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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Ken‐ichi Ohbuchi and Osamu Fukushima

Sixty‐six male Japanese students verbally interacted with a confederate opponent, who expressed unreasonable requests politely or impolitely. Half of the participants was…

Abstract

Sixty‐six male Japanese students verbally interacted with a confederate opponent, who expressed unreasonable requests politely or impolitely. Half of the participants was pressed to respond immediately, while the other half was not. Personality variables were found to determine the participants' responses to the conflict in interactions with the situational variables; that is, verbal aggressiveness increased hostile responses only when the confederate behaved in an impolite manner, and self‐monitoring increased integrative responses only when the participants were not pressed to respond quickly.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Silk Ugwu Ogbu

As Africa strives to catch up with the rest of the world at the economic, political and sociocultural fronts, there is an increasing coalescence around the need for…

Abstract

As Africa strives to catch up with the rest of the world at the economic, political and sociocultural fronts, there is an increasing coalescence around the need for backward integration and the revival of traditional business management practices as enablers in the global war for economic dominance. Unfortunately, a significant consequence of colonial rule was the systematic denigration and portrayal of traditional African institutions and knowledge systems as inferior to those of the West. Although the negative depiction of the African worldview has been extensively challenged in the academy, changes in their perception and adoption have remained slow. The ‘Igbo Apprenticeship System’ (IAS), widely recognised as the largest business incubator platform in the world today, is a great testament to the sophistication and resilience of indigenous African business models and the need to scale up their impact as a strategic step towards the economic emancipation of the continent. However, one fundamental aspect of IAS's success story that is hardly ever mentioned in the extant literature is its approach to conflict management. Understandably, business by its nature is competitive and conflict-prone. Nonetheless, the Igbos appear to have successfully managed different types of conflicts associated with their traditional business model without recourse to western methods or processes. Using a conceptual approach, this chapter attempts to examine the efficacy of the conflict transformation mechanisms in the ‘Igbo Traditional Business School’ (I-TBS) against the background of emerging challenges in the twenty-first-century business environments in Africa and around the world. From the prism of the Conflict Transformation Theory, the chapter argues that I-TBS can serve as a vehicle for the economic growth of the continent, but it must be prepared to deal with ‘new’ conflicts and demands arising from within and outside of its ecosystem.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Abdullah Promise Opute

This conceptual paper aims to offer a theoretical contribution that explicates the “blind spot” cultural diversity and reward diversity team conflict contingencies, and…

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper aims to offer a theoretical contribution that explicates the “blind spot” cultural diversity and reward diversity team conflict contingencies, and personal audit as a mechanism for managing the consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper suggests a framework for analysing and managing diversity (cultural and reward) driven team conflicts. Given the theoretical foundation, personal audit among team members is recommended as a tool for managing the consequences of such conflict factors.

Findings

This paper underlines the team building intervention utility for team effectiveness. It reinforces theoretical foundation that highlights conflict as a determinant of team effectiveness, and reviews two diversity dimensions of team conflicts. Finally, it suggests and explains an “active learning” personal audit model for achieving the conceptualised team effectiveness perspective.

Practical implications

The paper highlights critical but usually overlooked team conflict intricacies in football team management. This framework offers practical relevance in enabling understanding of “attitudes and behaviours” of team members and human resource management in football marketing. Managers would benefit from this perspective and improve team effectiveness, performance and organisation's performance.

Originality/value

The paper offers valuable conceptual insight for development, one that serves the interest of management of football clubs and academia.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Khuram Shahzad, Tahir Ali, Marko Kohtamäki and Josu Takala

This study aims to present an integrated framework and investigate the enabling roles of governance mechanisms (i.e. contract, interdependence, trust and communication) in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present an integrated framework and investigate the enabling roles of governance mechanisms (i.e. contract, interdependence, trust and communication) in the choice of effective conflict resolution strategies (CRS) that in turn facilitate buyer–supplier relationship (BSR) performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Web-survey, data are collected from 170 Finnish small- and medium-sized enterprises that have key relationships with suppliers. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the research framework and hypotheses of the study.

Findings

The results based on empirical evidence demonstrate how the firms’ choice of CRS depends on the governance mechanisms. The problem solving approach is the most preferable choice, while the legalistic approach remains the last resort influenced by different governance mechanisms. Interdependence and trust between firms drive them to compromise while resolving inter-organizational conflicts. The selected strategies by firms may also either reinforce or deteriorate relationship performance.

Practical implications

Supply chain managers should recognize the context in which these choices of CRS are made, as it guides them to anticipate their partner’s behavior as well as influences their strategy choice decisions when coping with conflicts. A trustworthy environment supports in providing a certain level of confidence while interdependency drives firms to compromise. The legalistic strategy can hurt the partner’s feelings and diminish relationship performance.

Originality/value

Conflicts in BSR have become inevitable, but the existing literature is missing evidence on how companies use CRS to enhance relationship performance. Hence, this study differs from those of earlier conflict studies, as it provides a more integrative perspective of buyer–supplier conflict resolution process. This study argues that relationship governance mechanisms can be connected to the choice of effective CRS when tensions arise. Moreover, by assessing the relationship between CRS and relationship performance, this study offers valuable insights to understand that effective strategies enable partners to mutually adapt constructive approaches that facilitate cooperative behavior and accommodate both parties’ interests and needs.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Ivana Monnard and Krishnamurthy Sriramesh

The purpose of this paper is to link public relations to peacebuilding. Although scholarship has discussed public relations as relationship management, the nexus between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to link public relations to peacebuilding. Although scholarship has discussed public relations as relationship management, the nexus between public relations and peace building has been understudied. To address this deficiency, this research studies the negotiations between the Government of Colombia and the FARC-EP separatist group that lead to the landmark peace treaty between the two entities that had fought for over five decades with thousands of deaths. Three research questions addressed the communication factors that contributed to the two sworn enemies – FARC-EP and the Colombian Government – finally sealing a peace agreement; the specific public relations strategies and techniques that led to relationship building between the two sides leading to the landmark peace agreement; and the use of the indicators of relationship building proposed by scholarship in the negotiations between the Colombian Government and FARC-EP.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method was used and a purposive sample of news reports from three national newspapers at specific key dates yielding a final sample consisted of 504 articles was analysed. A codebook with deductive and inductive categories was developed specially to study the existing communication factors (RQ1), public relations strategies and techniques (RQ2), as well as contributions by relationship indicators (RQ3). Given the sensitivity of the issues, only secondary data could be relied upon for this study.

Findings

The results of RQ1 fall within the scope of Grunig’s (2001), Sriramesh’s (1992) and Hung’s (2001) notion of the personal influence model where the leveraging of individuals’ network is important to facilitate communication. Indeed, the relations already existing and established with third parties are revealed to be fundamental to the success of the negotiation process. As for RQ2, findings demonstrate that the Colombian Government used third-party mediation, principled and distributive strategies, while FARC-EP mainly used contending strategies. But results showed that both used compromising during the whole process, and that both transitioned from one-way asymmetrical strategies, such as principled or contending towards compromising along the peace talks. Finally, findings demonstrate evidence of the four indicators of the relationship and their link with public relations techniques. The most evidenced indicators of the relationship were trust, commitment and control mutuality. Trust was the indicator of the relationship the most evidenced in the Colombian case. The dimension was built during the whole process and evolved continually. Distrust was the total between the two enemies at the beginning of the pre-negotiation. However, as parties entered into a relationship, confidence and trust increased.

Research limitations/implications

The inability to obtain primary data is the major limitation of this study. It was caused by the sensitivity of the topic.

Practical implications

This study links public relations to a very practical case that is also vastly understudied/underreported – peacemaking/peacebuilding – while also addressing communication by governments and civil society in Latin America – an area that is largely understudied.

Originality/value

This is the first study that links public relations with peacebuilding.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Bingsheng Liu, Xin Lu, Xuan Hu, Ling Li and Yan Li

Measuring the performance of public participation is conducive to improving participation systems. However, such measurement, particularly in urban regeneration projects…

Abstract

Purpose

Measuring the performance of public participation is conducive to improving participation systems. However, such measurement, particularly in urban regeneration projects, is difficult because of the complex indicators and multiple stakeholders involved. The purpose of this paper is to measure the public participation level in urban regeneration projects in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a perception difference-based method to measure the public participation level in urban regeneration projects in China. Specifically, an indicator system consisting of 12 indicators from three categories was first purposed. A perception difference-based method that integrates ANOVA test and Tukey test were then developed. The method was validated using five represented projects, and the results are interpreted based on a proposed measurement matrix.

Findings

Regardless of the type of indicator, the perception of the government aligns with the perception of private sector professions, however, deviates from the perception of citizens. By taking the mean score and the significance level among stakeholders of perception as two dimensions, different patterns of issues in the current participation practice in urban regeneration are manifested.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, the proposed indicator system and perception difference-based method combined to provide a holistic view of public participation, which is verified to provide a better measurement. Practically, the authors’ methodology helps in revealing issues in current participation practice and further leading to designing coping strategies. Nonetheless, the proposed method requires further validation in participation practices in China and other countries.

Originality/value

By considering the perception mean and the significance level as two dimensions, a public participation measurement matrix is proposed. The performance in different indicators are classified into four stages accordingly, namely idling, starting, running-in and accelerating.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Cheryl M. Patton

The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the interpersonal and intragroup conflict experiences of staff-level employees and leaders in the medical imaging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the interpersonal and intragroup conflict experiences of staff-level employees and leaders in the medical imaging technology field, working in US tertiary care centers to extract mitigation and management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 13 medical imaging technologists, who were employed in leadership and staff positions throughout the USA, offered their in-depth accounts of workplace conflict in this interpretive phenomenological investigation.

Findings

Conflict avoidance was a predominant conflict management style. This style did little to effectively manage workplace conflict. In some cases, it led to deleterious effects on individuals and organizations and created conflict perpetuation. With proper conflict mitigation and management, the conflict perpetuation cycle can be broken.

Research limitations/implications

Generalization beyond the group being studied is not applicable, as it is not the intent of phenomenological research. Four leaders participated in the research study. To examine this population more completely, a greater sample size is required. This recommendation also applies to the staff technologist roles. Another limitation involved the leader/staff-level representation inequality, as well as the male–female representation. These imbalances made it difficult to effectively make comparisons of the experiences of leaders with staff-level technologists, and males with females.

Practical implications

Offering the medical imaging workforce emotional intelligence training, health-care administrators can invest in their leaders and staff technologists. Medical imaging schools can incorporate emotional intelligence training into their curricula. Clear policies may decrease the ill effects of change when unforeseeable occurrences result in schedule modifications. Making technologists fully aware of who is responsible for shift coverage when these events occur may reduce negative impact. Trainings in organizational change, collaboration or positivity may be warranted, depending on findings of cultural assessments. Team-building events and opportunities for employees to intermingle may also be used to improve a departmental or organizational culture.

Social implications

Mitigating and managing health-care workplace conflict more effectively may prevent patient harm, thus improving the health of members of society.

Originality/value

According to recent studies, conflict, and the incivility that often accompanies it, has been on the increase in US organizations overall, and in health care specifically. Conflict that perpetuates can adversely affect health-care organizations and its employees. This paper offers mitigation and management strategies to prevent such consequences.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Uwafiokun Idemudia

The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine the extent to which oil multinational corporations (MNCs) can be both money makers and peace makers in the Niger Delta…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine the extent to which oil multinational corporations (MNCs) can be both money makers and peace makers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, and to consider its implication for the role of business in conflict mitigation in resource-rich African countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter presents a theoretical analysis based on secondary data and empirical research.

Findings

There is now an emerging consensus that business can be peace makers and money makers in developing countries as part of their social responsibility. However, the tendency to explore business-conflict linkage largely from a business perspective and to see conflict as an “incidence” that business has to respond to, as opposed to a “dynamic process” that is a function of the breakdown of stakeholder relationship, limits our understanding of the relationship between business and conflict. Focusing on the Niger Delta in Nigeria, it is argued that the contradictory tension inherent in the peace making efforts of oil MNCs and the nature of their core business activities (i.e., oil extraction) limits the incentives and undermines the capacity of oil MNCs to be peace makers.

Originality/value

The chapter contributes a critical perspective to the literature on business and conflict informed by nearly two decades of empirical research undertaken by the author in Africa. It analyzes how contextual factors in resource-rich African countries, previously neglected in the literature, influence both the willingness and ability of business to contribute to peace. It concludes by discussing the theoretical and practical implications for the role of business in conflict zones.

Details

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-152-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Paschal Anosike

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurship education (EE) interacts with knowledge transfer and entrepreneurial behaviour in a conflict Sub-Saharan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurship education (EE) interacts with knowledge transfer and entrepreneurial behaviour in a conflict Sub-Saharan African context.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth telephone interviews of 20 participants who benefited from EE knowledge transfer were used to document and analyse the effect of EE on their behaviours as micro-entrepreneurs in a conflict zone.

Findings

These participants exhibited rare forms of innovative behaviour, through their business skills, gained from their involvement in EE. In relation to the effect of the conflict on their entrepreneurial behaviours, it emerged that the conflict was not the major barrier to entrepreneurial intentions, it however affected how they made strategic decisions about downsizing, advertising and future business plans. Consequently, these decisions altered at different junctures because of the conflict and, therefore, defined their coping strategies.

Practical implications

The paper advocates a policy shift towards a more collaborative sub-regional approach to tackling the underlying causes of conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa through investment in EE strategies as a spur to economic development. Central to this are a priori assumptions about economically disadvantaged populations and their symbiotic relationship with conflict, a phenomenon frequently exploited by armed groups with deviant agenda. Thus, access to employment opportunities could benefit disadvantaged populations, thereby plays a decisive role in conflict mitigation.

Originality/value

The paper provides empirical analysis integrating EE with knowledge transfer and entrepreneurial behaviour in a conflict Sub-Saharan African context. In this way, novel insights are provided that contribute to current efforts aimed at developing a robust theoretical and conceptual foundation for EE domain.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Jing Zhang, Shifei Shen and Rui Yang

The purpose of this paper is to focus on resource allocation and information disclosure policy for defending multiple targets against intentional attacks. The intentional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on resource allocation and information disclosure policy for defending multiple targets against intentional attacks. The intentional attacks, like terrorism events, probably cause great losses and fatalities. Attackers and defenders usually make decisions based on incomplete information. Adaptive attacking and defending strategies are considered, to study how both sides make more effective decisions according to previous fights.

Design/methodology/approach

A stochastic game‐theoretic approach is proposed for modeling attacker‐defender conflicts. Attackers and defenders are supposed both to be strategic decision makers and partially aware of adversary's information. Adaptive strategies are compared with different inflexible strategies in a fortification‐patrol problem, where the fortification affects the security vulnerability of targets and the patrol indicates the defensive signal.

Findings

The result shows that the intentional risk would be elevated by adaptive attack strategies. An inflexible defending strategy probably fails when facing uncertainties of adversary. It is shown that the optimal response of defenders is to adjust defending strategies by learning from previous games and assessing behaviors of adversaries to minimize the expected loss.

Originality/value

This paper explores how adaptive strategies affect attacker‐defender conflicts. The key issue is defense allocation and information disclosure policy for mitigation of intentional threats. Attackers and defenders can adjust their strategies by learning from previous fights, and the strategic adjustment of both sides may be asynchronous.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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