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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2022

Achraf Ghorbel, Sahar Loukil and Walid Bahloul

This paper analyzes the connectedness with network among the major cryptocurrencies, the G7 stock indexes and the gold price over the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes the connectedness with network among the major cryptocurrencies, the G7 stock indexes and the gold price over the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period, in 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a multivariate approach proposed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012 and 2014).

Findings

For a stock index portfolio, the results of static connectedness showed a higher independence between the stock markets during the COVID-19 crisis. It is worth noting that in general, cryptocurrencies are diversifiers for a stock index portfolio, which enable to reduce volatility especially in the crisis period. Dynamic connectedness results do not significantly differ from those of the static connectedness, the authors just mention that the Bitcoin Gold becomes a net receiver. The scope of connectedness was maintained after the shock for most of the cryptocurrencies, except for the Dash and the Bitcoin Gold, which joined a previous level. In fact, the Bitcoin has always been the biggest net transmitter of volatility connectedness or spillovers during the crisis period. Maker is the biggest net-receiver of volatility from the global system. As for gold, the authors notice that it has remained a net receiver with a significant increase in the network reception during the crisis period, which confirms its safe haven.

Originality/value

Overall, the authors conclude that connectedness is shown to be conditional on the extent of economic and financial uncertainties marked by the propagation of the coronavirus while the Bitcoin Gold and Litecoin are the least receivers, leading to the conclusion that they can be diversifiers.

研究目的

本文分析於2020年2019冠狀病毒病肆虐期間、主要的加密貨幣、七國集團 (G7) 股價指數與黃金價格三者之間在網絡上的連通性。

研究設計/方法/理念

分析使用迪博爾德和耶爾馬茲 (Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012, 2014)) 提出的多變量分析法。

研究結果

就一個股票指數投資組合而言,靜態連結的結果顯示、在2019冠狀病毒病肆虐期間,股票市場之間有更高的獨立性。值得我們注意的是:一般來說,加密貨幣在股票指數投資組合起著多元化投資作用,這可減低不穩定性,尤其是在危機時期。動態連結的結果與靜態連結的結果沒有顯著的分別。我們剛提到、比特幣黃金已成為純接收者。除了處於先前水平的達世幣和比特幣黃金外,就大部分的加密貨幣而言,連通的範圍在衝擊後都得以維持。事實上,在這危機時期,比特幣一直是波動性連結或溢出的最大淨傳播者。掛單者 (Maker) 是從全球系統中出現的最大波動淨接收者。至於黃金,我們注意到在危機時期、它仍然是在網絡接收方面擁有顯著增長的淨接收者,這確認其為安全的避難所。

研究的原創性/價值

總的來說,我們的結論是:連通性被確認為取決於標誌著受廣泛傳播的冠狀病毒影響下的經濟和金融欠缺穩定的程度,而比特幣黃金和萊特幣則是最小的接收者,這帶出一個結論、就是:比特幣黃金和萊特幣、可以成為多元化投資項目。

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Sitara Karim and Muhammad Abubakr Naeem

This study aims to examine the connectedness among green, Islamic and conventional financial markets from December 2008 to May 2021. Moreover, the impact of global factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the connectedness among green, Islamic and conventional financial markets from December 2008 to May 2021. Moreover, the impact of global factors on the connectedness of given financial markets is also observed.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first employed the time-varying parameter vector autoregressions (TVP-VAR) technique to explore the connectedness of markets. Second, This study utilized the wavelet coherence analysis to test the time-frequency impact of global factors in terms of implied volatilities of stock, oil, gold, currency and bond on the connectedness across financial markets.

Findings

This study finds Islamic stocks, sustainability index and S&P500 composite index are the net transmitters, whereas Sukuk, commodity index, bond market, clean energy and green bonds are the net recipient of spillovers. Time-varying features of green, Islamic and conventional financial markets are evident in system-wide connectedness. This study further evidenced that global factors drive the connectedness of financial markets, particularly during stressful times.

Practical implications

The findings of this study furnish significant implications for policymakers, regulatory authorities, investors, financial market participants and portfolio managers in terms of carefully assessing the unique characteristics offered by each financial market in terms of risk mitigation and diversifying the portfolios.

Originality/value

Using a portfolio of green, Islamic and conventional financial markets, the uniqueness of this study lies in the examination of the connectedness of these markets by deploying the TVP-VAR technique. In addition, wavelet analysis offers a significant contribution in terms of global factors driving the connectedness of green, Islamic and conventional markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Yann Verhellen, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Nathalie Dens

This study aims to explain how program liking, program connectedness, and product category involvement influence brand attitudes as a result of advertiser funded programming.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain how program liking, program connectedness, and product category involvement influence brand attitudes as a result of advertiser funded programming.

Methodology/approach

We conduct a field study on a panel of real television viewers that were surveyed one week after the final episode of an advertiser funded fashion program was broadcasted. A moderated mediation model is constructed and tested that captures the interplay of three determinants of brand attitudes: program liking, product category involvement, and program connectedness.

Findings

Liking of the program is transferred to brand attitudes. This effect is complementarily mediated by connectedness with the program, and this mediation is moderated by product category involvement. Program liking only spills over to brand attitude through connectedness for viewers with moderate to high levels of involvement with the sponsor product category.

Research implications

The findings add to the understanding of the role of program liking and program connectedness in the formation of brand attitudes. Although prior research has established that liking and connectedness are indeed an important determinant of brand attitudes, this research unveils product category involvement as an important boundary condition for this effect.

Practical implications

Consumers can develop liking for even an advanced form of brand placement, an Advertiser Funded Program (AFP). When consumers’ evaluations of the program are positive, they connect to the program on a personal basis, also leading to positive brand effects. Advertising practitioners should focus on the meaningful integration of their brand in a context that is involving for their target audience.

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Aristeidis Samitas, Spyros Papathanasiou and Drosos Koutsokostas

The purpose of this paper is to examine the connectedness across a variety of Sukuk and conventional bond indices and the implications for optimal asset allocation for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the connectedness across a variety of Sukuk and conventional bond indices and the implications for optimal asset allocation for the period January 1, 2010–April 30, 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set consists of five major Sukuk (Dow Jones Sukuk, Thompson Reuters BPA Malaysia Sukuk, Indonesia Government Sukuk, S&P MENA Sukuk and Tadawul Sukuk and Bonds Index) and five conventional bond indexes, one for developed (USA) and four for emerging markets (Malaysia, Indonesia, Africa and Qatar). This study investigates the connectedness and volatility spillover effects across the aforementioned indices, by following the Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) approach, based on the time-varying parameter vector autoregressive (TVP-VAR) model. In addition, this paper provides optimal hedge ratios and portfolio weights for investors.

Findings

The empirical results show that Sukuk and conventional bond markets are highly integrated and that total connectedness exhibits sensitivity to exogenous shocks. The Dow Jones and the Malaysian Sukuk indices are the primary shock transmitters to other markets. However, the weak volatility spillovers between the Dow Jones and conventional bonds suggest that opportunities for optimal asset allocation may in fact exist. The highest (lowest) hedging effectiveness can be achieved by taking a short position in Malaysian (Qatarian) bonds.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the largest sample taken into account to investigate the connectedness between Sukuk and conventional bonds.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Mario Fernando, Shahriar Akter and Ruwan J. Bandara

How employees connect with their work organisation and how it may play a role in their moral courage and ethical behaviour remain under-explored. This study, using…

Abstract

Purpose

How employees connect with their work organisation and how it may play a role in their moral courage and ethical behaviour remain under-explored. This study, using Psychological Contract Theory, aims to explore how employee–organisation connectedness influences employees' moral courage and ethical behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) on data collected through a questionnaire survey from 212 Australian healthcare professionals.

Findings

Employee connectedness with their work organisations showed a significant and direct impact on ethical behaviour. Along with moral courage, connectedness explained over half of the variance in ethical behaviour. Furthermore, moral courage partially mediated the effect of employee connectedness on ethical behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The overall theoretical implication of this study is that psychological contracts between employees and their organisations operationalised through employee–organisation connectedness can explain the role of moral courage in ethical behaviour.

Practical implications

With increasing borderless management of organisations, organisational connectedness can be a critical factor in developing employees' moral courage and ethical behaviour within organisations. Socialisation interventions can be useful to promote employee–organisation connectedness.

Originality/value

The study developed a higher-order connectedness model and validated it with PLS-SEM. The study provides novel empirical evidence on the relationships between employee–organisation connectedness, moral courage and ethical behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Anthony Amoah and Benjamin Amoah

Lockdowns are generally characterised by financial depletion, loneliness, stress, depression, loss of jobs and businesses, among others. The effect of the recent lockdown…

Abstract

Purpose

Lockdowns are generally characterised by financial depletion, loneliness, stress, depression, loss of jobs and businesses, among others. The effect of the recent lockdown in Ghana as a result of COVID-19 pandemic has not been different. The primary question this study seeks to answer is: are lockdowns only characterised by negativity, or could there be a positive side that has not yet been harnessed?

Design/methodology/approach

To answer this question, the authors rely on a dataset of 879 observations obtained through an online survey administered from 25 April to 3 May 2020. Using a regression approach, the authors applied an ordered probit econometric technique with its associated predicted margins.

Findings

The authors show evidence that in the midst of the negativity surrounding the lockdown, social connectedness is evident, especially in relatively less busy cities. The authors recommend that instead of losing oneself through social isolation and loneliness during lockdowns, people should use lockdowns as an opportunity to build and exhibit social capital and harness the opportunities associated with it. The authors also recommend that during lockdowns, channels of social connectedness should be made easily accessible and cheaper through a well-targeted government subsidy programme for the poor.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is a novel study that provides the first empirical evidence on the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and social connectedness.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Onur Polat and Eylül Kabakçı Günay

The purpose of this study is to investigate volatility connectedness between major cryptocurrencies by the virtue of market capitalization. In this context, this paper…

356

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate volatility connectedness between major cryptocurrencies by the virtue of market capitalization. In this context, this paper implements the frequency connectedness approach of Barunik and Krehlik (2018) and to measure short-, medium- and long-term connectedness between realized volatilities of cryptocurrencies. Additionally, this paper analyzes network graphs of directional TO/FROM spillovers before and after the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, we examine the volatility connectedness among eight major cryptocurrencies by the virtue of market capitalization by using the frequency connectedness approach over the period July 26, 2017 and October 28, 2020. To this end, this paper computes short-, medium- and long-cycle overall spillover indexes on different frequency bands. All indexes properly capture well-known events such as the 2018 cryptocurrency market crash and COVID-19 pandemic and markedly surge around these incidents. Furthermore, owing to notably increased volatilities after the official announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper concentrates on network connectedness of volatility spillovers for two distinct periods, July 26, 2017–March 10, 2020 and March 11, 2020–October 28, 2020, respectively. In line with the related studies, major cryptocurrencies stand at the epicenter of the connectedness network and directional volatility spillovers dramatically intensify based on the network analysis.

Findings

Overall spillover indexes have fluctuated between 54% and 92% in May 2018 and April 2020. The indexes gradually escalated till November 9, 2018 and surpassed their average values (71.92%, 73.66% and 74.23%, respectively). Overall spillover indexes dramatically plummeted till January 2019 and reached their troughs (54.04%, 57.81% and 57.81%, respectively). Etherium catalyst the highest sum of volatility spillovers to other cryptocurrencies (94.2%) and is followed by Litecoin (79.8%) and Bitcoin (76.4%) before the COVID-19 announcement, whereas Litecoin becomes the largest transmitter of total volatility (89.5%) and followed by Bitcoin (89.3%) and Etherium (88.9%). Except for Etherium, the magnitudes of total volatility spillovers from each cryptocurrency notably increase after – COVID-19 announcement period. The medium-cycle network topology of pairwise spillovers indicates that the largest transmitter of total volatility spillover is Litecoin (89.5%) and followed by Bitcoin (89.3%) and Etherium (88.9%) before the COVID-19 announcement. Etherium keeps its leading role of transmitting the highest sum of volatility spillovers (89.4%), followed by Bitcoin (88.9%) and Litecoin (88.2%) after the COVID-19 announcement. The largest transmitter of total volatility spillovers is Etherium (95.7%), followed by Litecoin (81.2%) and Binance Coin (75.5%) for the long-cycle connectedness network in the before-COVID-19 announcement period. These nodes keep their leading roles in propagating volatility spillover in the latter period with the following sum of spillovers (Etherium-89.5%, Bitcoin-88.9% and Litecoin-88.1%, respectively).

Research limitations/implications

The study can be extended by including more cryptocurrencies and high-frequency data.

Originality/value

The study is original and contributes to the extant literature threefold. First, this paper identifies connectedness between major cryptocurrencies on different frequency bands by using a novel methodology. Second, this paper estimates volatility connectedness between major cryptocurrencies before and after the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic and thereby to concentrate on its impact on the cryptocurrency market. Third, this paper plots network graphs of volatility connectedness and herewith picture the intensification of cryptocurrencies due to a major financial distress event.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Fiona Rowe, Donald Stewart and Carla Patterson

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health‐promoting school approach, to the…

5338

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health‐promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider community.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐disciplinary review of literature was conducted to identify strategies consistent with the health‐promoting school approach and the values and principles that promote school connectedness. The review included peer‐reviewed articles and published books and reports identified from the databases spanning the education, health, social science and science disciplines and used search terms encompassing health and mental health promotion, schools, social connectedness, belonging and attachment. The paper is also a framework of the contribution of the health‐promoting school approach to promoting school connectedness and was developed drawing on health promotion strategies at the broader community level known to foster connectedness.

Findings

The paper found that the framework developed illustrates how the health‐promoting school approach has the potential to build school connectedness through two major mechanisms: inclusive processes that involve the diversity of members that make up a community; the active participation of community members and equal “power” relationships, or equal partnerships among community members; and supportive structures such as school policies, the way the school is organised and its physical environment, that reflect the values of participation, democracy and inclusiveness and/or that promote processes based on these values.

Practical implications

In this paper the detailed mechanisms outlined in the framework provide practical strategies for health promotion practitioners and educators to use in the everyday school setting to promote school connectedness.

Originality/value

This paper draws together substantial bodies of evidence and makes a persuasive case for the contribution of the health‐promoting school approach to building school connectedness.

Details

Health Education, vol. 107 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2007

Sonja Rispens, Lindred L. Greer and Karen A. Jehn

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a model of group processes (e.g. conflict), emergent states (e.g. trust), and group context (e.g. connectedness) to…

2471

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a model of group processes (e.g. conflict), emergent states (e.g. trust), and group context (e.g. connectedness) to better understand the mechanisms that underlie the traditionally negative effects of conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 27 workgroups of a Dutch telecommunications company participated in a survey. To assess trust as a mediator between conflict and performance bootstrapping analysis was used. In addition, the moderating role of the three connectedness types was investigated with hierarchical regressions.

Findings

The results suggest that trust partially mediates the effect of task conflict and fully mediates the effect of relationship conflict on performance. Furthermore, trust is less affected by task conflict when group members are highly cognitively connected and less affected by relationship conflict when group members are highly task connected.

Research limitations/implications

This research implies that task and cognitive connectedness decrease the negative effect of conflict on trust, and hence, performance. Shortcomings include discussing the causality between conflict and trust, and the possibility of different perceptions among group members regarding group phenomena.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that managers can help to provide circumstances in which conflict is not necessarily destructive for intragroup trust and performance.

Originality/value

Provides one of the first empirical examinations of the mediating role of trust in the relationship between task and relationship conflict and perceived group performance. Additionally, examines if connectedness (the level of active involvement of group members with each other) buffers the negative effects of conflict on trust.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Dohyun Ahn and Dong-Hee Shin

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether distinctive modes (observation vs control) of presenting diverse content differentially influence users. To achieve this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether distinctive modes (observation vs control) of presenting diverse content differentially influence users. To achieve this goal, The authors first conceptualize empathy as social cognition and discuss the possible psychological mechanisms for divergent associations between observation-based media (i.e. video media) and control-based media (i.e. game media).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 300 adults (150 females) participated in this study through an online survey.

Findings

Time spent with video media (television and film) was positively associated with empathy, which in turn was associated with enhanced social connectedness. However, time spent on game media (video games, computer games, and smartphone games) was negatively associated with empathy, which in turn was associated with inferior social connectedness.

Originality/value

While previous studies on the effects of media have focussed mainly on content, the present study focusses on the effects of mode. The mode-focussed approach presents evidence contradictory to the content-focussed approach.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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