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Article

Avraham N. Kluger and Michal Lehmann

Following the call of DeNisi and Smith Sockbeson (this issue) to integrate the literatures on feedback and feedback-seeking, the authors propose to view feedback and…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the call of DeNisi and Smith Sockbeson (this issue) to integrate the literatures on feedback and feedback-seeking, the authors propose to view feedback and feedback-seeking as behaviors falling on a conversation continuum ranging from telling subordinates something about their behavior (feedback) to listening. The authors develop a model according to which listening creates a special type of supervisor–subordinate relationship (an I–thou experience), which in turn allows subordinates to recognize faults and strengths in their behavior as to facilitate performance improvement, without the costs of formal feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

Theory development and narrative research review.

Findings

Feedback and feedback-seeking are communication behaviors emitted by a supervisor, or a subordinate, that can be conceptualized as points on a continuum ranging from telling (i.e. supervisor or subordinate giving feedback), through question-asking (i.e. supervisor’s or subordinate’s feedback-seeking), to listening (e.g. supervisor or subordinate listening to one another).

Research limitations/implications

Under many circumstances, listening can address organizational needs much better than feedback.

Practical implications

The feedforward interview in Listening Circles can be used to enhance performance at work.

Social implications

Shifting the attention from feedback to listening by managers and researchers could facilitate a host of positive outcomes including better performance, lower burnout, higher job satisfaction and less extremism.

Originality/value

This paper shows that listening is found on the other pole of feedback (telling) and exposes the benefits of considering listening, and not only telling.

Objetivo

Atendiendo a la llamada de DeNisi y Smith Sockbeson (este número) para integrar las literaturas de feedback y búsqueda de feedback, ofrecemos algunas aportaciones teóricas que extienden el estudio del fenómeno en cuestión. Nuestro objetivo con esta contribución es la de señalar formas más efectivas, aunque largamente ignoradas, de mejorar la comunicación supervisor-subordinado, y el rendimiento resultante.

Aproximación teórica y metodológica

Sugerimos dos cambios teóricos a la hora de aproximarse al feedback y la búsqueda de feedback: viéndolos como un proceso de comunicación relacional (diádico), y ampliando los comportamientos de comunicación para incluir la escucha. A continuación revisamos los resultados existentes para evaluar nuestra teoría.

Teoría propuesta

Nuestra teoría sugiere que el feedback y la búsqueda de feedback son comportamientos son parte de un continuo que va desde el decir a los subordinados algo sobre su comportamiento (feedback) hasta la escucha. Con esta visión, la escucha crea un tipo especial de relación supervisor-subordinado conocido como experiencia yo-tu, mientras que el feedback es más probable que genere una experiencia yo-eso, en la que el supervisor trata al subordinado como un objeto. La experiencia yo-tu, por el contrario, permite a los subordinados reconocer las debilidades y fortalezas de su comportamiento sin necesidad de un feedback formal. Además, el modelo teórico especifica condiciones de contorno. Específicamente, los beneficios de escuchar (a) se manifiestan principalmente cuando supervisor y subordinado forma una relación sobre una base segura, y (b) se ven comprometidos cuando las partes se relacionan de forma insegura.

Resultados

La revisión de la literatura confirma los beneficios de escuchar, en relación al feedback y el feedback buscado, pero sugiere que el papel del estilo de relación es más complejo que el planteado en el modelo teórico.

Valor

Teóricamente, explicamos porqué el feedback, y en menor medida el grado de feedback buscado, crean problemas de comunicación que evitan que el rendimiento mejore. En la práctica, señalamos algunas técnicas para escuchar al empleado, tales como los círculos de escucha, y la entrevista de feedforward, que pueden mejorar la comunicación y en definitiva el rendimiento.

Palabras clave

Feedback, Búsqueda de Feedback, Escuchar

Tipo de artículo

Papel Conceptual

Resumo estruturado

Atendendo a chamada de Denisi e Smith Sockbeson (este número) para integrar as literaturas sobre feedback e a busca do feedback, oferecemos propostas teóricas que expandem o estudo do fenômeno considerado. Nosso objetivo nesta proposta teórica é apontar mais eficácia, embora amplamente ignorada, de maneiras para melhorar a comunicação supervisor-subordinado e o desempenho resultante.

Abordagem teórica e metodológica

Sugerimos duas mudanças teóricas na aproximação do feedback e da busca do feedback: visualização do feedback e da busca do feedback como processos relacionais (diádica) de comunicação, e ampliando os mecanismos de comunicação para incluir a escuta. Revisamos os resultados existentes para avaliar nossa teoria.

Teoria proposta

Nossa teoria sugere que o feedback e a busca por feedback são comportamentos que fazem parte de um continuo que surge ao dizer aos subordinados algo sobre seu comportamento (feedback) para ouvir. Com essa visão, a escuta cria um tipo especial de relacionamento supervisor-subordinado conhecido como experiência eu-você, enquanto o feedback provavelmente gera uma experiência eu-isso, em que o supervisor trata o subordinado como um objeto. A experiência eu-tu, por outro lado, permite que os subordinados reconheçam as fraquezas e os pontos fortes do seu comportamento sem a necessidade de feedback formal. Além disso, o modelo teórico especifica as condições de contorno. Especificamente, os benefícios de ouvir(a) são manifestados principalmente quando supervisor e subordinado formam um relacionamento em uma base segura, e (b) comprometida quando as partes estão inseguramente anexadas.

Resultados

A revisão da literatura confirma os benefícios de escutar, em relação ao feedback e o feedback procurado, mas sugere que o papel do estilo do relacionamento é mais complexo do que aquele proposto no modelo teórico.

Valor

Teoricamente, explicamos por que o feedback, e em menor medida o nível de feedback procurado, cria problemas de comunicação que impedem a melhoraria do desempenho. Na prática, nós apontamos algumas técnicas para escutar o subordinado, tal como círculos de escuta, e a entrevista de Feedforward, que pode melhorar a comunicação e finalmente o desempenho.

Palabras clave

Feedback, Busca de feedback, Escutar

Tipo de artigo

Papel conceitual

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Article

Maria Teresa Borges-Tiago, Flavio Tiago, José Manuel Veríssimo and Tiago Silva

The digital relationship between brand and users, and brand and endorsers has been analyzed from different angles. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how these…

Abstract

Purpose

The digital relationship between brand and users, and brand and endorsers has been analyzed from different angles. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how these three elements co-create online the brand personality of the firm, through user-generated content.

Design/methodology/approach

This study gathered data from the hotels’ websites, Facebook, Twitter and TripAdvisor accounts, examining the content posted by the hotel, by tourists and by the celebrity endorsing some of the hotels. To pursue the aims, the brand personality dimensions communicated online were assessed through content analysis for the global presence and for each social network by user typology to establish the alignment of brand personality traits communicated.

Findings

Digital communication was found to vary significantly between the hotels and tourists in different social networks. The amount of content created by tourists is significantly higher than the ones produced by the hotel. The sincerity dimension of brand personality was confirmed in both communications. However, tourists’ brand image impacts brand personality differently than the hotels themselves. Furthermore, an analysis of the influence of customers on social networks indicates that celebrity personality traits seem to impact on the image of a hotel brand.

Originality/value

This research can be used to help brand managers to understand better the digital co-branding with clients and celebrity, as well as to identify gaps in their brand personality strategy. It could also assist future researchers focusing on digital celebrity endorsement since few researchers have analyzed digital communication in different social networks.

Objetivo

O relacionamento das marcas com os consumidores e das marcas com os endorsers tem sido analisado por diversos prismas. O objectivo deste trabalho é analisar como estes três elementos se relacionam e co-criam a personalidade de marca da empresa, através dos conteúdos digitais criados por estes.

Diseño/Metodología/aproximación

Neste trabalho foram recolhidos os conteúdos e comentários com origem na empresa, nos clientes e nos endorsers existentes nas páginas web oficiais dos hotéis, bem como no Facebook, Twitter e TripAdvisor. Através da análise de conteúdo foram determinadas as dimensões da personalidade de marca existentes em cada uma das redes e para cada tipo de utilizador, com vista a determinar a consistência e o alinhamento da comunicação de marca existente.

Resultados

Os resultados desta investigação apontam para a existência de diferenças significativas entre a comunicação com origem nos hotéis e a originada pelos turistas, nas redes sociais: os turistas criam mais conteúdos que os hotéis; e as dimensões da personalidade de marca comunicadas não são coincidentes, embora a dimensão sinceridade tenha sido encontrada nos conteúdos de ambos. As evidências sugerem que os traços de personalidade do endorser tendem a influenciar a personalidade da marca.

Originalidad/valor

Este trabalho ajuda os gestores a se consciencializarem da importância da co-criação da imagem de marca que ocorre no domínio digital, bem como permite que identifiquem as lacunas existentes na comunicação da personalidade de marca das suas empresas. Este trabalho pode ser útil também para os investigadores que queiram analisar o papel das celebridades na comunicação digital.

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Book part

Sonia Aguiar

This chapter presents an overview of the Brazilian regional media groups that are characterized by cross-ownership of media outlets in the four main reference platforms…

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of the Brazilian regional media groups that are characterized by cross-ownership of media outlets in the four main reference platforms for news coverage: daily print, radio, broadcast television, and Web.

The research uses institutional documents to explore the history and operating mode of the groups that own the 50 best-selling newspapers in the country. The theoretical approach is guided by the notion of “spatialization” applied to business communication by Vincent Mosco, and by the concepts of “region,” “regionality,” and “regionalization” based upon authors aligned with the critical thinking approach in the field of geography.

The study identifies the multiple geographical scales at which these groups operate, as well as their dominant business models and the sources of their owners’ capital. Based on this analysis, it argues that the variables which are applied to the large-circulation media at a national level cannot be automatically transferred to the regional and local levels.

The study of regional media reveals a landscape that has not received adequate attention from communications researchers worldwide. It also points to problems which deserve more investigation and elaboration. This represents a new challenge for media studies, for the political economy of communication, and for the nascent field of geography of communication.

This chapter provides a distinctive and nuanced approach to the Brazilian media system. It can inspire other studies on regional communication which take into account the specificities of their geographic scales.

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Abstract

Details

Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-785-4

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Book part

Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques and Luis Mauro Sá Martino

This chapter elaborates a phenomenological framework for the concept of “communication” by drawing mainly on the notion “lifeworld,” created by Husserl and developed by…

Abstract

This chapter elaborates a phenomenological framework for the concept of “communication” by drawing mainly on the notion “lifeworld,” created by Husserl and developed by Habermas. The concept of “lifeworld” is approached as a communication-grounded idea.

The chapter is a theoretical essay, grounded mainly on bibliographical research. Main sources are the two volumes of Habermas’ The Theory of Communicative Action (Habermas, 1987), seconded by other works by the German philosopher and some commentators as Stein (2004) e Pizzi (2006). The chapter endeavors to show that the phenomenological notion of “lifeworld” might be key to a critical understanding of main constructivist approaches in communication theory. It could be particularly illuminating where the focus is on a “reality,” which results from intersubjective interactions in everyday life. Most communication theories are media-centered, which means that they regard the “media,” both in its technical and institutional aspects as the main focus of the communication process. This chapter argues that the “lifeworld” is a far broader way to understand communication as a form of social interaction, whether mediated by media technologies or not. The chapter discusses the concept of “lifeworld,” framing its relational and communicative aspects as fundamental to the notion of “reality” as an interactive social creation. It also proposes the understanding of “communication” grounded on this phenomenological notion. Finally, it discusses some problems and limits of this approach, offering an alternative approach to conventional communication theory.

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Article

Marcel Meyer and Matthias P. Hühn

The purpose of this study is to discuss the advantages and challenges of using virtuous language in business.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss the advantages and challenges of using virtuous language in business.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a theoretical exploration based on a literature review and philosophical analysis that uses a quantitative study from the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) as its starting point.

Findings

This study argues that neo-Aristotelian leadership and positive leadership explain why companies whose financial filings use value-laden language that stresses the higher purpose of the organisation to outperform companies whose reports use the language of profit maximisation. While neo-Aristotelian leadership is based on Aristotle’s Rhetoric, positive leadership is primarily influenced by research results from Positive Psychology and Positive Organizational Scholarship. The two approaches to leadership highlight something that conventional business research largely ignores, namely, the role of values as drivers of human behavior and the importance of character in leadership. Both research streams indicate that it is possible for organisations to do well and do good because they are seen as groups of value-driven individuals. Thus, using virtuous/positive communication is a possible means to do well financially and to (re-)humanize the business world of tomorrow.

Research limitations/implications

The BHI study investigates the outcomes of written language only; thus, it does not consider oral communication. Moreover, there is no “perfect level” of virtuous language in corporate environments. We should not expect the same precision in ethics as in mathematics.

Practical implications

By way of explaining how to best use virtuous language in a business context, this study helps business practitioners to do good and well.

Social implications

This study offers a pathway to (re-)humanize tomorrow’s world of business, which is once again subjugating humanity to imagined technological imperatives.

Originality/value

By deliberating the benefits and possible downsides of using virtuous language in a business environment, this paper advances a topic that has recently gained considerable attention but is still in need for more research.

Propósito

el propósito de este estudio es discutir las ventajas y desafíos de usar el lenguaje de la virtud en los negocios.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

este artículo es una exploración teórica basada en una revisión de la literatura y análisis filosófico que utiliza un estudio cuantitativo del Boston Consulting Group (BCG) como su punto de partida.

Hallazgos

este estudio sostiene que el liderazgo neo-aristotélico y el liderazgo positivo explican por qué las empresas cuyas declaraciones financieras utilizan un lenguaje cargado de valor que enfatiza el propósito superior de la organización superan a las empresas cuyos informes utilizan el lenguaje de la maximización de beneficios. Mientras el liderazgo neo-aristotélico se basa en la retórica de Aristóteles. El liderazgo positivo es principalmente influenciado por los descubrimientos de la Psicología Positiva y la Teoria Organizacional Positiva. Los dos enfoques del liderazgo destacan algo que la investigación empresarial convencional ignora, a saber, el papel de los valores como impulsores del comportamiento humano y la importancia del carácter en liderazgo. Ambas corrientes de investigación indican que es posible que las organizaciones hagan el bien y que les vaya bien al mismo tiempo, justo porque son vistos como grupos de individuos impulsados por valores. Por lo tanto, usar la comunicación virtuosa / positiva es un medio que permite hacer el bien financieramente hablando y para (re) humanizar el mundo empresarial de mañana.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

el estudio BHI investiga los resultados del lenguaje escrito solamente; por tanto, no considera la comunicación oral. Además, no existe un "nivel perfecto" de lenguaje virtuoso en entornos corporativos. No deberíamos esperar la misma precisión en ética que en matemáticas.

Implicaciones prácticas

a modo de explicación de cómo utilizar mejor el lenguaje virtuoso en un contexto empresarial, este estudio ayuda a los empresarios a entender mejor la relación entre hacer el bien y que les vaya bien a sus organizaciones.

Implicaciones sociales

este estudio ofrece un camino para (re)humanizar el mundo empresarial del mañana, que una vez más está sometiendo a la humanidad a imperativos tecnológicos imaginados.

Originalidad/valor

deliberando sobre los beneficios y las posibles desventajas de usar un lenguaje virtuoso en un entorno empresarial, este documento presenta un tema que recientemente ha recibido considerable atención pero que necesita de más investigación.

Objetivo

o objetivo deste estudo é discutir as vantagens e os desafios do uso da linguagem virtuosa nos negócios.

Design/Metodologia/Abordagem

Este artigo é uma exploração teórica baseada em uma revisão da literatura e análise filosófica que usa um estudo quantitativo do Boston Consulting Group (BCG) como ponto de partida.

Descobertas

Este estudo argumenta que a liderança neo-aristotélica e a liderança positiva explicam por que as empresas cujas demonstrações financeiras usam uma linguagem carregada de valor que enfatiza o propósito superior da organização de superar as empresas cujos relatórios usam a linguagem da maximização de benefícios. Enquanto a liderança neo-aristotélica é baseada na retórica de Aristóteles. A liderança positiva é influenciada principalmente pelos resultados da pesquisa da Psicologia Positiva e do Estudo Organizacional Positivo. Ambas as abordagens da liderança destacam algo que a pesquisa convencional de negócios ignora, a saber, o papel dos valores como motores do comportamento humano e a importância do caráter na liderança. Ambos os fluxos de pesquisa indicam que é possível que as organizações façam bem e que façam bem porque são vistas como grupos de indivíduos movidos por valores. Portanto, usar a comunicação virtuosa / positiva é um meio de fazer o bem financeiramente e (re) humanizar o mundo dos negócios do amanhã.

Limitações/implicaçõesda pesquisa

O estudo BHI investiga apenas resultados de linguagem escrita; portanto, não considera a comunicação oral. Além disso, não existe um "nível perfeito" de linguagem virtuosa em ambientes corporativos. Não devemos esperar a mesma precisão na ética que na matemática.

Implicações práticas

Por meio da explicação de como usar da melhor forma a linguagem virtuosa em um contexto de negócios, este estudo ajuda os empreendedores a fazer o bem e melhor.

Implicações Sociais

Este estudo oferece um caminho para (re) humanizar o mundo empresarial do amanhã, que mais uma vez está submetendo a humanidade a imperativos tecnológicos imaginários.

Originalidade/valor

deliberando sobre os benefícios e as desvantagens potenciais do uso de linguagem virtuosa em um ambiente de negócios, este artigo apresenta um tópico que recentemente recebeu atenção considerável, mas precisa de mais pesquisas.

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Article

Jacobo Ramirez and Anne-Marie Søderberg

The purpose of this study is to explore how Danish and Mexican communication and management practices are recontextualized at the Latin American office of a Scandinavian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how Danish and Mexican communication and management practices are recontextualized at the Latin American office of a Scandinavian multinational corporation (MNC) located in Mexico.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study based on interviews, observations and company documents was conducted.

Findings

Well-educated Mexican middle managers appreciate the participative communication and management practices of Scandinavian MNCs, which transcend most experiences at local workplaces, but their interpretations and meaning system are influenced by the colonial legacy and political and socioeconomic context framing their working conditions.

Originality/value

This paper provides a contextualized analysis of a rich case study to further illustrate the challenges faced by MNCs in their quest to establish a regional office in a Latin American context and offers a theoretical model of the elements involved in complex recontextualization processes.

Propósito

El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar cómo las prácticas de comunicación y gestión Danesas y Mexicanas son recontextualizadas en la oficina latinoamericana de una empresa multinacional (EMN) escandinava, ubicada en México.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se llevó a cabo un caso de estudio basado en entrevistas, observaciones y documentos de la empresa.

Hallazgos

Gerentes de mandos medios mexicanos, con educación superior aprecian las prácticas de comunicación y gestión participativa de la EMN escandinava, que trascienden en la mayoría de las experiencias en el lugar de trabajo local, pero sus interpretaciones y sistema de significado son influenciados por el legado colonial y el contexto político y socioeconómico que enmarcan sus condiciones de trabajo.

Originalidad/valor

Este artículo proporciona un análisis contextualizado de un caso de estudio para ilustrar más a fondo los desafíos que enfrentan las empresas multinacionales en su búsqueda por establecer una oficina regional en un contexto latinoamericano y ofrece un modelo teórico de los elementos involucrados en procesos complejos de recontextualización.

Objetivo

O principal propósito deste estudo foi explorar como as práticas de comunicação e gestão, tanto dinamarquesa quanto mexicana, são recontextualizadas no escritório latino-americano de uma multinacional escandinava (MNC) localizada no México.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

Foi realizado um estudo de caso baseado nas entrevistas, observações e nos documentos da empresa.

Conclusões

As gerentes intermediárias mexicanas, que são bem qualificados, apreciam a comunicação participativa e as práticas de gestão das multinacionais escandinavas, que superam a maioria das experiências existentes nos trabalho locais, mas suas interpretações e seu sistema de significação são influenciados pelo legado colonial e pelo contexto político e socioeconômico que enquadra as suas condições de trabalho.

Originalidade/valor

Este artigo fornece uma análise contextualizada de um estudo de caso completo, que visa ilustrar melhor os desafios que serão enfrentados pelas multinacionais na sua busca por estabelecer um escritório regional neste contexto latino-americano, além de oferecer um modelo teórico dos elementos envolvidos nestes complexos processos de recontextualização.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Book part

Sandra Maria Cerqueira da Silva, Silvia Pereira de Castro Casa Nova and David B. Carter

The social role of women in Brazil is subject to significant change in both capacity and scope. While women constitute the majority of the population in Brazil, they…

Abstract

The social role of women in Brazil is subject to significant change in both capacity and scope. While women constitute the majority of the population in Brazil, they account for 40 per cent of the workforce, and thus, they remain comparatively invisible in public life. This is evident in political representation, as although Brazilian law stipulates that political parties must reserve at least 30 per cent of their nominations for women for legislative elections, this does not occur in reality. Furthermore, despite Afro-descendant Brazilians constituting the majority of the population, in the Chamber of Deputies, for instance, there are only 9 per cent Afro-descendant representatives. Therefore, this study focuses on understanding issues of political representation of Afro-descendant women in political spaces in Brazil – a country where politics is still predominantly white and male. Thus, despite a rhetorical position of an ‘open country’ with opportunities for all, the whiteness and masculinity of Brazilian politics illustrates the degree of mythology concerning the rhetoric of Brazil’s racial democracy. We employ a qualitative research approach in this study and we employ an oral-history-informed post-structuralist approach. We focus our empirical analysis on in-depth interviews with an Afro-descendant female accounting professor who was elected to an important political position. We argue that discussions about democracy in Brazil go beyond formal aspects of civil rights, as our study highlights the necessity of reshaping political processes to engender greater female and Afro-descendent participation, to engender both groups to seek political careers as well as to encourage political parties to include more female and more Afro-descendent candidates. The ultimate goal of such institutional reform is a reformation of ‘racial democracy’ as Afro-descendent women interact with, stand and succeed in Brazilian elections.

Details

Accounting in Conflict: Globalization, Gender, Race and Class
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-976-3

Keywords

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Book part

Ada Cristina Machado da Silveira, Isabel Padilha Guimarães and Clarissa Schwartz

This chapter examines elements of the regulatory framework in effect in the Brazilian Border Region and neighboring countries as they interact with elements of the culture…

Abstract

This chapter examines elements of the regulatory framework in effect in the Brazilian Border Region and neighboring countries as they interact with elements of the culture industry. Located in what is referred to as the Southern Arc, the first city we examine, Foz do Iguaçu-PR, lies on the border between Paraguay and Argentina. The second city is Tabatinga-AM, part of the conurbation region made up by a Colombian city and including the Peruvian border, coming to be known as the Northern Arc.

Our research was produced through the triangulation of primary data obtained in two trips into the field, carried out in 2013 and 2014, secondary data (official and semi-official) and academic bibliography.

Although projects relating to border integration, citizenship and economic development do exist, they do not question or challenge a nationalistic and politicized regime of representation portraying border areas primarily as routes for cocaine traffic or home to terrorist cells. The representation regime disseminated by mainstream media thus reduces the rich color and dynamics of the region to impoverished tones of gray recognizable in terms of “the name of the other.”

This chapter provides a relevant contribution to our understanding of communication processes carried out in two different regions of Brazil, both of them located far from the spotlights of mainstream Brazilian media. We employ a theoretical framework that combines geography of communication with perspectives on communication in borderland regions.

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Book part

Fábio Henrique Pereira

This chapter examines the professional identities of Brazilian journalists. It does so through an analysis of the growing professional autonomy of journalism from 1950 to…

Abstract

This chapter examines the professional identities of Brazilian journalists. It does so through an analysis of the growing professional autonomy of journalism from 1950 to 1990 through the life stories of 10 intellectual-journalists, individuals whose journalistic activities have crossed over into other intellectual fields.

This study applies a symbolic interactionist framework to understand how these actors managed their reputations and careers within the intellectual world. The narratives were taken from qualitative semi-structured interviews, and supported by additional research such as interviews, biographies, and articles which have been published about their lives.

The life stories were compared to the extensive structural changes affecting the world of journalism and the world of intellectuals in Brazil. This comparison revealed gaps between these two spheres of practice, within which the ambivalent form of journalists’ identities have been constructed.

This chapter offers two contributions to the study of Brazilian journalists. From a theoretical and methodological viewpoint, it advances beyond other studies that focus more on the prevailing representations of journalists’ professional identities and their role in society. From an empirical standpoint, it describes the complex negotiations between the worlds of journalism, culture and politics. This chapter also reexamines the current dominant explanation for the changes in Brazilian journalism. It shows that building careers and new levels of interpersonal cooperation for intellectuals and journalists has been a slow process. Ultimately, this development has left some behind, especially those actors stretched between multiple professional identities such as those who self-identify as intellectual-journalists.

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