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1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

K. Arshak, E. Moore, G.M. Lyons, J. Harris and S. Clifford

This paper reviews the range of sensors used in electronic nose (e‐nose) systems to date. It outlines the operating principles and fabrication methods of each sensor type…

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Abstract

This paper reviews the range of sensors used in electronic nose (e‐nose) systems to date. It outlines the operating principles and fabrication methods of each sensor type as well as the applications in which the different sensors have been utilised. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each sensor for application in a cost‐effective low‐power handheld e‐nose system.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Belkis Ustamehmetoğlu, Nesrin Köken, Nilgun Kizilcan, Ahmet Akar and Şebnem Tayyar

The purpose of this paper is to produce non-conductive copolymers of N-vinyl carbazole (NVCz) and methyl ethyl ketone formaldehyde resin (MEKFR) by the electroinduced Ce…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to produce non-conductive copolymers of N-vinyl carbazole (NVCz) and methyl ethyl ketone formaldehyde resin (MEKFR) by the electroinduced Ce (IV) polymerization method and the electrochemical oxidization of the formed copolymer to produce their conductive green form. The non-conductive and conductive copolymers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared, solid-state conductivity and spectroelectrochemical, chronoamperometric, cyclovoltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements.

Design/methodology/approach

The chronoamperometric electropolymerization of white, insulator form of the copolymer of NVCz and MEKFR (copolymer 1) on to Pt electrode was carried out and the green coloured film of the MEKFR-ox-NVCz copolymer (copolymer 11) was produced in the doped and conductive form. All reactions were performed in dichloromethane containing 0.1 M BU4NClO4. Copolymer 11 films obtained on the surface of the working electrode were removed and washed in acetonitrile and dried at room temperature before characterization. The results were compared with the copolymer obtained by electrochemical oxidation of MEKF-R and NVCz (copolymer 2).

Findings

The insulating copolymer of NVCz and MEKFR (copolymer 1) was produced by the electroinduced Ce (IV) polymerization method and converted into the conductive form electrochemically on the surface of the Pt electrode (copolymer 11). The polymers were characterized by electrochemical, spectrophotometric and conductivity measurements. The ionization potentials, optical band gap, peak potentials Ep, doping degree and specific capacitance of the copolymer 11 were obtained. The conductivity of the copolymer 11 is lower than the PNVCz and higher than the copolymer obtained by electrochemical oxidation of MEKF-R and NVCz (copolymer 2). The copolymer 11 has a lower onset potential than PNVCz and the copolymer 1 and slightly higher band gap than PNVCz. The capacitive behaviours of the copolymer 11 were very close to PNVCz.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on obtaining a green and conductive form of the copolymer of NVCz and MEKFR with the electrochemical method by using a white and insulator form of the same copolymer.

Practical implications

This work provides technical information for the synthesis of conducting copolymer of NVCz and MEKFR.

Social implications

These copolymers may be in the field of PNVCz applications such as photoconductivity and corrosion inhibition.

Originality/value

Electroinduced Ce (IV) MEKFR redox system was applied for the polymerization of NVCz monomer to produce the copolymer 1. The conductive copolymer 11 was synthesized through electrochemical oxidative coupling of the carbazole groups of the copolymer 1.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

A. Ravi, T. Praveen, Chepuri R.K Rao, Ramanuj Narayan and K.V.S.N. Raju

The purpose of this paper is to get the insulating polyurethane (PU) as conductive type polymer by compositing with oligoanilines, namely, tetraaniline (TANi) with an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get the insulating polyurethane (PU) as conductive type polymer by compositing with oligoanilines, namely, tetraaniline (TANi) with an implication of its use as anti-corrosion coating material.

Design/methodology/approach

Water dispersion of PU was prepared and used as a host material for TANi for composite formulation.

Findings

The composites are very useful as anti-corrosion coating on mild steel as evident from Tafel polarisation studies.

Research limitations/implications

The solubility of TANi is limited in other organic solvents; because of this, a high-boiling solvent like N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is used.

Practical implications

It can be used as a good anti-corrosion coating on mild steel. Apart from anti-corrosion material, this can be used as conductive-based sensor material and also electrostatic dissipation (ESD) or electromagnetic interference (EMI) shield.

Originality/value

The work is original.

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar, N.A. Abdelwahab and E.A.M. Youssef

The purpose of the paper is to examine the synthesis of polyaniline (PAn) and poly(m‐toluidine) (PmT) via an inverse emulsion polymerisation pathway and evaluate of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the synthesis of polyaniline (PAn) and poly(m‐toluidine) (PmT) via an inverse emulsion polymerisation pathway and evaluate of the synthesised polymers as corrosion inhibitors for steel protection in surface coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

PAn and PmT were prepared by inverse emulsion polymerisation using ammonium persulphate as an initiator and sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) as an emulsifier. Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted to characterise the prepared polymers. Latex paint formulations were prepared and dry paint films were evaluated for their physical, mechanical and corrosion protection performance.

Findings

The prepared conducting polymers of PAn and PmT are good candidates for enhancing the corrosion protection of steel. They showed good performance as corrosion inhibitors in latex paints without bad side effects on the physico‐mechanical properties of paint films.

Practical implications

Recent advances in corrosion protection of steel by coatings via inverse emulsion polymerisation of aniline and m‐toluidine have improved performance of anti‐corrosive water‐borne paints. Using formulations based on this new technology, offer uncompromised high performance eco‐friendly anti‐corrosive water‐borne systems that answer the future industrial demands from the economical and environmental points of view.

Originality/value

PAn and PmT prepared by inverse emulsion polymerisation showed promising results as corrosion inhibitors for steel protection. The polymerisation process was conducted in water (emulsion polymerisation) and the polymer lattices were incorporated in water borne paints from ecological and economical points of view.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

P.L. Kirby

Materials based on polymer films which are deposited by a screen printing process onto an inert substrate are finding innumerable applications in the fabrication of…

Abstract

Materials based on polymer films which are deposited by a screen printing process onto an inert substrate are finding innumerable applications in the fabrication of circuits in modern electronic assemblies. At one time the concept of ‘polymer thick film’ (PTF) technology might have been seen as an alternative to printed circuits on organic substrates or to thick film circuits on ceramic. The point is made here that, resulting from the very diverse range of materials now available, it is better to regard PTF as a supporting technology to be used in conjunction with other techniques from printed circuit or hybrid film technology. There are many examples where individual PTF materials have been selected and used in assisting or enabling roles with obvious technical advantages and significant commercial benefit.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Arief P. Tjahyono, Kean C. Aw, Harish Devaraj, Wisnu Surendra, Enrico Haemmerle and Jadranka Travas‐Sejdic

The purpose of this paper is to review the challenges present in the development of hand exoskeletons powered by pneumatic artificial muscles. This paper also presents the…

1089

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the challenges present in the development of hand exoskeletons powered by pneumatic artificial muscles. This paper also presents the development of a novel strain sensor and its application in a five‐fingered hand exoskeleton.

Design/methodology/approach

The issues of current hand exoskeletons powered by pneumatic artificial muscles are examined by studying the artificial muscles and the human hand anatomy. Traditional sensors are no longer suitable for applications in hand exoskeletons. A novel strain sensor was developed by depositing a conducting polymer called polypyrrole onto a natural rubber substrate through vapor phase polymerization and is used in the authors' five‐fingered hand exoskeleton.

Findings

The error of measurements from the polypyrrole strain sensor in controlling the actuation of pneumatic artificial muscles is within 1.5 mm. The small physical size and weight of the novel polypyrrole strain sensor also helped to keep the exoskeleton's profile (less than 20 mm) and total weight low (<1 kg).

Originality/value

The novel strain sensor allows the realization of hand exoskeletons that are lightweight, portable and low profile. This improves the comfort and practicality of hand exoskeletons to allow their usage outside the research environment.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Samaneh Matindoust, Majid Baghaei-Nejad, Mohammad Hadi Shahrokh Abadi, Zhuo Zou and Li-Rong Zheng

This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The…

6304

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The paper covers various radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies and gas sensors as the two promoting feasibilities for the tracing of packaged food. Monitoring and maintaining quality and safety of food in transport and storage from producer to consumer are the most important concerns in food industry. Many toxin gases, even in parts per billion ranges, are produced from corrupted and rotten food and can endanger the consumers’ health. To overcome the issues, intelligent traceability of food products, specifically the packaged ones, in terms of temperature, humidity, atmospheric conditions, etc., has been paid attention to by many researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

Food poisoning is a serious problem that affects thousands of people every year. Poisoning food must be recognized early to prevent a serious health problem.

Contaminated food is usually detectable by odor. A small gas sensors and low-cost tailored to the type of food packaging and a communication device for transmitting alarm output to the consumer are key factors in achieving intelligent packaging.

Findings

Conducting polymer composite, intrinsically conducting polymer and metal oxide conductivity gas sensors, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) gas sensors offer excellent discrimination and lead the way for a new generation of “smart sensors” which will mould the future commercial markets for gas sensors.

Originality/value

Small size, low power consumption, short response time, wide operating temperature, high efficiency and small area are most important features of introduced system for using in package food.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Prakash Mahanwar, Abhijit Sathyanarayana, Vaishali Bambole and Sunil Sabharwal

– The paper aims to discuss the evaluation of anti-corrosive efficiency of conducting polymer, polypyrrole in water borne epoxy-polyamine coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to discuss the evaluation of anti-corrosive efficiency of conducting polymer, polypyrrole in water borne epoxy-polyamine coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

Polypyrrole (PPy) is synthesised by chemical oxidative polymerisation. The synthesised PPy is characterised by employing FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX analysis. The coatings are formulated using water borne epoxy cross-linked with aliphatic polyamine adduct and the effect of PPy on corrosion prevention is studied. PPy was used as anti-corrosive pigment in concentration varying from 1 to 5 wt.%. In addition to anti-corrosive property; mechanical properties, chemical resistance and weathering properties of the coatings containing PPy are studied, thereby obtaining a wholesome data about the quality and performance of these coatings.

Findings

The result obtained through various tests showed that the coating with 1 and 2% PPy exhibited excellent weathering resistance, mechanical properties and improved chemical resistance. Higher percentage loading of PPy (beyond 3 per cent) proves to be disastrous, as extended percolation networks are formed which results in rapid intense corrosion leading to fast coating breakdown.

Research limitations/implications

The anti-corrosion property of the coating can be tested by means of atmospheric exposure such as Florida test which produces a real time evaluation of the anti-corrosive nature of the coating at natural condition rather than accelerated weathering, thereby providing more reliable performance data for intended application purpose.

Practical implications

The results find application in anti-corrosive/performance paints for industrial application.

Originality/value

This research paper presents the results of anti-corrosion behaviour of PPy in water borne epoxy-polyamide coating. Based on this result, a highly effective anti-corrosive coating can be formulated by the addition of small percentage of PPy in combination with other conventional pigments, thereby enhancing corrosion protection. But care must be taken so as to avoid formation of extended percolation network of PPy which leads to rapid coating breakdown.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

S. Abhijit, Prakash A. Mahanwar and V.A. Bambole

The aim of this paper is to conduct a real time evaluation of polypyrrole as an anti‐corrosive pigment in epoxy polyamide coating.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to conduct a real time evaluation of polypyrrole as an anti‐corrosive pigment in epoxy polyamide coating.

Design/methodology/approach

This study deals with synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) by chemical oxidative polymerisation in laboratory conditions. The synthesised PPy was characterised by employing FT‐IR, XRD, SEM and EDX analysis. Epoxy film of bisphenol type hardened with polyamide based curing agent was used as the binder. PPy was used as anti‐corrosive pigment in concentrations varying from 0 to 5 wt% in the coating. In addition to anti‐corrosive property, mechanical, chemical and weathering properties of the coating containing PPy were studied and compared with epoxy polyamide coating without PPy.

Findings

The result obtained through various tests showed that the coating with 1 and 2% PPy exhibited excellent weathering resistance, mechanical properties and improved chemical resistance.

Research limitations/implications

The anti‐corrosion property of the coating can be tested by means of atmospheric exposure such as Florida test or by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Practical implications

The results find application in anti‐corrosive paints for industrial application.

Originality/value

This research paper presents the results of anti‐corrosion behaviour of PPy in epoxy‐polyamide coating. Based on this result, a highly effective anti‐corrosive coating can be formulated by addition of small percentage of PPy in combination with other conventional pigments, thereby enhancing corrosion protection.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Ken Gilleo and Peter Ongley

Reviews the traditional use of thermoset (epoxy) adhesives for various bonding applications and highlights some limitations in today’s microelectronics arena. In…

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Abstract

Reviews the traditional use of thermoset (epoxy) adhesives for various bonding applications and highlights some limitations in today’s microelectronics arena. In particular, concerns for thermal and stress management associated with large area silicon bonded to a wide variety of substrate materials has led to an increasing interest in thermoplastic adhesive technology. Thermoplastics are not always the best solution for every application. This paper sets out to address the “pros and cons” of each polymer technology for different microelectronic applications taking into account some of the key physical properties such as Tg, TCE and modulus. In addition, practical issues such as handling, storage and processing are considered in detail.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000