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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Arvid Nikolai Kildahl, Maria Hagen Engebretsen, Kristin Horndalsveen, Jane Margrete Askeland Hellerud, Jorunn Ytrehorn Wiik, Gro Aasen and Sissel Berge Helverschou

Psychiatric assessment in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) is complex and challenging. With co-occurring congenital blindness

Abstract

Purpose

Psychiatric assessment in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) is complex and challenging. With co-occurring congenital blindness, this complexity is increased. Systematic knowledge about psychiatric assessment in this combination of challenges is virtually non-existing, and there is little guidance available for clinicians faced with this task. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Experiences from comprehensive psychiatric assessments in two adults with congenital blindness, ASD, and ID are explored and discussed.

Findings

Adaptation of assessment procedures usually employed for individuals with ASD and ID involved no major alteration, but co-operation between mental health and visual impairment professionals was important, as was the involvement of the families of the individuals in question. In both cases, the patient met criteria for an anxiety disorder, underlining the vulnerability and the challenges involved in living with this combination of challenges.

Research limitations/implications

There is an urgent need for research into mental health issues for this group, including case studies describing successful treatment or intervention for these issues.

Practical implications

Psychiatric assessment in individuals with this combination of challenges may be feasible, but requires involvement of professionals specializing in mental health in developmental disabilities, and professionals in visual impairment. Assessments need to be individually adapted.

Originality/value

This is the first study systematically describing psychiatric assessment in this group involving the use of checklists and assessment tools. Strategies and tools that were useful are described and discussed to aid other clinicians faced with similar challenges.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Anna Lundh

The aim of the paper is to create a greater understanding of how people who are blind or vision impaired describe their use of audio-based reading technologies, with a…

1203

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to create a greater understanding of how people who are blind or vision impaired describe their use of audio-based reading technologies, with a particular focus on how they reason about whether the use of these technologies can be understood in terms of reading.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is part of the emerging research area Critical Studies of Reading and draws theoretical inspiration from Document Theory, New Literacy Studies and Critical Disability Studies. The article presents a discourse analysis of how 16 university students in Australia who are blind or vision impaired and use audio-based reading technologies describe this use in semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The participants relate to a division between ‘real' reading and reading by listening, where the latter is constructed as an exception and is connected to the subject position of being blind or vision impaired. However, resistance is also noticeable, where reading by listening is constructed as something that is normal, and as a right.

Originality/value

The article is a theoretical and empirical contribution to the ongoing discussion on the use of audio-based reading technologies. It presents perspectives from the users of these technologies and argues why a specific understanding of this use is important.

Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Jeffrey P. Bakken and Festus E. Obiakor

People with disabilities have always existed in our communities and societies; however, how we treat them has always been an issue. For example, for a long time, people…

Abstract

People with disabilities have always existed in our communities and societies; however, how we treat them has always been an issue. For example, for a long time, people with physical disabilities received more attention than those with disabilities that we could hardly see (e.g., learning disabilities). Very early research focused on students with sensory impairments and then the focus shifted to students with cognitive impairments. Finally, the focus was on students with learning disabilities and emotional behavioral disorders. Early research with this last group of students focused on comparing students with and without disabilities to document deficits and characteristics of these individuals. Over time, when the characteristics were established, researchers moved their attention to interventions or ways to improve deficits in specific content areas such as reading and mathematics. This chapter is an introduction to the rest of this volume that addresses different viewpoints on interventions for students with different types of disabilities.

Details

Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2021

John N. Moye

Abstract

Details

The Psychophysics of Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-113-7

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Rakesh Babu and Iris Xie

The purpose of this study is to explore design issues hampering the accessibility of digital libraries (DLs) for first-time blind users.

1457

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore design issues hampering the accessibility of digital libraries (DLs) for first-time blind users.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of questionnaire, pre-interview, think-aloud and post-interview methods was used to collect data on non-visual interaction experiences with American Memory Digital Collection (AMDC) from 15 blind participants. Qualitative analysis via open coding revealed recurring themes on design problems and consequent difficulties for blind users in accessing DLs.

Findings

It was found that AMDC is not blind-friendly. Five categories of design problems were identified. Participants faced difficulty perceiving, operating and understanding content and controls needed for information retrieval.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not offer a comprehensive set of design issues prevalent across DL design models, instead it focuses on design problems observed in a publicly available DL.

Practical implications

This paper raises awareness of design choices that can unintentionally bar blind information seekers from DL access, and further suggests solutions to reduce these design problems for blind users.

Originality/value

The paper’s originality is its identification of unique design problems that prevent blind users from effectively interacting with DLs.

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Ryan Little, Peter Ford and Alessandra Girardi

Understanding the psychological risk factors in radicalisation and terrorism is typically limited by both a lack of access to individuals who carry out the acts and those…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the psychological risk factors in radicalisation and terrorism is typically limited by both a lack of access to individuals who carry out the acts and those who are willing to engage in research on the matter. The purpose of this study is to describe the process of self-radicalisation of an otherwise law-abiding individual who engaged in single-actor terrorism activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A single case study, based on clinical interviews and psychometric testing, of an individual with autism who engaged in multiple acts of terrorism through online activity. The case is presented within existing frameworks of radicalisation, and describes how it developed along the steps described in the path to intended violence.

Findings

A number of variables are identified as contributing towards the individual’s vulnerability to radicalisation, such as deficits in higher order cognition, psychopathology, autism spectrum disorder traits, personal interests, social isolation and life stressors.

Originality/value

Unique to this study is how the process of radicalisation and the possibility to carry out the individual’s attacks was made possible only through the use of internet technology.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

M. Taylor, S. Duffy and G. Hughes

The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to examine the potential usefulness of animated learning materials for supporting students with dyslexia in a UK…

3332

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to examine the potential usefulness of animated learning materials for supporting students with dyslexia in a UK higher education setting.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted with a set of 13 undergraduate computing students with dyslexia and a control group of 13 non‐dyslexic undergraduate computing students.

Findings

Overall it appeared that appropriate animated learning materials were perceived as being more useful than equivalent static learning materials by both the students with dyslexia and the control group of non‐dyslexic students. However, the control group appeared to find them more useful than the students with dyslexia.

Research limitations/implications

Although the experiment reported in this paper was small in scale it did appear to indicate that animated learning materials may potentially be useful for undergraduate students with (and without) dyslexia.

Originality/value

There appears to have been little research done in the area of animated learning materials in a higher education setting and in particular with regard to students with dyslexia.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Mark J. Taylor, Sandi Duffy and David England

The purpose of this paper is to examine the type of adjustments to delivery appropriate for students with dyslexia in a UK higher education setting.

5349

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the type of adjustments to delivery appropriate for students with dyslexia in a UK higher education setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study in a UK university department was conducted over a four‐year period.

Findings

It was found that a variety of adjustments may be required for students with dyslexia in a UK higher education environment including adjustments to teaching delivery, assessment and pastoral care. In addition it is necessary to provide a managed transition from school/college/work to higher education.

Research limitations/implications

Although the case study reported here focusesd on only 22 students with dyslexia, the number of students entering UK higher education with dyslexia is likely to increase and institutions need to be aware of the adjustments that may potentially be required.

Originality/value

Previously few students with dyslexia had attended university in the UK. However, growing numbers of such students are now attending university, but thus far little, if any, research has been conducted regarding the adjustments that may need to be made for such students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Deborah L. Little

The disability movement is a new social movement (Fagan & Lee, 1997; Shakespeare, 1993) based on identity politics (Anspach, 1979). Activists seek material benefits…

Abstract

The disability movement is a new social movement (Fagan & Lee, 1997; Shakespeare, 1993) based on identity politics (Anspach, 1979). Activists seek material benefits, challenge cultural constructions of disability, and create new collective identities on the part of recruits. Mobilization in this status-based movement, as in other new social movements, has focused in part on cultural and symbolic issues of identity (Bernstein, 2005; Johnston, Larana, & Gusfield, 1994; Shakespeare & Watson, 2001). Status-based movements challenge stigmatized identities that are externally imposed. Identities can be deployed strategically by movement activists and recruiters for multiple goals, including changing cultural representations of the group, gaining access to institutions, and/or transforming participants (Bernstein, 2005).

Details

Disability as a Fluid State
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-377-5

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Dennis van Liempd and Jacob Busch

This paper aims to suggest that companies have ethical reasons to report about biodiversity issues and to investigate whether companies act on these reasons by examining…

2421

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to suggest that companies have ethical reasons to report about biodiversity issues and to investigate whether companies act on these reasons by examining the extent of biodiversity reporting in Denmark.

Design/methodology/approach

For the first purpose, desk research was conducted using consequentialist ethics, while for the second purpose, data were gathered from the 2009‐2011 annual reports, CSR‐type reports and homepages of 24 Danish large‐cap companies.

Findings

Philosophically, it is shown that biodiversity preservation and reporting is an ethical issue, even on the assumption that biodiversity does not possess intrinsic value. Empirically, it is shown that Danish companies score poorly overall, both quantitatively and qualitatively, with regards to reporting on biodiversity.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the importance of biodiversity can be justified on different assumptions, biodiversity reporting is under‐researched offering potential for future research on a globally important issue.

Practical implications

Justifying the preservation of biodiversity from an instrumental viewpoint might convince accounting audiences that are sceptical of normative ethical argumentation based on intrinsic value. The relative lack of biodiversity reporting in Denmark shows the need for the State and accounting standard setters to address this issue together with business and other stakeholders.

Originality/value

Few studies theorize on why there is a need for environmental reporting. Those that do are based on non‐instrumental considerations. This paper gives philosophical arguments for biodiversity reporting normally outside the scope of accounting. It emphasizes how even those who deny that biodiversity has intrinsic value are morally obliged to account for biodiversity. The argument also provides novel reasons for why thinking about discount rates should be governed by pure preference considerations. Empirically, this is only the second paper examining biodiversity reporting and the first about the Danish context.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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