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Article

Peter T. Coleman, Katharina G. Kugler, Robin Vallacher and Regina Kim

The purpose of this paper is to propose that a more optimal regulatory focus in conflict reflects a mix of promotion and prevention considerations because conflict often…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that a more optimal regulatory focus in conflict reflects a mix of promotion and prevention considerations because conflict often elicits needs for promoting well-being as well as needs for preventing threats to security and interests. Two studies using distinct methodologies tested the hypothesis that social conflict is associated with better outcomes when the parties construe the conflict with a regulatory focus that reflects a combination of both promotion and prevention orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 was an experiment that framed the same low-intensity conflict scenario as either prevention- or promotion-focused, or as both. In Study 2, we mouse-coded stream-of-thought accounts of participants’ actual ongoing high-intensity conflicts for time spent in both promotion and prevention focus.

Findings

In Study 1, the combined framing resulted in greater satisfaction with expected conflict outcomes and goal attainment than did either prevention or promotion framing alone. However, a promotion frame alone was associated with greater process and relationship satisfaction. These results were replicated in Study 2.

Originality/value

Prior research on regulatory focus has emphasized the benefits of a promotion focus over prevention when managing conflict. The present research offers new insight into how these seemingly opposing motives can operate in tandem to increase conflict satisfaction. Thus, this research illustrates the value of moving beyond dichotomized motivational distinctions in conflict research, to understand the dynamic interplay of how these distinctions may be navigated in concert for more effective conflict engagement. It also illustrates the value of mouse-coding methods for capturing the dynamic interplay of motives as they rise and fall in salience over time.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Robert Osei-Kyei, Albert P.C. Chan, Yu Yao and Khwaja Mateen Mazher

Conflict between project parties is among the major risk factors in public–private partnership (PPP) in developing countries that has, in extreme cases, led to the failure…

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict between project parties is among the major risk factors in public–private partnership (PPP) in developing countries that has, in extreme cases, led to the failure or distress of many PPP projects. This paper aims to explore conflict prevention measures for PPPs in developing countries using Ghana as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

From a comprehensive review of literature, a list of conflict prevention measures was derived; further, a questionnaire survey was conducted with PPP experts from Ghana. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance test, range normalization method and factor analysis were used for data analysis.

Findings

Results show four significant conflict prevention measures for PPPs in developing countries, they include extensive stakeholder consultation in decision makings, clear goals and mutual benefit objectives, clarity of roles and responsibilities of parties and transparent appeal procedures. Using the factor analysis technique, the prevention measures are grouped into three unrelated categories, they are efficient communication structure and risk assessments, transparency and openness and proficient service delivery.

Originality/value

The research findings inform policymakers and local practitioners of the strategic measures and procedures needed to minimize the occurrence of conflicts in PPPs in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Book part

Paul van Tongeren and Guido de Graaf Bierbrauwer

To achieve an integrative and coherent approach to conflict prevention and peace building, a framework or infrastructure is needed. This framework should incorporate state…

Abstract

To achieve an integrative and coherent approach to conflict prevention and peace building, a framework or infrastructure is needed. This framework should incorporate state and non-state actors and set out a clear division of labor, a precondition for effective action aimed at preventing violent conflict. A parallel infrastructure must also be established in conflict zones. The pillars below describe the infrastructure proposed.

Details

Eurasia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-011-1

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Article

Mohammad Hadi Charkhakan and Gholamreza Heravi

Although several studies have evaluated effective factors for conflict occurrence, researchers have developed few methods of determining preventive capacities and…

Abstract

Purpose

Although several studies have evaluated effective factors for conflict occurrence, researchers have developed few methods of determining preventive capacities and determining preventive measures on the basis of an analysis of chain of risks that cause conflict. The purpose of this paper is to devise a mechanism for conflict prevention by evaluating chain of risks that cause conflict and different conflict types.

Design/methodology/approach

Efforts centered on facilitating the prevention conflicts through analyzing the effects of chain of risks on change causes, decomposing the mixture of conflict types in each conflict and determining the contribution of each conflict type to conflict creation.

Findings

The paper expands the existing body of knowledge on conflict management through the determination of complex relationships, namely, the relationship between conflict causes and project parties and the coherence between project parties and conflict types.

Originality/value

A practical example is analyzed to demonstrate the proposed approach capabilities. The results showed that using the developed approach to determine conflict type can serve as a means of control in projects and the developed approach can be incorporated into construction contracts as a conflict resolution mechanism. This paper presents an understanding of complex relationships among the chain of risks which cause conflict, the important players in conflict management process and different conflict types. It also provides a basis to select an effective management method for each conflict.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how employee commitment and identification affect the intra-group conflicts and to demonstrate the moderator role of some…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how employee commitment and identification affect the intra-group conflicts and to demonstrate the moderator role of some dimensions of core self-evaluation (CSE) on the relationship between commitment and conflict. Exploring relationships can provide a better understanding of the nature of intra-group conflicts and the development of prevention and conflict management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses case studies to illustrate the factors that amplify and weaken conflicts. Case studies describe conflicts within a single multinational company.

Findings

According to the results, the high levels of affective commitment and the degree of group identification reduce the relationship conflict, and the impact of affective commitment on the relationship conflict is moderated by the degree of self-esteem. The high levels of normative commitment and the degree of organizational identification reduce the process conflict, and the impact of normative commitment on process conflict is moderated by the degree of self-control. The high levels of professional commitment and the degree of occupational identification reduce the task conflict and that the impact of professional commitment on the task conflict is moderated by the degree of self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The results should also be confirmed by research using a quantitative method.

Practical implications

Managers need to increase employees’ commitment in a targeted way to increase their performance and to prevent conflicts. An important lesson for recruitment professionals is that in jobs where conflict prevention is particularly important, CSE levels that determine personality traits should also be tested.

Originality/value

The degree of commitment and identification also largely depends on organizational circumstances and the support of the manager. The factors brought into play by the employees, including the personality of the staff involved in the conflict, also play a role in conflicts. While these do not trigger it, some personality variables influence the outcome of conflicts. The study demonstrates that targeted enhancement of employee commitment and identification can address intra-group conflicts and that CSE is able to prevent certain types of intra-group conflicts through its moderating effect.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article

Nikolay Nikolov

The aim of this article is to formulate and represent some common characteristics about conflict of interest as a global legal occurrence. All the conclusions made here…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to formulate and represent some common characteristics about conflict of interest as a global legal occurrence. All the conclusions made here are based upon 11 European countries legislations. As do similarities so do differences in every separate legislation give us the reasoning that there is a common European model on conflict of interest. The aim of the article is to provoke a discussion on this topic which is to help creating a new and better European legislation in the field of conflict of interest.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic methods used for writing the article are comparison and analysis on the judicial system concerning conflict of interest in the treated European countries.

Findings

Conflict of interest is extremely important governmental instrument in the fight against corruption and spending funds or using public properties for private purposes. Besides some of the analyzed countries, i.e. Germany, where such an act is treated as a crime according to the criminal code, the conflict of interest is an administrative offence. Finding conflict of interest is a matter in the field of administrative control, so when there is a conflict of interest, it follows that administrative punishment should be enforced. There exists a conjunction between the substantive staff dealing with conflict of interest in much of the mentioned countries. Two main types of finding were described – by a specialized governmental body or by the appointment authority or by some other internal for the departmental system body.

Originality/value

The article claims that conflict of interest aims for higher public trust towards institutions and to consolidate democracy. As far as conflict of interest is often applied when the concern is spending a considerable funds, including supranational, there comes the question for the need of a new supranational legislation. A review was made on the conflict of interest in European countries. Free movement of people, goods and capital in EU boundaries demands a broadening of the existing legislative system.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part

Seifudein Adem

This chapter examines the role of political recycling – the practice of repeated utilization of former high-level politicians in government – in forestalling or, at least…

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of political recycling – the practice of repeated utilization of former high-level politicians in government – in forestalling or, at least, minimizing conflicts among political players. Drawing upon observations from recent political experiences of Japan, the chapter first demonstrates that political recycling in Japan is deeply embedded in the society's cultural practices rather than in the system of liberal democracy, which its leaders espouse. Political recycling in Japan, in fact, exhibits features that are antithetical to liberal democracy. The dynamic relationship between political recycling and conflict prevention in Japan are then analyzed as well as the implications of the analysis for places in Africa where political conflict has been rampant.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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Article

David Dunne, Amanda Geppert and Carol Ann Courneya

Physicians' uniquely privileged social status gives them influence to help prevent conflict in addition to treating its victims. Yet the peacebuilding role of physicians…

Abstract

Purpose

Physicians' uniquely privileged social status gives them influence to help prevent conflict in addition to treating its victims. Yet the peacebuilding role of physicians has received little attention in medical education. In this paper, the authors tackle both and provide some concrete guidance to medical schools interested in taking it on.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Qualitative Description, a review of literature and expert interviews in violence prevention, peacebuilding, medicine and medical education, three statements are posited: improved healthcare may enhance the prospects for peace; there are mechanisms by which healthcare may potentially enhance peacebuilding; and medical education can be designed to support these mechanisms. A “peace audit” is developed against which to evaluate the efforts of medical schools towards peacebuilding. This audit is used to assess a medical school in Nepal that is invested in peacebuilding.

Findings

Medicine has a role, both in resolving conflict, and in preventing its occurrence. The experts believe that physicians have a responsibility to go further than treating the wounded and address the root cause of conflict: the structural violence of poverty and economic disparity.

Originality/value

This paper considers the mechanisms by which medicine supports peacebuilding, and the consequences of this for medical education. The literature to date has not dealt with this issue.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article

David Ross

Ville de Montréal wishes to facilitate the planning and execution of large‐scale urban projects within the city limits. These projects promote a positive image of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ville de Montréal wishes to facilitate the planning and execution of large‐scale urban projects within the city limits. These projects promote a positive image of the city, increase real estate values and thus increase the city's revenues. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the use of partnering can help to achieve this objective.

Design/methodology/approach

To confirm the hypothesis, a multiple‐case study is undertaken with the objective of producing a literal replication. The implementation of partnering in three recently completed projects in Montréal is examined: Quartier des spectacles, Anjou‐sur‐le‐lac, and Quartier international de Montréal (Project Management Institute's Project of the Year 2005).

Findings

The use of partnering facilitates the planning and execution of urban projects. It has numerous positive impacts as long as a definite set of criteria is respected. It brings all stakeholders together, enables them to develop better communication, shares their interest in the project, unifies them in the quest for a common solution and gains everyone's commitment.

Originality/value

The use of partnering as conflict prevention method can be useful to project managers responsible for the planning and execution of large‐scale urban projects.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Book part

Steven Coissard and Liliane Perrin-Bensahel

This chapter aims to present the implementation of the United Nations 1325 resolution about the rights of women, including their protection against violence. This…

Abstract

This chapter aims to present the implementation of the United Nations 1325 resolution about the rights of women, including their protection against violence. This resolution is the main international instrument which incorporates and mandates a gender perspective in all aspects of peace building, from prevention to conflict resolution. It is part of a necessary evolution of gender relations in peace building since 1975 and the Conference of Mexico. More broadly, this text would lead to improve the women’s representation presence in the social and economic sphere and their important role in development.

Details

The Evolving Boundaries of Defence: An Assessment of Recent Shifts in Defence Activities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-965-2

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