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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Rajneesh Kumar and Suresh Verma

In the present scenario of high-speed machines, the use of non-circular hole-entry bearing configuration, i.e. two-lobe, multi-lobe, lemon bore, etc., has becomes…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present scenario of high-speed machines, the use of non-circular hole-entry bearing configuration, i.e. two-lobe, multi-lobe, lemon bore, etc., has becomes unavoidable, as the journal bearings with non-circular configurations provide better stability at high operating speed and heavy dynamic loading. Further, this research aims to show that the presence of micro particles in the lubricants greatly affects performance of the bearings, as their presence leads to non-Newtonian behaviors of the lubricant. Therefore, to consider the effect of these micro particles, the lubricant is modeled as a micropolar lubricant. The present work analyzes the effect of these micropolar lubricants on the performance of hole-entry circular and non-circular (two-lobe) hybrid journal bearings compensated with constant flow valve restrictor and compares with that of Newtonian lubricants.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified Reynolds equation governing the laminar flow of iso-viscous, incompressible micropolar lubricant in the clearance space of a journal bearing system has been solved using finite element method and appropriate boundary conditions. Further, a comparative analysis between circular and non-circular (two-lobe) hybrid journal bearing compensated with constant flow valve restrictor operating with Newtonian and micropolar lubricant has been presented.

Findings

The numerically simulated results reveal that the non-circular bearing configuration provides better performance vis-à-vis the circular bearing configuration. Further, the increase in the micropolar effect of the lubricant enhances the performance of circular and the non-circular bearing configurations compared with the Newtonian lubricant. Also, in the case of the non-circular bearing configuration with an offset factor (δ = 1.5), the bearing performance improved compared with (δ = 1.25).

Originality/value

Many research studies have been done in the area of non-circular hybrid journal bearing with Newtonian lubricants with different types of restrictors, but the non-circular hole-entry constant flow valve-compensated hybrid journal bearing operating with the micropolar lubricant has not been analyzed. Therefore, in the present work, an effort has been made to fill this research gap.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of…

Abstract

Purpose

The changing technological scenario necessitated hybrid journal bearings to operate under severe conditions of heavy load and high speed resulting into temperature rise of the lubricant fluid-film and bearing surface. To predict the performance of a bearing realistically, theoretical model must consider the combined influence of the rise of temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant. The aim of the present paper is to study the effect of viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on performance of constant flow valve compensated multiple hole-entry hybrid journal bearings.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method has been used to solve Reynolds equation along with restrictor flow equation, 3D energy equation and 3D conduction equation using suitable iterative technique. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow cubic shear stress law.

Findings

The thermohydrostatic rheological performances of symmetric and asymmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing configurations are studied. The computed results illustrate that variation of viscosity due to rise in temperature and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.

Originality/value

In the present work, the influences of the viscosity variation due to temperature rise and non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant on the performance characteristics of non-recessed hole-entry hybrid journal bearing with symmetric and asymmetric configurations compensated with constant flow valve restrictors have been investigated for generating the design data to be used by bearing designer. The design data computed in the present thesis are a contribution in field of knowledge of bearing design.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

H.C. Garg and Vijay Kumar

This paper aims to investigate the effect of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system operating with Newtonian and non‐Newtonian lubricants. The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor. The non‐Newtonian lubricant is assumed to follow the power law. The performance characteristics are computed for the two values of power law index (n=1.0 and 0.566). The computed results indicate that the blockage of holes during operation will not be the likely causes for the imminent failure of a well‐designed non‐recessed hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method has been used to solve generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor.

Findings

The computed results indicate that the blockage of holes during operation will not be the likely causes for the imminent failure of a well‐designed non‐recessed hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The bearing configuration with plugged holes provides sufficient fluid film thickness and low power requirement as less lubricant is required to be pumped in the bearing.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, no study which considers the influence of plugging of holes on the static performance characteristics of a constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing system operating with Newtonian and non‐Newtonian lubricant is yet available in the literature.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

H.C. Garg

This paper aims to describe the theoretical study concerning the effect of non‐linear behavior of the lubricant on the performance of symmetric constant flow valve

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the theoretical study concerning the effect of non‐linear behavior of the lubricant on the performance of symmetric constant flow valve compensated hole‐entry hybrid journal bearing. The bearing performance characteristics have been computed for various values of non‐linearity factor, land width ratio, aspect ratio and external load.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant having variable viscosity in the clearance space and equation of flow of lubricant through constant flow valve restrictor. The non‐Newtonian lubricant is assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law.

Findings

The study indicates that for generation of accurate bearing characteristics data, the inclusion of non‐linear effects of lubricant in the analysis is essential.

Originality/value

The performance characteristics in terms of minimum fluid‐film thickness, fluid‐film stiffness and damping coefficients, critical mass and threshold speed for a wide range of values of the non‐linearity factor and external load are presented. The results presented are expected to be quite useful to bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Shun-Te Hsiao, Yuan Kang, Shyh-Ming Jong, Hsing-Han Lee, De-Xing Peng and Yeon-Pun Chang

This paper aims to study the static characteristics of the hydrostatic conical journal bearings by utilizing single-action membrane restrictors to compensate the working…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the static characteristics of the hydrostatic conical journal bearings by utilizing single-action membrane restrictors to compensate the working pressures of recesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The flow resistance network method is used to analyze the influences of load capacity and static stiffness of bearing with the design parameters, including the number of recesses, radial eccentricity ratio, axial displacement ratio, restriction constant, membrane compliance, length-diameter ratio, circumferential land width ratio, axial land width ratio and half of cone angle.

Findings

This study shows the infinite stiffness of the oil produced in the first and second recesses while single-action membrane restriction constant of 2 and 3, respectively, as well as in the fourth recess while single-action membrane restriction constant of 0.01 and 0.1, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This article provides the hydrostatic conical bearings in static and unbiased states for analyses of design parameters. The analyses ignore dynamic pressure effect and do not use the Reynolds equation, and assuming that each oil recesses pressure is constant.

Practical implications

The influences of the design parameters including the number of recesses, membrane restriction, membrane compliance, length-diameter ratio, half of con-angle, circumferential land width ratio, and axial land width ratio are discussed to the load capacity and static stiffness of conical bearing.

Originality/value

Based on the characteristics of the conical bearing through analysis, this article suggests the front bearing with hard membrane restrictor (capillary) and the back bearing with soft membrane restrictor are the most appropriate for axial stiffness.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Pankaj Khatak and H.C. Garg

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid journal bearing have long been used in machines requiring large load and high speed capacity operating under wide range of temperatures. Different compensating devices are used in for efficient operation of bearings. This paper aims to help in selection of optimum compensating device by evaluating the comparative performance of constant flow valve, capillary compensated and slot entry hybrid journal bearing under the combined influence of thermal effects and micropolar nature of lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The variation in micropolar parameters and viscosity change due to temperature increase of lubricant are considered in present study. Finite element method is used for combined iterative solution of micropolar Reynolds, energy and conduction equations. Micropolar lubricant is assumed to be governed by two parameters, coupling number and characteristic length. The results in the study are presented for symmetric and asymmetric configurations of hole entry and slot entry non-recessed hybrid journal bearings

Findings

The results indicate that constant flow valve compensated hole entry hybrid journal bearing is the highest performing bearing for the given range of micropolar parameters of lubricant in terms of maximum fluid pressure and dynamic coefficients.

Originality/value

The performance variations of various configurations of hybrid journal bearing are presented in a single paper. The reader can get overview of combined effects of micropolar parameters and viscosity decrease due to temperature increase of the lubricant.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Satish C. Sharma, Vikas M. Phalle and S.C. Jain

Noncircular journal bearings are used in industry because of their simplicity, efficiency and low cost. During the life time of a machine, these are required to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Noncircular journal bearings are used in industry because of their simplicity, efficiency and low cost. During the life time of a machine, these are required to be operated over a number of years and are submitted to several stops and starts. As a result, the bush becomes progressively worn out and the bearing performance changes. The purpose of this paper is to study theoretically the influence of wear on the performance of a non‐circular 2‐lobe four‐pocket multirecess hybrid journal bearing system.

Design/methodology/approach

The Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space of a non‐circular 2‐lobe multirecess worn hybrid journal bearing system has been solved using FEM along with appropriate boundary conditions. The defects caused by wear are centered on the load line and range from 10 per cent to 50 per cent of the bearing radial clearance.

Findings

The numerically simulated results based on a Newtonian lubricant and the steady state flow field system have been presented in terms of maximum fluid film pressure, minimum fluid film thickness, lubricant flow rate, direct fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients and stability threshold speed margin. The paper demonstrates that, for the bearing configurations studied, the bearing behavior is clearly affected by wear. The numerically simulated results indicate that for an offset factor of δ=1.2, the value of min reduces by 21.21 per cent at δ¯w=0.5.

Originality/value

The presented results have valuable data in case of 2‐lobe four pocket hybrid journal bearing compensated with constant flow valve restrictor. The paper outcomes are sure to be of interest for researchers and useful for bearing designers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Suat Canbazoğlu and Fazıl Canbulut

The main objective of this study was to obtain the flow restricting capacity by determining their flow coefficients and to investigate the unsteady flow with low Reynolds…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this study was to obtain the flow restricting capacity by determining their flow coefficients and to investigate the unsteady flow with low Reynolds number in the flow‐restricting devices such as orifices and capillary tubes having small diameters.

Design/methodology/approach

There is an enormous literature on the flow of Newtonian fluids through capillaries and orifices particularly in many application fields of the mechanical and chemical engineering. But most of the experimental results in literature are given for steady flows at moderate and high Reynolds numbers (Re>500). In this study, the unsteady flow at low Reynolds number (10<Re<650) through flow‐restricting devices such as orifices and capillary tubes having very small diameters between 0.35 and 0.70 mm were experimentally investigated.

Findings

The capillary tubes have much more capillarity property with respect to equal diameter orifices. Increasing the ratio of capillary tube length to tube diameter and decreasing the ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter before orifice increase the throttling or restricting property of the orifices and the capillary tubes. The orifices can be preferred to the capillary tubes having the same diameter at the same system pressure for the hydraulic systems or circuits requiring small velocity variations. The capillary tubes provide higher pressure losses and they can be also used as hydraulic accumulators in hydraulic control devices to attenuate flow‐induced vibrations because of their large pressure coefficients. An important feature of the results obtained for capillary tubes and small orifices is that as the d/D for orifices increases and the L/d reduces for capillary tubes, higher values C are obtained and the transition from viscous to inertia‐controlled flow appears to take place at lower Reynolds numbers. This may be explained by the fact that for small orifices with high d/D ratios and for capillary tubes with small L/d ratios, the losses due to viscous shear are small. Another important feature of the results is that the least variations in C for small orifices and the higher variations in C for capillary tubes occur when the d/D and L/d ratios are smallest. This has favourable implications in hydraulic control devices since a constant value for the C may be assumed even at relatively low values of Re.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, there is not enough information in the literature about the flow coefficients of unsteady flows through capillary tubes and small orifices at low Reynolds numbers. This paper fulfils this gap.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

R.K. Duvedi, Manpreet Singh and V.K. Jadon

The present work aims to predict accurately the bearing design data for non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant…

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims to predict accurately the bearing design data for non‐recessed hybrid journal bearings, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant for different symmetric and non‐symmetric bearing geometric configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

The simultaneous solution of generalized Reynold's equation governing the laminar flow of incompressible lubricant and the equation of flow of lubricant through the capillary restrictor, considering variable viscosity of lubricant following the “Power law”, has been carried out using FEM. For a given set of bearing geometric, operating parameters and for given external vertical load, the values of various performance characteristics have been obtained for a range of values of power law index, after establishing the journal center equilibrium position, the analysis for which has been elaborately explained.

Findings

The results obtained have been presented graphically for various bearing performance characteristics. It has been observed that with decrease in power law index “n”(0<n≤1), the value of min  and load carrying capacity decreases, while bearing flow rate increases for all configuration. The load‐carrying capacity of asymmetric configurations is better and stable over entire range of restrictor design parameter. Bearing configuration with land width ratio = 0.25 and aspect ratio = 1.0, having two rows of holes and six holes in each row, will be better suited for high‐load support, as it has maximum value of minimum fluid film thickness, moderate value of bearing flow and value of attitude angle is almost constant.

Originality/value

The performance characteristics of journal bearing have been presented for a wide range of values of power law index and for different values of restrictor design parameter for capillary restrictor, after establishing the journal center equilibrium position. The comparison of the different symmetric and non‐symmetric journal‐bearing configurations to find the best geometric configuration at different operating conditions, considering the effect of non‐Newtonian behavior of lubricant, represents the originality of the work.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Prashant G. Khakse and Vikas M. Phalle

This paper aims to describe how successfully a particular restrictor delivers its best in increasing the conical journal bearing performance. The restrictors are used in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe how successfully a particular restrictor delivers its best in increasing the conical journal bearing performance. The restrictors are used in the hole-entry conical journal bearing subjected to hybrid mode. Thus, the restrictors, like constant flow valve (CFV), orifice and capillary, are studied comparatively.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation for the bearing results with the three restrictors are obtained by using finite element method (FEM) under the well-known modified Reynolds equation.

Findings

When the hole-entry conical journal bearings, with the restrictor design parameter range C¯s2 = 0.03 – 0.09, are operated, the results obtained are quite distinctive and significant. It indicates that the CFV restrictor-based conical bearing gives enhanced performance in comparison to orifice and capillary restrictors. Moreover, it suggests the performance-wise sequence of the restrictors in hybrid bearings as CFV > Orifice > Capillary.

Originality/value

The outcome of the research paper will give insight to help the bearing designer to choose the particular restrictor in hybrid conical bearing depending on the industrial need.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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