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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Bojan Obrenovic, Jianguo Du, Danijela Godinić and Diana Tsoy

This study aims to examine psychological mechanisms underlying tacit knowledge-sharing behaviours. The personality trait of conscientiousness is tested in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine psychological mechanisms underlying tacit knowledge-sharing behaviours. The personality trait of conscientiousness is tested in relation to knowledge sharing, and the effect of eagerness and subjective norm on the intention to share is measured in the context of local and multinational knowledge-intensive enterprises in Croatia.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative study was conducted on a sample of 288 employees of small and medium-sized companies working on knowledge-intensive tasks. The purposive sampling technique and a survey strategy were used in the study. Organizational affiliation, as it was presumed that these individuals possess a higher degree of tacit knowledge. The data collection was conducted in October 2019. Respondents worked in science and technology companies in Croatia on assignments involving information technology, electronics, petrochemicals, medicine and biochemistry. Statistical product and service solutions analysis of a moment structures software was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings suggest that the personality trait of conscientiousness has a positive impact on tacit knowledge sharing behaviour. An attitude of eagerness and subjective norm were also confirmed as predictors of tacit knowledge sharing behaviour. Furthermore, conscientiousness influences the eagerness to share knowledge. A significant association between subjective norm and conscientiousness was also established. Finally, the mediating effects were identified, indicating that subjective norm and eagerness mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and tacit knowledge sharing.

Practical implications

Explaining the relationship between personality and attitude in the context of knowledge sharing will result in a better understanding of factors that should be nurtured within individuals. Accordingly, distinct management initiatives are to be developed to suit these factors. Furthermore, to intensify the knowledge exchange when working on knowledge-intensive tasks of significant economic value, organizations tailor a more particularistic application to suit the individual in the domain of leadership, staffing decisions, work organization and incentive systems.

Originality/value

This study provides an in-depth analysis and theoretical understanding of factors salient for knowledge-sharing behaviour. The authors provide an overview of how knowledge sharing evolves during social interaction through intensive problem-solving sessions and teamwork. The authors render the explanation on how the personality trait of conscientiousness, conjoint with the attitude of eagerness to share know-how in the expert surrounding, is conducive to the generation of tacit knowledge sharing. Underpinning this study are employees’ psychological motives and internal drives to communicate individual cognitive capital outweighing the potential negative consequences, such as losing the competitive advantage over the colleagues.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jessica L. Doll and Patrick J. Rosopa

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether employee attitudes, prior engagement in workplace romances, conscientiousness, and organizational policies…

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2476

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether employee attitudes, prior engagement in workplace romances, conscientiousness, and organizational policies predicted the willingness to engage in workplace romances.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 148 full-time employees completed an online survey measuring antecedents of workplace romances. Participants were also randomly assigned to read vignettes that varied the strictness of organizational workplace romance policies. Then, participants completed measures of their willingness to engage in a workplace romance.

Findings

Favorable attitudes about, and prior engagement in, workplace romances were positively related to the willingness to engage in a workplace romance. Prior engagement in workplace romances and conscientiousness were both related to attitudes about workplace romances. Additionally, the interaction between conscientiousness and organizational workplace romance policies significantly predicted the willingness to engage in a workplace romance.

Research limitations/implications

The current study used hypothetical scenarios and a convenience sample to collect data, which may affect the study’s external validity.

Practical implications

Organizations grappling with the issue of workplace romances should consider how employee characteristics may interact with policies regulating workplace romances.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the links between both prior engagement in workplace romances and personality variables (i.e. conscientiousness) and their relation to the willingness to engage in workplace romances. In addition, this is the first experimental study to examine the interaction between personality (i.e. conscientiousness) and organizational policy in predicting the willingness to engage workplace romances.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Rikki Abzug

The purpose of this paper is to use data available through the hybrid (blended online and face to face) learning environment to explore both a direct behavioral measure of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use data available through the hybrid (blended online and face to face) learning environment to explore both a direct behavioral measure of conscientiousness and gender in predicting hybrid classroom performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Variables measuring both student conscientious behavior, in the hybrid classroom, and gender were examined to determine their relationship to student final grades (i.e. success) in hybrid undergraduate business ethics courses.

Findings

The author finds that: first, conscientiousness continues to be a solid predictor of academic success; second, gender continues to be an insignificant predictor of success in the online/hybrid environment; third, using direct behavioral measures of conscientiousness yields results consistent with prior research that linked inventory-based conscientiousness levels to academic performance; and finally, the archiving and data-collection functions of the hybrid classroom represent a rich trove of behavioral data that may be mined for clues to predict student academic success.

Research limitations/implications

As the research is based on data from six hybrid business ethics classrooms at one institution, future research could be extended to different classrooms and different institutions compared across nations. Research implications include highlighting the potential value of using direct measures of conscientiousness to predict performance.

Practical implications

The study sheds light on the tremendous possibilities for conducting applied research on educational performance outcomes using the rich data inherent in the hybrid learning environment. The author has suggested numerous ways to mine the data from the online portion of the hybrid classroom to explore antecedents of academic success. The author suggests that the hybrid classroom can provide data to act as an early warning system for educators to identify struggling students.

Originality/value

The paper builds upon an exploratory study of the use of direct behavioral (rather than inventory self-report) measures of personality in research on educational outcomes as well as introducing avenues for original research on learning behavior based on data afforded by the hybrid educational environment.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Yang Fu and Zhang Lihua

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and organizational justice (distributive…

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1406

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactive justice), and to test the moderating effect of conscientiousness.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted to measure study variables. Data were obtained utilizing a field survey from a sample of 520 professional managers working in two industries (manufacturing industry and service industry) in China. Confirmatory factor analysis and moderated hierarchical analysis were used to test hitherto untested hypotheses.

Findings

As the result showed, controlling the effect of control variables (age, tenure, education and position), organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactive justice) had a positive effect on POS in the service sample; meanwhile, the interaction effect between distributive justice and conscientiousness has been shown to be significant in both the manufacturing and service samples.

Research limitations/implications

The results have obvious implications for organizational justice and POS in organizations. However, the results are to be viewed in the light of common method variance and same source bias.

Practical implications

The paper sheds light on the potential effects of conscientiousness, which strengthens the positive relationship between organizational justice and POS. Given the importance of conscientiousness, it may be worthwhile for leaders to stimulate managers' conscientiousness.

Originality/value

The paper examines how conscientiousness moderates the relationship between organizational justice and POS in both the manufacturing and service samples. It should be useful to academics and managers who want to understand the importance of conscientiousness.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Robin A. Cheramie and Marcia J. Simmering

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of situational factors in improving learning for trainees with low conscientiousness.

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2402

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of situational factors in improving learning for trainees with low conscientiousness.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 117 employees completed a survey questionnaire in the context of a training intervention. Perceptions of conscientiousness, legitimacy, and accountability were used to predict employee learning in a training context. Moderated multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results support interactions of conscientiousness and perceived accountability to predict learning such that learners who are low in conscientiousness showed higher levels of learning when perceived accountability was considered strong than when perceived accountability was considered weak. There was no support for the proposed interaction of conscientiousness and perceived legitimacy to predict learning.

Practical implications

Results support the view that organizations should implement formal controls to increase perceived accountability and improve learning. Trainees with low conscientiousness had higher levels of learning in situations with strong accountability perceptions.

Originality/value

The study is one of the few to evaluate perceived accountability in a field study, whereas most previous research has evaluated this concept in lab experiments. Therefore, the findings support the wide range of perceived accountability that exists in most organizations. The results imply the need for more accountability controls within an organization to increase learning in a training context.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Ricardo Mateo, Jose Roberto Hernández, Carmen Jaca and Szabolcs Blazsek

– The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between accuracy and conscientiousness among people working in a tidy/messy work environment.

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2258

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between accuracy and conscientiousness among people working in a tidy/messy work environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment was conducted, where participants performing a simple task in a highly controlled environment were sorted into two different treatments, a tidy or a messy work environment.

Findings

The results of this study suggest that conscientious people commit more errors in a messy environment than in a tidy environment. Therefore, one of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is that a messy environment could be detrimental to the accuracy of conscientious people.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in several respects. First of all, the sample is not large, with 80 participants; some variables, such us IQ levels, fatigue levels, caffeine consumption, etc. were not controlled for. Third, the task was restricted to inputting data into a computer.

Practical implications

Taken together, these findings suggest the need to promote excellence in work environment tidiness, because highly conscientious employees will work with greater accuracy, while the less conscientious will not be affected. Therefore, overall, accuracy will be better. Consequently, the managers of the organization should be committed to defining policies about high standards of tidiness in the workplace environment.

Originality/value

This is the first study to provide evidence of the moderation of the tidy/messy work environment in the relationship between conscientiousness and human accuracy. The present study sheds light on the impact of messy work environment on accuracy of high conscientious people, inducing them to work in a defective way.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 51 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Jin Li, Kuo‐Ting Hung and Chanchai Tangpong

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the main effects of agent conscientiousness and reciprocity norm and the interaction effect of these two factors on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the main effects of agent conscientiousness and reciprocity norm and the interaction effect of these two factors on layoff decisions in firm‐employee relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A scenario‐based experiment with 331 business professionals was conducted and three regression models were run to test three hypotheses proposed in the paper.

Findings

The norm of reciprocity reduces decision‐making agents' tendency to lay off employees in the face of an environmental change. In addition, the norm of reciprocity interacts with decision‐making agents' conscientiousness in influencing their layoff decision.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study are the use of single‐agent decision scenario and the specific focus on one aspect of agent personality – conscientiousness and its collective influence on layoff decisions. In a broader picture, the results of this study support the cross‐level analytical approach to investigating organizational phenomena, in which individual‐level and organizational‐level factors interact and determine organizational outcomes.

Practical implications

Recruiting and promoting managers who exhibit high levels of conscientiousness, coupled with proactively cultivating the norm of reciprocity with employees, are critical to a firm's thrust in attaining and sustaining stakeholder management practices with the emphasis on employees' well‐being.

Originality/value

While the extant literature focuses largely on the effects of layoff and the individual perceptions of downsizing and layoff, this paper examines what actually influences decision‐making agents' layoff decisions. The paper expands the literature by investigating the impacts of agent conscientiousness and reciprocity norm on layoff decisions.

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Wahyono, Dorojatun Prihandono and Andhi Wijayanto

This study examines the influence of spiritual leadership toward spirituality, conscientiousness, job satisfaction and reduction of deviant behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the influence of spiritual leadership toward spirituality, conscientiousness, job satisfaction and reduction of deviant behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The method of data analysis used is a structural model based on WarpPLS (Solimun et al., 2017), with the first-order factor analysis based on variables with reflective indicators.

Findings

The research findings indicate that the sustainability of workplace spirituality and conscientiousness can stimulate the employees' job satisfaction, which eventually leads to the reduction of workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Accordingly, the direct influence of workplace spirituality on WDB is quite major ( 0.296), this indicates the importance of workplace spirituality for employees in working so that it can reduce the WDB. Conscientiousness had a negative influence on WDB. However, the interesting part about this study is the indirect influence of workplace spirituality on WDB through job satisfaction, which also has a major value ( 0.208) and almost equal to the direct influence. This circumstance depicts how workplace spirituality influences WDB as well as the importance of the improvement of employees' job satisfaction.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is primarily placed on the causal relationship between the variables of spiritual leadership and WDB; other than the direct influence, there is also an indirect influence that has a big value, which is the path of spiritual leadership toward WDB through workplace spirituality (−0.248). In other words, WDB is not only influenced directly by spiritual leadership but also by workplace spirituality.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Kathryn Ostermeier, Mark Davis and Robert Pavur

The purpose of this study is to examine the facilitating and inhibiting influence of team-level negative affectivity and conscientiousness on a dyad of emergent states…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the facilitating and inhibiting influence of team-level negative affectivity and conscientiousness on a dyad of emergent states, adopting and comparing both the composition and compilation perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected over three time points from 410 undergraduate students nested within cross-functional project teams (N = 62). The data, including individual self-reports and judges’ ratings of team performance, were aggregated to the team-level using both composition (mean) and compilation (skewness) approaches.

Findings

The findings indicate that mean-levels of negative affectivity were associated with decreased psychological safety. The use of skewed conscientiousness counterintuitively suggests too many highly conscientious members can also be detrimental to psychological safety. Psychological safety influences team potency and ultimately performance.

Originality/value

The results of this study highlight that the aggregation approach used is important. For example, the use of skewed (but not mean-level) conscientiousness brought an undetected and counterintuitive relationship to light. Future research should use compilation approaches in addition to composition approaches.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2010

Guangrong Dai, Kyunghee Han, Huiqin Hu and Stephen M. Colarelli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the measurement invariance of the Chinese version NEO PI‐R conscientiousness scale.

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1463

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the measurement invariance of the Chinese version NEO PI‐R conscientiousness scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, it was predicted that certain items might exhibit culture‐related differential item functioning (DIF). The partial credit Rasch model was used to analyze the item responses. The authors also examined the impact of DIF on the measurement invariance of the overall conscientiousness scale using differential test functioning statistics.

Findings

Most of the predicted culture‐related DIF were supported. Although the results suggested a substantial proportion of items showing DIF, the conscientiousness scale functioned consistently across the two cultures under study, suggesting that observed group mean scores can be compared directly.

Research limitations/implications

The authors demonstrate that an understanding of the culture differences may help when translating instrument across cultures to anticipate potential threats to measurement invariance. The current study employed student samples. Results of the study need to be replicated using diverse populations.

Practical implications

Assessment and selection instruments have been increasingly used across nations for HRM purposes. Organizations intending to establish global talent management systems need to evaluate and ensure the cross‐cultural equivalence of the assessment. Findings from the current study support the adoption of the translated conscientiousness scale in China.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few in the literature that examines the measurement invariance using a confirmatory approach.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

Keywords

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