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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Gerben A. Van Kleef and Carsten K.W. De Dreu

Two experiments investigated negotiators' information search strategies as a function of other's personality (cooperative vs. competitive vs. unknown) and own social value…

Abstract

Two experiments investigated negotiators' information search strategies as a function of other's personality (cooperative vs. competitive vs. unknown) and own social value orientation (pro‐social vs. selfish). In Experiment 1, participants selected questions about other's intention to cooperate or to compete. In Experiment 2, participants generated questions themselves, which were coded as asking about cooperation or competition. Consistent with the false‐consensus hypothesis (Ross, Greene, & House, 1977) and inconsistent with the triangle hypothesis (Kelley & Stahelski, 1970), selfish negotiators who had no information about the other's personality asked more questions about other's intention to compete, and pro‐social negotiators asked more questions about other's intention to cooperate. Furthermore, both selfish and pro‐social negotiators engaged in confirmatory information search. Implications in terms of a self‐fulfilling prophecy are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Sunghun Chung

The purpose of this paper is to examine how information load, consumers’ regulatory focus, and prior attitudes interact to influence consumers’ response to firm crisis in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how information load, consumers’ regulatory focus, and prior attitudes interact to influence consumers’ response to firm crisis in the context of online discussion forum. By doing this, this study presents the solving strategy for unintended criticism in online space.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on selective exposure and regulatory focus theory, the author proposes that consumers’ regulatory focus and prior attitudes toward a focal firm influence the relationship between information load and selective exposure phenomenon. The data for this study are obtained from an experimental research design. Data were collected from 165 college students who have an experience with an online discussion forum.

Findings

The author finds that selective exposure is likely to occur when information load is high (vs low). More importantly, this selective exposure is influenced by regulatory focus. Prevention-focussed consumers with favorable (vs unfavorable) prior attitudes toward the target firm tend to evaluate it less favorably, whereas promotion-focussed consumers with unfavorable (vs favorable) prior attitudes are likely to evaluate it more favorably when information load is high.

Originality/value

Evidence is found that consumers’ regulatory focus moderates the effect of information quantity on confirmatory information search, and induces different response strategies to firm crisis information.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2004

Victoria Husted Medvec, Gail Berger, Katie Liljenquist and Margaret A Neale

Time pressure impacts the information that emerges in a group discussion. Executives need help managing the challenges posed by time pressure to arrive at the best…

Abstract

Time pressure impacts the information that emerges in a group discussion. Executives need help managing the challenges posed by time pressure to arrive at the best decisions. In particular, we address two common biases that impact the group decision making process: the confirmation bias and the common information effect. Strategies are presented for overcoming these two biases, particularly the advantage of privately collecting information from group members within a meeting to surface unique information and disconfirming information. We also acknowledge that an executive’s goal may not always be to surface information; rather, an individual may be attempting to use a group meeting to push through a particular decision. We discuss the role of time in accomplishing this objective as well.

Details

Time in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-093-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Bernie Garrett

Abstract

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Empirical Nursing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-814-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Stephen Fox

Erroneous perceptions of relevance contribute to business projects not being successful. Although the importance of relevance is recognized in the project management…

Abstract

Purpose

Erroneous perceptions of relevance contribute to business projects not being successful. Although the importance of relevance is recognized in the project management literature, thus far there has not been a formal framework for addressing erroneous perceptions of relevance. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework for identifying and counteracting erroneous perceptions of relevance.

Design/methodology/approach

The research comprised review of the literature relating to factors that contribute to, and methods that counteract, erroneous perceptions of relevance.

Findings

Contributory factors to erroneous perceptions of relevance include cultural cognition, path dependencies, lock-ins, fads, and hype. Mediating factors include priming and questioning, counterfactual reasoning, and optimal stopping.

Research limitations/implications

A classification of erroneous perceptions of relevance is introduced Type III (inept positive) errors, Type II (false negative) errors, and Type I (false positive) errors. This terminology has the advantage of already being known to academics through statistical hypothesis testing, and to practitioners through process capability studies.

Practical implications

The introduction of a framework for identifying and counteracting erroneous perceptions of relevance can better enable practitioners to make the selection of relevant concepts and technologies for projects – a capable process.

Originality/value

The originality of this research note is that it provides a framework that can be applied to increase objectivity in perceptions of relevance. The value of this research note is that it introduces a framework for identifying and counteracting erroneous perceptions of relevance before the application of methods such as cost-benefit analysis.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Pouria Nouri and Abdollah AhmadiKafeshani

Although heuristics and biases seal the fate of entrepreneurial enterprises by directly influencing entrepreneurs’ decisions, previous studies have ignored the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Although heuristics and biases seal the fate of entrepreneurial enterprises by directly influencing entrepreneurs’ decisions, previous studies have ignored the role of gender in this regard by considering female and male entrepreneurs homogeneous in their susceptibility to heuristics and biases. Thus, this paper aims to advance the existing body of knowledge on heuristics and biases in the field of entrepreneurship by exploring two heuristics of affect and representativeness as well as three biases of overconfidence, escalation of commitment and illusion of control in female and male entrepreneurs’ entry and opportunity-related decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered through semi-structured and in-depth interviews with ten male and nine female Iranian techno-entrepreneurs active in advanced medicine and biotechnology. The gathered data were analyzed by thematic and narrative data analysis.

Findings

According to the results, while both male and female entrepreneurs show certain heuristics and biases, there are some noteworthy distinctions. More precisely, contrary to their male counterparts, the female entrepreneurs neither rely on the representativeness heuristic nor show any signs of the escalation of commitment in their decisions.

Practical implications

There are some valuable implications emanated from this study which could be of use for not only future researchers but also entrepreneurs, especially the ones founding and running small businesses themselves.

Originality/value

While there is a strong body of literature on heuristics and biases in the field of entrepreneurship, previous studies have considered female and male entrepreneurs homogeneous in their proneness to heuristics and biases. Thus, the current study enriches the body of knowledge by being the first comparative study of heuristics and biases in female and male entrepreneurs’ decisions.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Stephen Fox

For several decades, national culture has been described as having major influence over international business outcomes. Yet national culture has been framed often by…

Abstract

Purpose

For several decades, national culture has been described as having major influence over international business outcomes. Yet national culture has been framed often by vague terms and simplistic scales. The purpose of this paper is to explain why and how the influence of national culture should be reframed.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of literature concerned with causation in the behaviour of individuals and groups: anthropology, cognition, psychology, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology and cultural geography.

Findings

Within every nationality, and across international business, there is dynamic complexity of thought and action among individuals and groups. This derives from differences of genders, age, cultures, personality types and past experiences; the highly complex interactions between them; their commingling with common traits; and the varying influence of contextual factors. This dynamic complexity cannot be addressed by managers through use of vague simplistic conceptualizations of national culture.

Practical implications

As an alternative to vague simplistic conceptualizations, scientific theories, such as resource-based theory, knowledge-based view, contagion theories and social cognition theory, can be referred to in the formulation of multi-resolution simulation models. These models can enable managers to analyze dynamic complex international business scenarios, in terms of situation-specific variables.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is that it provides a detailed explanation of why vague simplistic conceptualizations of national culture are of limited usefulness to managers of international business. The value of this paper is that it describes a practical alternative: theory-based multi-resolution simulation models.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Theera Erawan, Donyaprueth Krairit and Do Ba Khang

The purpose of this paper is to expand and empirically test a model of tourist external information search behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand and empirically test a model of tourist external information search behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed based on the “three‐pronged approach,” an approach that is used to cross validate among the results from literature review, expert interviews, and an exploratory field study in order to confirm and propose a reliable conceptual model. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to ensure that the constructs were valid and reliable. Structural equation modeling was used to test the conceptual model and its hypotheses.

Findings

The results revealed six variables that are significantly related to tourists' external information search behavior. Four of these variables had not been identified previously. These are as follows: information sources usefulness and accessibility, subjective norms, perceived personal risk, and ability to search.

Research limitations/implications

The issue of model generalization should be taken into account because the samples were limited to non‐group tour and first time visited tourists. Further research should consider other tourist groups.

Practical implications

The results from this study provide useful information for both government and tourism‐related businesses in planning marketing communication strategies to help promote Thailand as a travel destination.

Originality/value

By proposing a managerial modeling based on theoretical foundations and methodologies, both quantitative and qualitative approaches, this study is among the first that expands the model of tourist external information search behavior by fully exploring the determinants of external information search behavior and integrates the theory of planned behavior into the model.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Mark E. Hopkins and Oksana L. Zavalina

A new approach to investigate serendipitous knowledge discovery (SKD) of health information is developed and tested to evaluate the information flow-serendipitous…

Abstract

Purpose

A new approach to investigate serendipitous knowledge discovery (SKD) of health information is developed and tested to evaluate the information flow-serendipitous knowledge discovery (IF-SKD) model. The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree to which IF-SKD reflects physicians’ information behaviour in a clinical setting and explore how the information system, Spark, designed to support physicians’ SKD, meets its goals.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed pre-experimental study design employs an adapted version of the McCay-Peet’s (2013) and McCay-Peet et al.’s (2015) serendipitous digital environment (SDE) questionnaire research tool to address the complexity associated with defining the way in which SKD is understood and applied in system design. To test the IF-SKD model, the new data analysis approach combining confirmatory factor analysis, data imputation and Monte Carlo simulations was developed.

Findings

The piloting of the proposed novel analysis approach demonstrated that small sample information behaviour survey data can be meaningfully examined using a confirmatory factor analysis technique.

Research limitations/implications

This method allows to improve the reliability in measuring SKD and the generalisability of findings.

Originality/value

This paper makes an original contribution to developing and refining methods and tools of research into information-system-supported serendipitous discovery of information by health providers.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Lulu Zhou, Jin Li, Yan Liu, Feng Tian, Xufan Zhang and Weiping Qin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of information search effort on the relationship between leader narcissism and team creativity in China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of information search effort on the relationship between leader narcissism and team creativity in China based on attention theory. The paper also explores participative decision making as a moderator in the relationship between team leader narcissism and information search effort.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a survey of 667 team members and their team leaders from 96 research and development teams at 23 high-tech enterprises in China with paired samples, cross-time data were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis, hierarchical regression and path analysis were adopted to analyze the data.

Findings

This paper found that leader narcissism had a positive impact on team information search effort, thereby promoting team creativity, and the effect of leader narcissism on team information search effort is more positive in the context of high participation in decision making.

Practical implications

Narcissism should be a noteworthy trait in manager selection and promotion especially for the departments and teams which focus on innovation and creation. And companies should pay attention to the team work processes to ensure that team members have the opportunity to participate in decision making for promoting the team leader’s narcissistic “bright” side in the institutional environment and avoiding the “dark” side.

Originality/value

This paper discusses how and when leader narcissism influences team creativity in Chinese high-technology enterprises based on attention theory. This research expands the application of attention theory at the team level.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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