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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Douglas Polcin

Few debates in the addiction field have been more controversial than the harm and benefit of confronting individuals about their substance use. This article reviews recent…

Abstract

Few debates in the addiction field have been more controversial than the harm and benefit of confronting individuals about their substance use. This article reviews recent publications suggesting confrontation in the addiction field has been poorly defined and unfortunately limited to therapist‐client interactions. A definition of confrontation is presented that focuses on potential harm to the individual using substances. The Alcohol and Drug Confrontation Scale (ADCS) is discussed as a broad, comprehensive assessment of confrontation including an examination of individuals' perceptions of confrontational interactions. The preliminary research of individuals' experiences of confrontation in sober living recovery houses indicated that confrontation is often experienced assupportive and accurate. Previously reported findings are elaborated here by specifying implications for practitioners, families/friends, and users of services. Of particular importance is the confronter's ability to recognise when confrontation is counterproductive and to adjust their interactions accordingly.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

María Fernanda Wagstaff, María del Carmen Triana, Abby N. Peters and Dalila Salazar

The purpose of this paper is to examine alleged perpetrators' reactions to being accused of discrimination.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine alleged perpetrators' reactions to being accused of discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines how the mode of confrontation as well as the perpetrator's status relate to the alleged perpetrator's state of anger and the likelihood of providing a justification to the victim. To test the hypotheses, the authors conducted an experimental design using an organizational scenario.

Findings

The mode of confrontation predicts the likelihood of providing a justification to the victim. The paper also found that both anger and the likelihood of providing a justification for a charge of discrimination are higher when the mode of confrontation is indirect and the alleged perpetrator is the supervisor.

Research limitations/implications

An organizational scenario limits the realism of the study such that results may not generalize to actual organizational settings (Stone, Hosoda, Lukaszewski and Phillips). In addition, the response rate was low. Nevertheless, a full understanding of issues related to reactions to alleged discrimination will depend upon research conducted in a variety of settings under a variety of conditions.

Practical implications

It is unlikely that direct confrontations will be instrumental in correcting misperceptions of discriminatory behavior. Organizations need to provide training on how to manage confrontation episodes as an opportunity to mitigate perceived mistreatment.

Originality/value

Which mode of confrontation is best? Indirect confrontation is associated with a higher likelihood of the alleged perpetrator providing a justification for a charge of discrimination, particularly when the alleged perpetrator is the supervisor. However, anger is also higher when supervisors are confronted indirectly about allegations of discrimination.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Jose Miguel Abito, David Besanko and Daniel Diermeier

We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through…

Abstract

We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through “self-regulation”: voluntary provision of an abatement activity that reduces a negative externality. We show that in equilibrium the externality-reducing activity is subject to decreasing marginal returns, which can cause the firm to “coast on its reputation,” that is, decrease the level of externality-reducing activity as its reputation grows. The activist, which benefits from increases in the externality-reducing activity, can take two types of action that can harm the firm’s reputation: criticism, which can impair the firm’s reputation on the margin, and confrontation, which can trigger a crisis that may severely damage the firm’s reputation. The activist changes the reputational dynamics of the game by tending to keep the firm in reputational states in which it is highly motivated to invest in externality-reducing activity. Criticism and confrontational activity are shown to be imperfect substitutes. The more patient the activist or the more passionate it is about externality reduction, the more likely it is to rely on confrontation. The more patient the firm and the more important corporate citizenship is to firm’s brand equity, the more likely that it will be targeted by an activist that relies on confrontation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1979

John Wellens

John Wellens argues that what we want is more confrontation rather than less, but that it should be the confrontation of ideas and not the confrontation of power.

Abstract

John Wellens argues that what we want is more confrontation rather than less, but that it should be the confrontation of ideas and not the confrontation of power.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 11 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Jeanne Brett

The purpose of this paper is to discuss cultural causes of conflict in the workplace and call for research to address what happens when cultures collide generating…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss cultural causes of conflict in the workplace and call for research to address what happens when cultures collide generating workplace conflict. The author assumes that because cultures differ in terms of functional solutions to problems of social interaction that there will be conflict when people from different cultures are interdependent in the workplace. The author discusses types of culture and their conflict management profiles with respect to three characteristics of conflict management: direct vs indirect confrontation; emotional expression, and third party conflict management. The author proposes what happens when cultures collide and calls for research on those collisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Application of the cultural literature on self-worth to three elements of workplace conflict: direct vs indirect confrontation of conflict, feelings and expressions of negative emotions associated with conflict and timing and type of third party intervention.

Findings

When people from dignity, face, and honor cultures are working together the fundamental differences in the logic of self-worth in these three types of culture may cause conflict. People from dignity and honor cultures are likely to confront conflict directly, while those from face cultures are more likely to confront conflict indirectly. Workplace conflict generates negative emotions, but culture seems to affect whether that emotion is anger, shame or both. The timing of third party intervention into workplace conflict, that is, how managers intervene in workplace conflict has some parallels with how community mediators act in that culture.

Research limitations/implications

There is limited research comparing management of workplace conflict in dignity, face, and honor cultures. The author generates propositions and suggests a research strategy for collecting data to test propositions.

Practical implications

Understanding what is culturally normative in terms of self-worth, confrontation, emotional expression, and managerial intervention can help people involved in workplace conflict understand what they are experiencing. It can also help managers intervene effectively.

Social implications

How people react to workplace conflict varies with culture as does how managers intervene. Knowing this provides people with the first element of cultural intelligence that may help them manage conflict to facilitate a more creative and effective multicultural work environment.

Originality/value

This paper integrates theory and research from cross-cultural psychology, the psychology of emotion and the literature on third party intervention into community conflict to explain the patterns of cultural conflict and conflict management in the workplace. It also suggests what it may take to manage cultural conflict in the workplace successfully.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Xiaoru Liu and Howard B. Kaplan

Hypotheses regarding gender differences in circumstances surrounding the initiation/escalation of binge drinking are tested in a sample of young adults from a general…

Abstract

Hypotheses regarding gender differences in circumstances surrounding the initiation/escalation of binge drinking are tested in a sample of young adults from a general population. The circumstances are measured by six scales. Multiple regression analyses suggest a congruence between observed gender differences in circumstances surrounding initiation and escalation of binge drinking and the literature on gender‐related sociodevelopmental processes: For males, initiation of binge drinking is associated with self‐importance, to be influenced by peers, and to experience confrontation with the authorities. For females, initiation of binge drinking is associated with greater feelings of distress and interpersonal problems. For escalation of binge drinking, no gender effect on peer influence is observed. However, all other gender‐related effects continue to be observed at even greater levels. The results also support the conclusion that the gender‐related effects are at least partially independent although certain of the effects are attenuated when other circumstances are included in the model.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2010

Martin Stuebs

This article proposes a model for justifying decisions that integrates both ethical theory and practice. The usefulness of basic theory and applied practice in justifying…

Abstract

This article proposes a model for justifying decisions that integrates both ethical theory and practice. The usefulness of basic theory and applied practice in justifying decisions is a subject of continued debate. This article sees both as useful. It approaches moral justification from the perspective of responding to incentives. In this justification process, moral confrontation is the process of using theory to identify and analyze incentives and incentive conflicts. Moral imagination is a process of thinking that relies on practical intuition, self-reflection, and moral ideals to reconcile the identified incentives and incentive conflicts. Both theory and practice play vital and complementary roles in this moral justification process. The primary belief is that the proposed combination of moral confrontation and moral imagination can lead to advances in both the theory and practice of business ethics.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-722-6

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Edwige Quillerou and Sébastien Boulnois

The purpose of this paper conducts a co-design framework, thanks to different kinds of interviews with expert pilots in different space contexts for each stage of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper conducts a co-design framework, thanks to different kinds of interviews with expert pilots in different space contexts for each stage of the technical development of the system.

Design/methodology/approach

To speak about the question of “spaces” and especially spaces in the design process, this paper is focussed on the transdisciplinary design research for commercial airline pilots. This design research combined a “Human-Centred Design” approach (Boy, 2015) with an occupational psychology, including a “Clinic of Activity” perspective (Kloëtzer et al., 2016). It integrates experts within the research process to design a new technological tool for indicating weather conditions in flight (Boulnois, 2018).

Findings

This study explains how the crossed self-confrontation interview under special space conditions allows dialogue to take place between the designers and the pilots for imagining the future workplace by using an emergent workspace.

Practical implications

The physical, psychological and social “space” conditions were worked on throughout the design process – including during the work analysis and design testing phases – and were revisited.

Originality/value

In this way, the occupational psychologist organised the framework for dialogue about the present situation and future workspaces, to anticipate changes in work organisation, enhance inter-professional collaboration and, finally, increase health and safety benefits for pilots, and potentially other workers, at the same time.

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Rong Du, Shizhong Ai and Cathal M. Brugha

This paper aims to relate Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking to Western nomology in terms of trust and trust building, seeking to explore the question of how trust impacts on…

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1210

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to relate Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking to Western nomology in terms of trust and trust building, seeking to explore the question of how trust impacts on conflict management.

Design/methodology/approach

A moderating model of trust in conflict management is proposed. Investigations and observations using primary and secondary data are described. Three cases are presented to explain the moderating effects of adjusting activities and trust on conflict and negotiation.

Findings

The proposed model was supported. The following findings have been obtained: keeping a balance between adjusting others and adjusting self is a key to resolving conflict; creating and retaining harmony is a bridge that leads both sides in conflict and negotiation to adjust themselves; taking indirect actions through relationships instead of by direct actions through power is a good way to trigger a state of harmony; and trust is shown to be the original driver and source that contribute to adapting actions, harmony and eventually to a win‐win negotiation outcome.

Research limitations/implications

The investigations were limited in time and scope and consequently not conclusive.

Practical implications

This research may provide practical implictions for people and organizations interested in conflict resolution who wish to: take a position that values trust; take indirect actions through relationship instead of direct actions through power; create and retain harmony between both sides in conflict and negotiation; and keep a balance between adjusting others and adjusting self, so to achieve win‐win negotiation outcomes.

Originality/value

This research may enhance the understanding of Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking by linking it with the Western nomology.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Christine Hiu Ying Choy and Fang Wu

This study aims to examine the theoretical links among three important variables by empirically testing the cases of two international brands.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the theoretical links among three important variables by empirically testing the cases of two international brands.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a comparative case study design, this study conducts a content analysis of a total of 490 Facebook comments regarding online confrontational crises: Dolce & Gabbana’s photo fiasco and Laneige’s discriminative sales incident.

Findings

The findings suggest that when evaluating whether or not a company has shouldered responsibility in online confrontational crises, social media users tend to be more influenced by how timely, active and consistent the organization’s reaction is than by the organization’s mere use of concession crisis communication strategies (CCSs). The individual-level perception (perceived degree of organizational crisis responsibility-taking) is a stronger predictor of social media users’ reaction than organization strategies. The earlier that social media user has a perceived improvement in the organization, the more effective is the organization’s strategy to minimize the effects of social media as crisis mobilizer.

Originality/value

This study confirms theories formulated in a Western context with actual cases from Eastern cultures. Theoretically, this study sheds light on the importance of the individual-level perception for effective use of organization strategy in crisis. This study also suggests the relative significance of positive forms of crisis response, concessions CCSs and their relationship with the perceived degree of crisis responsibility-taking.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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