-strain behavior and development of compressive strength with age.

Design/methodology/approach

The various concrete specimen were prepared in mix proportion of 1: 2: 4 (cement (C): sand: coarse aggregate). The water-cement ratio of 0.5 (decreased by 10% for samples containing SP) to grading 1: 2: 4 under air-dry condition was adopted in the preparation of concrete specimens. The compressive strength of various concrete specimen were noticed for 3, 7 and 28 days by applying load through universal testing machine.

Findings

Upon adding construction and demolition waste aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete after 28 days was comparable to that of the control concrete specimen. An enhancement in the value of compressive strength is perceived when FA is replaced with WFS to the extent of 10%, 20% and 30%. If both construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA are used, the compressive strength increases. When FA is interchanged with WFS in natural aggregate or construction demolition waste aggregate concrete including usage of SF or F, the compressive strength improves significantly. Further, when construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA including SP are used, the compressive strength improves marginally compared to that of control specimen. The rate of strength development with age is observed to follow similar trend as in control concrete specimen. Therefore, construction and demolition waste and or WFS can be used effectively in concrete confirming an improvement in strength.

Originality/value

The utilization of these wastes in concrete will resolve the problem of their disposal and save the environment.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Angelo De Luca, Linda Chen and Koorosh Gharehbaghi

Due to the high demand of concrete, significant volume of natural resources is required, including virgin aggregates. Many studies have shown that the production of…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high demand of concrete, significant volume of natural resources is required, including virgin aggregates. Many studies have shown that the production of concrete has one of the highest CO2 levels. Although efforts are in place to recycle, enormous effects on landfill and the wider environment remain. Research has suggested the importance of reusing construction and demolition waste such as aggregate for use in recycled concrete. However, robust construction and demolition waste reduction strategies are required. There have been numerous researches on the use of recycled concrete and its management in the construction industry. This paper further consolidates this position.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper exhibits the barriers and benefits of using recycled aggregates for construction industry. This is achieved via reviewing the current construction and demolition waste reduction strategies used mainly in three countries: the UK, Australia and Japan. These countries were selected since they seemingly have similar construction industry and environment. Subsequently, evolving barriers and benefits of using recycled aggregates for construction industry are also reviewed and discussed. And to support such focus, robust construction and demolition waste reduction strategies will be advocated.

Findings

The findings are summarized as follows. The recycling construction and demolition waste could have a positive net benefit compared to the procurement and production of virgin aggregate materials with the same properties. This is not only financially beneficial but also environmentally viable, as fewer resources would be required to produce the same aggregate material. There are effective ways to achieve a high recycle rate target, as demonstrated by Japan. The implementation of a similar recycling process could be implemented globally to achieve a more effective recycle rate through the help of governments at all levels. By creating awareness about the financial and environmental benefits of using recycled aggregate products, large recycling companies can be also enticed to follow suit.

Practical implications

The findings from this paper can ultimately support the construction industry to further consolidate and advocate the use of recycled aggregates.

Originality/value

To achieve the research aim, this paper reviews some of the main sustainability factors of recycled aggregates (including coarse and fine aggregates) and provides comparison to virgin aggregates.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Yoichiro Kunieda, Ricardo Codinhoto and Stephen Emmitt

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel tool to support decision making for enhanced demolition process efficiency and material waste sortability through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel tool to support decision making for enhanced demolition process efficiency and material waste sortability through computerised 4D motion workflow simulation.

Design/methodology/approach

A time-lapse evaluation model was developed to classify and estimate the impact of building demolition processes and material waste recovery. The dynamic assessment of demolition, collision and mechanical impact was measured through computerised 4D motion game and physics engines. Waste recovery and treatment complemented the simulation algorithm. The simulation of the information workflow was tested through case study using two demolition strategies.

Findings

The simulation successfully estimated the efficiency and efficacy of the different demolition strategies. Thus, simulation results can potentially support better decision making related to the definition of demolition strategies associated with recycling and re-use targets.

Research limitations/implications

The simulation was limited to a simple machine-led demolition strategy. Further research is required to understand the impact of complex machine mechanic movements and processes on complex building fabrics.

Originality/value

Modelling and evaluating the demolition process and its impact on material waste recovery with a time dimension is novel. The comparative analysis of quantitative data allows demolition professionals to find optimal and more sustainable demolition solutions and more efficient and safer implementation on site. It also contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between demolition strategy and waste sortability. This research represents a significant advancement in applied computing for building demolition waste recycling and notably, it improves the quality of information available in the definition of building demolition strategies.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Ruchini Senarath Jayasinghe, Raufdeen Rameezdeen and Nicholas Chileshe

The purpose of this paper is to explore the synergies between post-end-of-life of building (PEoLB) concepts and operations to achieve sustainability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the synergies between post-end-of-life of building (PEoLB) concepts and operations to achieve sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted using 65 articles published between 2006 and 2017, and it has been subjected to descriptive and thematic analysis.

Findings

The descriptive analysis revealed that the majority of the articles were about (60 per cent) PEoLB operations, followed by (23 per cent) PEoLB concepts. Only 17 per cent of the articles have dealt with PEoLB-related strategic approaches. The thematic analysis elaborated on the literature development; interrelationships between PEoLB concepts and operations; impediments of introducing sustainability on these operations, remedial measures and information-based strategic approaches to achieve sustainability. Based on the findings, a conceptual framework for sustainable PEoLB operations is proposed. Furthermore, four areas of potential future research are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a future research agenda including best practices to plan PEoLB operations and the development of optimisation models, risk management and information-based strategic approaches.

Practical implications

The proposed conceptual research framework triggers and nurtures potential pathways to introduce sustainable PEoLB operations under sound information flow. This could create a basis for future empirical studies in filling the identified gaps in literature. The framework could also assist practitioners in mitigating risks associated with transportation, storing and contamination of salvaged materials through enhanced information flow. In addition, the framework provides some managerial guidance to organisations seeking ways of establishing sustainability during reverse logistics (RL) operations.

Originality/value

This paper presents an SLR of an emerging area of research that encapsulates closed-loop supply chain through sustainable RL operations. The study highlights the interrelationships between PEoLB concepts and operations. It develops a robust approach to effectively manage the PEoLB operations underpinned by a sound information flow to facilitate sustainability.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Frank Collins

Construction contractors and facility managers are being challenged to minimize the carbon footprint. Life cycle carbon‐equivalent (CO2‐e) accounting, whereby the…

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2341

Abstract

Purpose

Construction contractors and facility managers are being challenged to minimize the carbon footprint. Life cycle carbon‐equivalent (CO2‐e) accounting, whereby the potential emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy expenditure during construction and subsequent occupation of built infrastructure, generally ceases at the end of the service life. However, following demolition, recycling of demolition waste that becomes incorporated into 2nd generation construction is seldom considered within the management of the carbon footprint. This paper aims to focus on built concrete infrastructure, particularly the ability of recycled concrete to chemically react with airborne CO2, thereby significantly influencing CO2‐e estimates.

Design/methodology/approach

CO2‐e estimates were made in accordance with the methodology outlined in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors and were based on the energy expended for each life cycle activity from audited records. Offsets to the CO2‐e estimates were based on the documented ability of concrete to chemically react with airborne carbon dioxide (“carbonation”) and predictions of CO2 uptake by concrete and recycled concrete was made using existing predictive diffusion models. The author's study focused on a built concrete bridge which was demolished and recycled at the end of the service life, and the recycled concrete was utilized towards 2nd generation construction. The sensitivity of CO2‐e and carbonation estimates were tested on several different types of source demolition waste as well as subsequent construction applications using recycled concrete (RCA). Whole‐of‐life CO2‐e estimates, including carbonation of RCA over the 1st and 2nd generations, were estimated and contrasted with conventional carbon footprints that end at the conclusion of the 1st generation.

Findings

Following demolition, CO2 capture by RCA is significant due to the more permeable nature of the crushed RCA compared with the original built infrastructure. RCA also has considerably greater exposed surface area, relative to volume, than a built concrete structure, and therefore more highly exposed surface to react with CO2: it therefore carbonates more comprehensively. CO2‐e estimates can be offset by as much as 55‐65 per cent when including the contribution of carbonation of RCA built within 2nd generation infrastructure. Further offsets are achievable using blended fly ash or slag cement binders; however, this study has focused on concrete composed of 100 per cent OPC binders and the effects of RCA.

Originality/value

Construction project estimates of life cycle CO2‐e emissions should include 2nd generation applications that follow the demolition of the 1st generation infrastructure. Life cycle estimates generally end at the time of demolition. However, by incorporating the recycled concrete demolition waste into the construction of 2nd generation infrastructure, the estimated CO2‐e is significantly offset during the 2nd generation life cycle by chemical uptake of CO2 (carbonation). This paper provides an approach towards inclusion of 2nd generation construction applications into whole‐of‐life estimates of CO2‐e.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Zhenshuang Wang, Wanchen Xie and Jingkuang Liu

The growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in a significant increase in construction and demolition waste (CDW), and regional differences in CDW generation are…

Abstract

Purpose

The growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in a significant increase in construction and demolition waste (CDW), and regional differences in CDW generation are gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regional differences in CDW generation and the driving factors that influence CDW generation in different areas of China. To provide a systematic advisement for local governments to select the appropriate policy, reduce CDW generation.

Design/methodology/approach

The generation of CDW was calculated by region, based on the area estimation method, from 2005 to 2018. The relationship between CDW generation and economic development, and the driving factors of CDW generation in different regions of China, was investigated using the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model and the STIRPAT theoretical model.

Findings

CDW generation of China increased at the average annual growth rate of 10.86% from 2005 to 2018. The main areas of CDW generation were concentrated in the eastern and central regions, while the proportion of CDW generation in the northeast region decreased gradually, and the changes varied significantly across different regions. The EKC between CDW generation and economic development was established for the whole country, North China, Northeast China, East China, Central South China, Southwest China and Northwest China. Three main factors based on the STIRPAT theoretical model were identified and explained into a framework to reduce CDW generation. The results provided a useful theoretical basis and data support guide for devising effective policies and regulations for the Chinese context.

Practical implications

The findings from this study can ultimately support policymakers and waste managers in formulating effective policies for waste management strategies and CDW-specific legislation. Additionally, it can help the coordinated reduction of CDW generation across regions in China and can support construction enterprises (in their development strategies), similar developing economies and foreign firms planning to operate in China.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the field through the STIRPAT model on driving factors of CDW generation in the Chinese context, in different regions.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Nigel Lawson, Ian Douglas, Stephen Garvin, Clodagh McGrath, David Manning and Jonathan Vetterlein

In England and Wales, the construction industry produces 53.5 Mt of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) annually, of which 51 percent goes to landfill, 40…

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Abstract

In England and Wales, the construction industry produces 53.5 Mt of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) annually, of which 51 percent goes to landfill, 40 percent is used for land reclamation and only 9 percent is crushed for future use or directly recovered. C&D waste may be contaminated, either through spillage from industrial processes or contact with contaminated land. There are no guidelines on how to classify C&D waste as contaminated or on risk management for contaminated C&D waste. Research at the UK Building Research Establishment and the University of Manchester has shown that new taxes are making disposal of C&D waste to landfill uneconomic, that low grade “land‐modelling” recycling is increasing, and that disposal on‐site is preferred. Sampling spatially of structures before demolition and temporally of processed C&D waste emerging from crushers is enabling sources of contamination and exceedance of guideline values to be compared with natural background levels. Improved sampling procedures and recommendations for risk assessment for the re‐use of C&D waste are being prepared.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Bahareh Nikmehr, M. Reza Hosseini, Raufdeen Rameezdeen, Nicholas Chileshe, Parviz Ghoddousi and Mehrdad Arashpour

Factors influencing management of construction and demolition (C&D) waste within the Iranian context have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this paper is to define…

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1079

Abstract

Purpose

Factors influencing management of construction and demolition (C&D) waste within the Iranian context have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this paper is to define and address this knowledge gap, through development of a model to map the associations among the primary factors affecting C&D waste at project, industry and national levels.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model is developed based on synthesising the findings of available studies on factors affecting C&D waste with a focus on developing countries. For collecting data, the study drew upon a questionnaire survey of 103 Iranian construction practitioners. The strength and significance of associations among these factors to modify and validate the model were assessed using the structural equation modelling-partial least squares approach.

Findings

Major factors affecting C&D waste management and their level of importance were identified at project, industry and national levels. Results clearly showed that the government should review regulations pertaining to C&D waste management and make sure they are implemented properly. The “polluter pays principle” is a useful guide in devising effective policies and regulations for the Iranian context.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the field through presenting the first major study on C&D waste management in Iran. The study provides a picture of C&D waste management status quo in Iran and encapsulates the factors affecting C&D waste management in the Iranian context at different levels within an integrated model. The findings have practical implications for policy makers and construction practitioners in Iran, similar developing economies and foreign firms planning to operate in Iran.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Perry Forsythe and Alireza Ahmadian Fard Fini

The short life cycle replacement of fitout in modern high-rise office buildings represents an under-researched waste problem. This paper aims to quantify the amount of…

Abstract

Purpose

The short life cycle replacement of fitout in modern high-rise office buildings represents an under-researched waste problem. This paper aims to quantify the amount of demolition waste from office strip-out including attention to waste streams going to landfill, reuse and recycling.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative waste data (by weight) were measured from 23 office fitout projects situated in “A” grade office building stock from the Sydney CBD. Waste streams were measured separately for landfill, reuse and recycled materials. Descriptive and clustering statistics are presented and analysed.

Findings

From a total of 9,167 tonnes office fitouts demolished, 5,042 tonnes are going to landfill. The main contributor to landfill stream is the mixed waste generated in a fast-track demolition process. This approach partly resulted from the office interiors lacking regularity and easy disassembly. Moreover, considerable variability is observed in the waste per area, the waste streams and the waste compositions. Also, it is noteworthy that the recycled waste stream considerably increases when there exist economically viable conversion facilities, as for metals, hard fills and plasterboards.

Research limitations/implications

The research is focused upon work practices that take place in Australia; therefore, generalisability is limited to situations that have similar characteristics. Future studies are needed to verify and extend the findings of this research.

Practical implications

A key area arising from the research findings is the need to design fitout with recycling and reuse in mind to divert more from landfill. This must explore and incorporate onsite demolition processes to ensure the design is well suited to commercially dominant processes in the overall demolition process, as well as attention to developing economies of scale and viability in re-sale markets for reused items.

Originality/value

Little empirical or quantitative research exists in the area of office fitout waste. This research provides entry to this area via quantifiable data that enables comparison, benchmarking and diagnostic ability that can be used to underpin strategic solutions and measurement of improvements.

Details

Facilities, vol. 36 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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