Search results

1 – 10 of 21
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Charles KN Lam and S.H. Goo

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how Confucianism can be applied in the areas that are now governed by company law in the common law system and how it can play…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how Confucianism can be applied in the areas that are now governed by company law in the common law system and how it can play a role in improving corporate governance. A gentleman in the context of Confucianism tends to be inclusive and broad-minded in embracing the interest of different stakeholders. In fact, he will balance the interests of shareholders and other stakeholders if there is any inherent conflict and try to achieve a win-win situation. Ultimately, he will run the company not just for profit-making but for social justice and commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the leading cases in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom about the law of fiduciary duty and the duty of care and its relationship with Confucianism. In this respect, we review the teachings of the traditional Confucian texts and use Confucianism to fill in the gap where common law rules cannot reach. In addition, we adopt a comparative study approach in examining the law of directors’ duties in Hong Kong, China and the United Kingdom.

Findings

It can be seen that the concept of fiduciary duty and duty of care is quite complicated and evolving and always subject to the interpretations of the court from time to time. For fiduciary duty, the term itself is quite conceptual and not immediately available to the general public. But loyalty in the context of Confucianism is a very lively and down-to-earth moral principle. Besides, fiduciary duty is imposed from outside, where directors had no choice but to accept. But loyalty in the context of Confucianism is something inherent and something from within. It is a moral principle that if you deeply understand the meaning of it, you will automatically accept it as a good virtue and your conduct will naturally be guided by such a principle. Confucianism can thereby be used to fill the gap where rules and regulations cannot reach. Confucian business ethics and common law rule should be complementary to each other in the development of a Chinese corporate governance system.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind in discussing the relationship between the law of directors’ duties and Confucianism. It argues that Confucianism plays a crucial role in guiding the behavior of the directors and can supplement the abstract principles of directors’ duties in the context of a Chinese corporate governance system.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Charles KN Lam and S.H. Goo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two important aspects of enforcement of ethical standards: indirect enforcement, that is the Confucian approach, and common law…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two important aspects of enforcement of ethical standards: indirect enforcement, that is the Confucian approach, and common law enforcement. In the context of Confucianism, one must adopt the ethical teachings in a moderate or “middle” way. We should not be too attached to the liberal interpretation of the Confucian texts but must have the wisdom to apply the concepts case-by-case. The issue then is if there are no legal consequences or punishment, then how we can ensure that someone will continue to comply with the standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze the Confucian texts in relation to the enforcement of the ethical standards. The authors investigate the Entity Maximization and Sustainability Model by referring to the exit option, the voice option, the influence exerted on the board of directors, the sending of the Confucian representatives to sit on the board of directors, the oppression remedy and statutory derivative actions. The authors adopt a comparative study approach and argue that the Confucian enforcement of ethics can fill in the gap where common law rules of procedure cannot reach in the context of Chinese corporate governance system.

Findings

By referring to the Confucian teaching, there are several ways to encourage the superior to follow the ethical standards, namely, education, fear of punishment by society, peer pressure, intrinsic value, continuing education and codification of Confucian value/moral standards. In addition, there are several enforcement options based on the Entity Maximization and Sustainability Model, which is highly relevant to the enforcement model of Confucianism.

Originality/value

It is the first of its kind in strengthening the enforcement of Chinese business ethics by adopting the Confucian approach and common law approach. The two are not mutually exclusive but complementary with each other to bring the enforcement of Chinese business ethics to the next level.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Yong Han and Yochanan Altman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual, based on research within the field.

Findings

This paper suggests that the moral characteristics of Confucianism (based on a strong body of empirical studies): harmony, group orientation, guanxi (relationships), diligence, self‐learning and thrift, are the great virtues of the indigenous forms of OCB in the PRC, including helping co‐worker; individual initiative and/or functional participation; group activity participation; self‐development; social welfare participation; promoting company image; voice; protecting and saving company resources; interpersonal harmony and keeping the workplace clean; and keeping departmental harmony and coexistence in adversity.

Originality/value

First, this paper contributes to the extant knowledge as to the ways in which Confucian moral standards may affect Chinese exhibition of OCB. Second, this paper contributes to discerning Chinese economic success on employees' OCB performance with recourse to its traditional cultural heritage of Confucian moral standards. Finally, it highlights the presence of voice as a type of OCB which may be attributed to China's opening up to the West.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

John S. Hill

China has become a driving force in the world economy, yet East‐West cultural differences remain a problem area for many managers. This paper examines the importance of

Abstract

China has become a driving force in the world economy, yet East‐West cultural differences remain a problem area for many managers. This paper examines the importance of Confucianism in shaping societal values in China and how these values have affected the Chinese style of management. Confucian principles are extracted from the extant literature and used to explain the cultural underpinnings of Chinese leadership patterns, interpersonal behaviors and individual values. The longevity of Confucian influences throughout Chinese culture is a major factor in China’s resistance to Western management practices. There is also evidence that mainstream Confucian principles emphasizing teamwork, relationships and strong corporate cultures are gaining traction in the West. Future Western researchers should pay increased attention to East Asian philosophies and Asian‐based religions in their attempts to understand non‐Christian lifestyles and management methods.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Sheh Seow Wah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relevance and implication of the Confucius teachings in present days' context particularly in the area of leadership and organization.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relevance and implication of the Confucius teachings in present days' context particularly in the area of leadership and organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an overview of Chinese cultural values, Confucianism, and their implications for Chinese management.

Findings

Five key dimensions of the Confucian values and ethics have been uncovered and be applied to the contemporary leaders' behaviors that are moral character, human‐heartedness, human relationship, lifelong learning, and moderation.

Practical implications

The five key Confucian value dimensions can be used to shape leader's behavior. The review hopes to contribute to the study of social psychology and modern leadership.

Originality/value

The paper offers a re‐organization and re‐interpretation of the Confucius classics.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Lili Zhao and Juliet Roper

This paper aims to discuss and demonstrate the synergies between the western concept of corporate social responsibility that is emerging from a background of individualism…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss and demonstrate the synergies between the western concept of corporate social responsibility that is emerging from a background of individualism and market competition, and the traditional values of Chinese Confucianism, as applied to managerial practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is primarily theoretical in perspective. It also draws upon interview data derived from an in depth study of a large state‐owned corporate group in China in order to demonstrate the model that is known as modern Confucian entrepreneurship.

Findings

Adherence to Confucian values was demonstrated by both manager and employee interviewees. However, Chinese managers also need to reform some practices as they move into the international market place. As western managers, at the same time, increasingly seek to increase their social capital it is clear that Chinese and western managers can learn from each other.

Research limitations/implications

The examples drawn upon in this paper come from a state‐owned corporation. Indications are that smaller, privately owned companies in China are more aggressively adopting market models built upon competitive individualism. Further research is needed to develop comparisons.

Practical implications

The paper suggests a hybrid model of business management that combines aspects of both western and Confucian‐based management styles that are proven to be successful in building social capital. It also suggests that fundamental change needs to be effected through business school teaching.

Social implications

The paper urges a more collective view of management that is built upon trust and focuses on employee and social wellbeing. Indications are that increased wellbeing generates more cohesive, productive and happier societies.

Originality/value

The introduction of interview data provides unique insight to Confucian values in practice in a modern Chinese company.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Tai K. Oh

The article presents an analytical discussion of the role oftraditional religious and social philosophies in the conduct of businessand management relationships in South…

Abstract

The article presents an analytical discussion of the role of traditional religious and social philosophies in the conduct of business and management relationships in South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. Recommendations are made as to how Westerners can use this knowledge to improve business relations with companies in these countries.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Robert J. Taormina and Talya N. Bauer

This study examined whether organizational socialization content areas are applicable across cultures. Data were gathered from 324 U.S. and 198 Hong Kong employees who…

Abstract

This study examined whether organizational socialization content areas are applicable across cultures. Data were gathered from 324 U.S. and 198 Hong Kong employees who completed a questionnaire assessing four socialization content domains (training, understanding of the job, coworker support, and future prospects within the company), five measures of job satisfaction, and three measures of organizational commitment. Based on the merged data from the two cultures, all four socialization domains played a significant role in predicting satisfaction and commitment. These socialization measures also were stronger predictors than a variety of demographic measures. Although there were some differences in the relative strengths of the socialization measures when the data were analyzed separately for each nation, the overall results support the idea that the socialization content areas tested are applicable across cultures. Implications for managing employees in the different cultures are discussed.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Li‐teh Sun

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution…

Abstract

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution. Between 1964 and 1980, the average annual growth rate of the real gross national product was 9.92 per cent (Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD), 1982, p. 23). In the same period, the income ratio between the top 20 per cent and the bottom 20 per cent of families dropped from 5.33 to 4.17 and the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.36 to 0.30 (CEPD, 1982, p. 54; Directorate‐General of Budget Accounting and Statistics, 1980, (DGBAS), p. 44). To put it somewhat dif‐ferently, in 1964 the lowest fifth of households received 7.71 per cent of total personal income, and the highest fifth 41.07 per cent. But in 1980, the income share of the lowest fifth increased to 8.82 per cent while that of the highest fifth decreased to 36.80 per cent. The condition of greater equality in income distribution appears more obvious in the capital city of Taipei. In 1981, for instance, its Gini coefficient was estimated to be only 0.28 (Taipei Bureau of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, 1981, (TBBAS), P. 24).

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Rick D. Hackett and Gordon Wang

The purpose of this paper is to bring definitional clarity to the term “virtue” as pertinent to the behavioural sciences literatures on leadership; to identify a short and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring definitional clarity to the term “virtue” as pertinent to the behavioural sciences literatures on leadership; to identify a short and consolidated list of cardinal virtues commonly associated with leadership effectiveness; to provide a model relating leader virtues to leader outcomes (i.e. ethics, happiness, life satisfaction, and effectiveness); and to propose a program of research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors systematically and comprehensively review Aristotelian and Confucian literatures on virtue ethics, and the literatures on seven leadership styles – i.e. moral, ethical, spiritual, servant, transformational, charismatic, and visionary leadership.

Findings

Six virtues, including four considered cardinal by Aristotle (courage, temperance, justice and prudence), and two considered cardinal by Confucius (humanity, and truthfulness), were common to all seven leadership styles.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers should aim to develop and validate a measure of virtuous leadership based on the six cardinal virtues presented here and also to test both the proposed measurement and structural models.

Practical implications

The authors' recommended program of research will ideally inform development and design of selection and training programs for enhancing virtuous leadership.

Originality/value

The authors provide definitional clarity to the term “virtue” – one that is well grounded in the moral philosophy and virtue ethics literatures; consolidate vast and varied literatures on seven different widely subscribed leadership styles and identify six cardinal virtues most likely to positively impact leadership effectiveness; present an organizing framework, structural model, and research agenda to catalyze research on virtuous leadership.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

1 – 10 of 21