Search results

1 – 10 of over 20000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Ca Nguyen and Alejandro Pacheco

This study has two primary objectives. First, it analyzes the information content of confidentiality strictness in corporate loan credit agreements. Second, it examines…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has two primary objectives. First, it analyzes the information content of confidentiality strictness in corporate loan credit agreements. Second, it examines how confidentiality strictness impacts covenant design, lending syndicate structure and loan pricing.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 6,327 loan credit agreements originated by US public firms in the period of 1996–2017, this study measures the confidentiality strictness in loan contracts using textual analyses that capture the appearance of confidentiality-related words and the length of confidentiality provision. All regressions include relevant loan characteristics, firm-specific accounting variables, industry and year fixed effects. To address the endogeneity concern, the paper uses borrowing firms' rival cash holdings and R&D expenditures to instrument for confidentiality strictness in two-staged least square regressions.

Findings

Borrowers which have higher R&D and operate in more competitive product markets have tighter confidentiality policies. Furthermore, this study reveals that confidentiality strictness is negatively associated with the imposition of financial covenants, especially performance covenants. Loan contracts for borrowers with stricter confidentiality on average have more relaxed covenant intensity, measured by the number of covenants. The study also shows that stricter confidentiality attracts finance companies, which have strong expertise in product markets of their parent firms, into the lending syndicate. However, confidentiality-conscious borrowers with higher degree of information asymmetry are subject to higher loan spreads.

Originality/value

This study provides the first examination of confidentiality policies in loan contracts and supports the idea that loan provisions are not simply made of “boilerplate” language. The results suggest that, for confidentiality-sensitive borrowers, the greater exposure to product market competition helps control managerial slack and substitute monitoring from financial markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Morag MacDonald

Research has shown that a key issue for prisoners using healthcare services during their sentence is that of patient confidentiality. Maintaining prisoners’ medical…

Downloads
103

Abstract

Research has shown that a key issue for prisoners using healthcare services during their sentence is that of patient confidentiality. Maintaining prisoners’ medical confidentiality has been shown to be difficult in the prison setting as many treatments, especially those considered to be out of the ordinary, are more likely to result in a breach of medical confidence. This can include treating infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis or tuberculosis, which can often include long term and regular contact with healthcare staff, and which, in some cases, may require referrals to specialists outside the prison setting. In addition, institutional factors unique to prisons may impact on healthcare staffs’ ability to maintain prisoners’ confidentiality, such as security or health and safety concerns. Drawing on research carried out by the author on healthcare and people with problematic drug use in prisons in a range of European countries, this paper considers the factors that impact on maintaining prisoners’ medical confidentiality and some of the attempts to address this issue.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Trina Magi

The purpose of this paper is to learn how many libraries take specific measures to protect patron confidentiality other than having a written policy, to measure library…

Downloads
974

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to learn how many libraries take specific measures to protect patron confidentiality other than having a written policy, to measure library directors' confidence in their own ability, and that of their workers, to follow confidentiality policies, and to learn what types of support directors need to better protect confidentiality.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper survey was mailed to all 213 directors of public and academic libraries in Vermont; 71 per cent responded. Data were primarily quantitative.

Findings

Few libraries reveal patron information by sending unsealed postcards, but many reveal patron information to third parties over the telephone. Library directors have a high level of confidence in their own ability to follow confidentiality policy and a slightly lower level of confidence in the ability of library workers to do so. Library directors need help in writing policy, getting access to legal counsel, and addressing the confidentiality of patrons who are minors.

Research limitations/implications

Vermont library directors may be different from directors elsewhere. The study asked about two library practices that put patron confidentiality at risk; other practices should be studied, as well.

Practical implications

Library directors can do more to ensure that library practices do not jeopardize patron confidentiality. Library directors need help and support in dealing with practical issues that emerge as they try to follow the ALA code of ethics.

Originality/value

The study begins to fill a gap in the literature by measuring library directors' own assessments of their organizations' ability to cope with enquiries about patrons.

Details

Library Management, vol. 29 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Valentina Franca and Michael Doherty

The article focuses on the role that ‘confidential information’ plays in relation to the work of board-level worker representatives, and their interaction with other…

Abstract

Purpose

The article focuses on the role that ‘confidential information’ plays in relation to the work of board-level worker representatives, and their interaction with other worker participation mechanisms. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to explore the implications of confidentiality of board-level information for effective worker participation. The main argument is that if board-level worker representatives are excessively constrained by confidentiality provisions, their capacity to work effectively is brought into question.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research was undertaken on a sample of 12 public limited companies in Slovenia. In each company, three interviews were conducted: with the CEO or board member, with a board-level worker representative and with a works councilor, who was not a board-level worker representative (36 interviews in total). Each of these interviewees has a particular role, and interest, in handling confidential information. Thus, a method of triangulation by groups was employed. The interviews were conducted at the company premises during October and November 2017. The results were analysed by the content analysis method.

Findings

This research confirms that in the majority of companies, nearly all of the material and information discussed by the board is deemed to be ‘confidential’. Consequently, communication between board-level worker representatives and the works council is rendered difficult, if not impossible. The results indicate an urgent need to redefine the concept of confidentiality and to reinforce the level of communication between management boards and works councils.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to one country, which, by no means, is fatal, as international comparisons, although of greater breadth, often lose some depth of analysis (especially, for example, where there are differences in legal contexts). Although the issues discussed in the paper are of relevance to all those with an interest in worker participation mechanisms, they cannot be generalised mostly due to national specificities.

Originality/value

The question of confidentiality as between the board, board-level worker representatives, works councils, trade unions and other form of worker representation, despite its importance, has been raised quite rarely in research. In this research, three groups of stakeholders (CEO/board member, board-level workers representative and works council members) have been covered, with the aim to extend the understanding of how confidentiality obligations impact relationships between these.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Rose‐Marie B. Antoine

The principle of offshore financial confidentiality is a controversial issue in offshore law. On the one hand, offshore jurisdictions view confidentiality in financial…

Abstract

The principle of offshore financial confidentiality is a controversial issue in offshore law. On the one hand, offshore jurisdictions view confidentiality in financial matters as an essential ingredient in the offshore industry which deserves to be protected. On the other, onshore states are increasingly hostile to confidentiality and have been willing to take drastic measures to undermine it.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Tim Bond

Discusses the ethical and legal complexities of confidentiality incounselling where, often, there is uncertainty about what the optimumpractice should be, and when there…

Downloads
2635

Abstract

Discusses the ethical and legal complexities of confidentiality in counselling where, often, there is uncertainty about what the optimum practice should be, and when there may also be problems in implementing ethical practice. Reports on the codes of practice, published by the British Association of Counsellors, which are intended to clarify this situation. Discusses confidentiality and the law, and a counsellor′s conflicting obligations to client and employer.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

D. Macarov

The use of computers in the human services has been laggard as compared to their use in other areas, such as industry, commerce and the military. Nevertheless, such use is…

Abstract

The use of computers in the human services has been laggard as compared to their use in other areas, such as industry, commerce and the military. Nevertheless, such use is growing rapidly, and rather than expose services such as social work, nursing, teaching, and psychiatry to the dangers of indiscriminate, inappropriate, and possibly counterindicated use of such methods, it has become increasingly necessary that the possibilities and problems inherent in computer technology as applied to each of the human services be carefully examined.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 10 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Lise Meylemans and Stan De Spiegelaere

The purpose of this paper is to study how employee representatives in European Works Councils (EWCs) treat confidential information and how such strategies might improve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how employee representatives in European Works Councils (EWCs) treat confidential information and how such strategies might improve the EWC functioning.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on interviews of several case studies of EWCs, this paper brings together insights from industrial relations and occupational psychology literature.

Findings

The results show that through actively challenging the management, an EWC can reduce the amount of information labelled as confidential and become freer to communicate with their rank and file. Actively challenging management, however, does not seem to impact the openness of the management to give early and complete information.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on several case studies, which limits the generalisability of the findings. The results, however, indicate that research is required on how challenging confidentiality can incite managements to provide earlier information.

Practical implications

The research show clearly the potential but also limitations for employee representatives in actively challenging the management over what information is confidential.

Social implications

This study studies a universally difficult topic for employee representatives: how to handle confidential information. The findings show that EWCs have little levers to force management to provide early information. For this, more structural change is needed.

Originality/value

This study is the first to focus exclusively on the issue of confidentiality in EWCs. This is a central concern for employee representatives, but research, until now, has not given much insight in which strategies work.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Ngoako Solomon Marutha and Olefhile Mosweu

This study sought to investigate a framework for ensuring the confidentiality and security of information at the public health-care facilities to curb HIV/AIDS trauma…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to investigate a framework for ensuring the confidentiality and security of information at the public health-care facilities to curb HIV/AIDS trauma among patients in Africa. In most instances, trauma to HIV/AIDS patients accelerate because of their personal information relating to the state of illness leaks to public people.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used literature to study confidentiality and security of information at the public health-care facilities to curb HIV/AIDS trauma among patients in Africa.

Findings

The study revealed that confidentiality and security of information has been neglected, in most instances, at the health-care facilities, and this has, to some extent, affected HIV/AIDS patients negatively, leading to trauma, stigma and skipping of treatment by patients resulting in accelerated mortality among chronic patients. The study recommends that patients’ information be always strictly controlled and kept confidential and secured at all the times, especially that of HIV/AIDS patients.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can be used by health-care facilities to guide the management and promotion of the confidentiality and security of information in the public health-care facilities to curb additional trauma to HIV/AIDS patients in the context of Africa, and even beyond.

Originality/value

The study provides a framework to ensure the confidentiality and security of information at the public health-care facilities to curb additional trauma to HIV/AIDS patients.

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Njaramba E. Gichuki

The purpose of this paper is to assess the balance between anti-money laundering reporting obligations and the doctrine of advocate–client confidentiality for legal practitioners.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the balance between anti-money laundering reporting obligations and the doctrine of advocate–client confidentiality for legal practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted for this research is secondary research and analysis.

Findings

The doctrine of confidentiality between advocates and clients and reporting obligations under the anti-money laundering regime are relevant issues today more than ever. The equitable doctrine of confidentiality seeks to protect confidential information provided by one party to another in circumstances that import an obligation not to disclose that information or to use it for unauthorised purposes. The Constitution guarantees fair trial. Money laundering is a menace that should be fought from all fronts. Self-regulation is the best bet to address money laundering for legal practitioners.

Originality/value

This paper is the work of the author and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 20000