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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Cong Cao, Ning Li and Li Liu

This paper empirically investigates how cultural variations in individualism and tightness affected the containment of COVID-19 using data from 54 nations during a 30-day…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper empirically investigates how cultural variations in individualism and tightness affected the containment of COVID-19 using data from 54 nations during a 30-day period of government intervention.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilized the hierarchical regression approach to check the effects of three cultural variables – the individualism measure, taken from Hofstede’s six-dimension national culture index, and the measure of cultural tightness, based on the three tightness–looseness indexes calculated by Irem Uz (2015) and their interaction – on the changes in the prevalence rate (ΔPR) and crude mortality rate (ΔCMR) and case fatality rate (CFR) while controlling for the stringency of government responses to COVID-19, median age and population density.

Findings

Significant relationships were found between cultural variables and national performance in slowing the spread of the coronavirus, measured by ΔPR, ΔCMR and CFR. After controlling for the stringency of government responses, median age and population density, the authors found that cultural tightness and individualism as well as their interactions remain to be pivotal. Loose and individualistic cultures led to faster increases in PR and CMR and higher CFR. A four-quadrant conceptual framework is developed to categorize and discuss the national differences.

Originality/value

The paper integrated two constructs – cultural tightness–looseness and individualism–collectivism – to form a theoretical lens to guide the authors’ analyses while using the real-time COVID-19 data as a natural experiment for theorizing and testing. This study’s findings have significant policy implications in government responses, strategic planning, cultural adaptability and policy implementations for the world’s continuous battle against the pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Thu Thi Hoai Tran and Louis De Koker

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Vietnamese laws and practices concerning the confiscation of proceeds of crime, especially in view of Vietnam’s obligations to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Vietnamese laws and practices concerning the confiscation of proceeds of crime, especially in view of Vietnam’s obligations to meet the international standards on money laundering and terrorist financing, set by the Financial Action Task Force and relevant international conventions that Vietnam ratified. To limit the scope of this paper, the analysis focuses on the confiscation of proceeds of domestic crimes that do not require international legal assistance. This paper concludes with recommendations for improving the legal framework on criminal asset recovery in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a doctrinal study that considers the applicable legal framework. This study is supported by brief case studies of major cases involving the confiscation of proceeds of crime.

Findings

Vietnam has a functioning asset confiscation regime but gaps in the law, lack of financial investigation expertise and lack of focused investigative attention on asset preservation and confiscation are hampering its effectiveness. The key gaps can easily be closed with appropriate amendments to the law. These reforms should be combined with a dedicated skills development program to produce sufficient number of financial investigation experts and criminal asset management experts to support the regime. The training should extend to judicial officers to ensure an appropriate understanding of the asset confiscation law. Reforms such as these should follow on a comprehensive review of Vietnam’s law and practices relating to the confiscation and forfeiture of criminal assets. This review should extend to assets linked to the financing of terrorism and proliferation to ensure that Vietnam has a comprehensive regime to deal with criminal assets.

Research limitations/implications

This paper draws on publicly available information regarding the confiscation of proceeds of crime in Vietnam. Little data is available on asset confiscation and that prevents an in-depth assessment of the regime.

Originality/value

This paper highlights gaps in the current asset confiscation regime and proposes reforms and approaches that will ensure a more effective asset confiscation regime for Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Denis Fred Simon and Cong Cao

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the reliability of official Chinese government statistics in general, overview the evolution of China's S&T (science and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the reliability of official Chinese government statistics in general, overview the evolution of China's S&T (science and technology) statistical system while highlighting the main sources of such statistics, point out some of the particular problems related to China's S&T statistics, and provide perspectives about how to best use and interpret these numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistics of China's human resources in science and technology has been used to illustrate how such S&T statistics should be interpreted.

Findings

While the S&T data collection involving multiple government ministries causes problems, the interpretation of the data, including reconciling data from different sources and piecing information together, poses challenges to drawing an appropriate and overall picture of the development of S&T in China. In order to achieve a better understanding of China's S&T statistics, student researchers of Chinese science and technology have to comprehend the definitions, exhaust all the sources, and find and recognize discrepancies.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first effort to examine China's S&T statistical system, an important source of information regarding China's S&T development.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2012

Cindy Epperson

The community college model is evolving in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. During June 2009, 11 of the 12 existing higher education institutions with “community…

Abstract

The community college model is evolving in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. During June 2009, 11 of the 12 existing higher education institutions with “community college” in their official name were examined utilizing a qualitative multiple-case study approach. Data were collected in the field from June 1 to 23, 2009, while making visits to each of the 11 colleges, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), and the Vietnam Association of Community Colleges (VACC). Five data collection techniques were utilized to examine the bounded system: (a) semi-structured interviews, (b) survey of the college rectors, VACC informant and MOET informant, (c) participant observation with field notes, (d) document review, and (e) photographs taken during each site visit. After the field study stage, e-mail communication with the study informants between August 2009 and March 2010 clarified questions and developed a deeper level of understanding of the Vietnamese community college model. Results of the study (Epperson, 2010) indicate that although legislation does not exist to permanently establish the higher education institutions named community colleges, a community college model does exist and is in a state of evolution. The model can be defined by a set of core characteristics which emerged from the data. Five themes were particularly prominent: (a) public higher education institutions with community ownership at the provincial or city level, in conjunction with MOET oversight for academic matters; (b) multidisciplinary programs designed to meet the unique needs of the community; (c) multi-level certificates and diplomas conferred up through the college level (three year) of higher education and articulation agreements with universities enable students to earn a university bachelor's degree; (d) domestic and international partnerships are actively sought to develop social capital; (e) scientific and technological research based on community needs as required in the 2005 Education Law.

Details

Community Colleges Worldwide: Investigating the Global Phenomenon
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-230-1

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Jiang Yu

Abstract

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Zhiling Ma, Yanjun Qiao, Fei Xie, Xianling Wang and Jing Wang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of encapsulation temperature on the preparation of silica-encapsulated waterborne aluminium pigments.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of encapsulation temperature on the preparation of silica-encapsulated waterborne aluminium pigments.

Design/methodology/approach

The waterborne aluminium pigments were prepared with H2O2 as anchoring agent and siloxane used as precursors in pH = 9.0 medium at different temperatures. The anchorage and compactness of silicon which on aluminium surface were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The anticorrosion property was characterized by the volume of produced hydrogen as a function of time.

Findings

The effect of encapsulation temperature on anticorrosion property of aluminium pigments is reflected from the anchorage and the compactness of silica on aluminium surface. Furthermore, when encapsulation temperature is 45-50°C, the silica platelets uniformly anchored on the aluminium surface as a dense film, which show the best anticorrosion property. Lower and higher encapsulation temperatures cause the silica platelets to agglomerate rather than anchor on the aluminium surface, which is unfavourable for the anchorage and the formation of compact silica film. The use of product in waterborne coatings gives a higher glossiness than that of raw material.

Research limitations/implications

Only pH = 9.0 medium was explored, and the other pH medium could result in different optimum temperatures.

Practical implications

The investigation results provide theoretical basis for obtaining excellent waterborne aluminium pigments.

Originality/value

The method of investigating corrosion resistance mechanism of aluminium pigments based on anchorage and compactness is novel.

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Zhiling Ma, Yanjun Qiao, Yajing Wen, Xianling Wang and Jing Wang

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of precursors on the anticorrosion property of silica encapsulated waterborne aluminium pigments (WBAPs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of precursors on the anticorrosion property of silica encapsulated waterborne aluminium pigments (WBAPs).

Design/methodology/approach

The silica encapsulated WBAPs were prepared using different siloxanes as precursors. The anchorage and compactness of silica films on aluminium flakes were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The anticorrosion property and glossiness of WBAPs were evaluated.

Findings

The effect of precursors on anticorrosion property of silica encapsulated WBAPs is reflected from the anchorage and the compactness of silica on aluminium flakes surface. Furthermore, the structure of γ-aminopropyl triethoxysilane benefits the anchorage and the compatibility between pigment and acrylic resin. Neither high nor low ratio of tetraethoxysilane/γ-aminopropyl triethoxysilane is favourable to the anchorage and formation of dense silica film on the aluminium flakes surface. To obtain perfect WBAP, the precursors of silica must be carefully selected.

Research limitations/implications

Only four kinds of precursors were used in this work; other precursors could also be studied.

Practical implications

The investigation results provide theoretical basis to obtain excellent WBAPs.

Originality/value

The method to investigate anticorrosion property of WBAPs that is based on the effect of precursors on the performance of silica was novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2018

Anna Trunina, Xielin Liu and Jian Chen

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of similarities and differences between small and medium technology enterprises of Zhongguancun in China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of similarities and differences between small and medium technology enterprises of Zhongguancun in China and Silicon Valley in the USA in the following aspects of their activities: scale, diversity and the strength of entrepreneurial networks; quality of collaboration network; reputation in the sense of stakeholders’ perception at the local market; and foreign networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey method. The analysis of variance statistical technique was applied to each aspect.

Findings

The investigation reveals that Chinese companies have more stakeholders among relatives and friends, government, universities, accounting/law, as well as collaborate more with competitors and suppliers, while the US companies have more and collaborate diverse relations with its clients. In America, companies tend to trust their partners more than they do in China. For Chinese companies, the local government appraises business more than the USA. Employees from the US companies also take more pride in telling others that they are members of the business. Domestic customers positively rate business products. Chinese companies actually have better access to foreign resources than the USA and collaborate more with their foreign stakeholders.

Practical implications

Understanding the distinctive features of each regional system is crucial for the success of small and medium technology enterprises for both Chinese and US entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This paper is a pioneer in the comparison and analysis of the two regions.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Shah Khusro, Aftab Alam and Shah Khalid

Social question and answer (SQA) site is one of the factors that boosted up and popularized the vision of social web. It enables community members to post highly valued…

Abstract

Purpose

Social question and answer (SQA) site is one of the factors that boosted up and popularized the vision of social web. It enables community members to post highly valued answers to globally asked questions and information seekers to grab intellectual information in a contextual, concise, and meaningful format at the cost of investing a few minutes. The purpose of this paper is to present a common architecture, history, and a comprehensive review of such sites.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical and analytical investigation of the state-of-the-art SQA sites and relevant literature has been carried out with the intention to explore the noticeable features of such sites.

Findings

By studying relevant literature, and analysing a number of existing systems, a number of research challenges are identified and a generic architecture of SQA sites is contributed.

Practical implications

The review contributes a comprehensive knowledge about SQA systems and aims to be helpful to new researchers who want to get a broad picture of SQA systems on a single platform. The domain is in its infancy and requires tremendous efforts from the research community to explore its salient aspects with respect to the human world.

Originality/value

The study inspects SQA sites on a large scale and makes an original contribution by presenting a comprehensive review, future research challenges, and a generic architecture of SQA sites.

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