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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Torkil Clemmensen

To outline how psychology as one of the original approaches to human‐computer interaction (HCI) has formed a key part of the HCI literature, and to discuss the need for…

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Abstract

Purpose

To outline how psychology as one of the original approaches to human‐computer interaction (HCI) has formed a key part of the HCI literature, and to discuss the need for psychological approaches to HCI and system development.

Design/methodology/approach

The contributions to the journal Human‐Computer Interaction is examined from the journal's start in 1985 up to the millennium. The analysis focuses the three main elements, task, user and computer, in the classic study “Psychology of human‐computer interaction” from 1983.

Findings

Provides information about authorship, and form and focus of research published. The paper concludes that already from the beginning, HCI researchers too narrowly used Card et al.'s analytical framework. Today it has developed into a sub‐theory within a multidisciplinary HCI science and in this role it continues to be an important cumulative factor in HCI.

Research limitations/implications

The main conclusion about the role of psychology in HCI only applies to the mainly US authors who published in the journal investigated in the given period. European research focusing on information technology and people may differ in important ways.

Practical implications

A much needed discussion of a central document of historical importance tying together many HCI researchers and a range of HCI studies.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils partly the need for meta‐analyses of the psychological approach to HCI.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Lyn Richards and Tom Richards

The analysis of unstructured information, particularly in the form of text, has long been a technique in the armory of social scientists, who have to deal with…

Abstract

The analysis of unstructured information, particularly in the form of text, has long been a technique in the armory of social scientists, who have to deal with conversational records, historical documents, unstructured interviews, and the like. Unsurprisingly, a considerable amount of methodological literature has developed on the subject. The methods of “qualitative data analysis” have now spread to areas of information analysis as diverse as market research and legal evidence analysis. Related computer techniques, from database management systems and word‐processors to specialized qualitative data analysis software, have been pressed into use. This article discusses the information processing methodology and theory assumed by computer‐based qualitative data analysis software; and, in particular, describes and analyzes the methodology of the NUDIST system developed by the authors.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Jintae Lee and Younghwa Lee

Past studies suggest that computer security countermeasures such as security policies, systems, and awareness programs would be effective in preventing computer abuse in…

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3457

Abstract

Past studies suggest that computer security countermeasures such as security policies, systems, and awareness programs would be effective in preventing computer abuse in organizations. They are based on the general deterrence theory, which posits that when an organization implements countermeasures that threaten abusers, its computer abuse problems would be deterred. However, computer abuse problems persist in many organizations despite these measures. This article proposes a new model of computer abuse that extends the traditional model with the social criminology theories. Focusing on computer abuse within organizations, the model explains the phenomenon through social lenses such as social bonds and social learning. The new model contributes to our theoretical body of knowledge on computer abuse by providing a new angle for approaching the problem. It suggests to practitioners that both technical and social solutions should be implemented to reduce the pervasive computer abuse problems.

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Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Dalibor Fiala and Lutz Bornmann

The current article presents the results of a case study dealing with the historical roots of Eastern European researchers in computer science.

Abstract

Purpose

The current article presents the results of a case study dealing with the historical roots of Eastern European researchers in computer science.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on an analysis of cited references stemming from a collection of around 80,000 computer science papers by Eastern European researchers published from 1989 to 2014. By using a method called “reference publication year spectroscopy” (RPYS) for historical analyses based on bibliometric data, we analyze around 800,000 references cited in those papers. The study identifies the peak years, including most frequently cited publications (from 1952, 1965 and 1975), and focuses on these outstanding works for the field. The research shows how these influential papers were cited in Eastern Europe and in general, and on which scientific fields they have the most impact.

Findings

A noteworthy publication that seems to have a tremendous effect on Eastern European computer science is Zadeh's “Fuzzy sets” article which appeared in Information and Control in 1965. The study demonstrates that computer scientists from Eastern Europe are more conservative in their citation behaviour and tend to refer to older and more established research than their counterparts from the West.

Originality/value

Which are the historical roots of researchers working in a particular field or on a specific topic? Are there certain publications – landmark papers – which are important for their research? We guess that these are questions bothering researchers in many fields.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

JULIAN WARNER

Semiotics studies systems of signs. It regards all sign systems as the product of a single human faculty for creating order. The distinction it provides, of signifier…

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358

Abstract

Semiotics studies systems of signs. It regards all sign systems as the product of a single human faculty for creating order. The distinction it provides, of signifier, sign and signified, can give a more sophisticated and incisive way of differentiating aspects of the sign than can be derived from any other known source. Information science would seem to have some unnoticed affinities with semiotics in its concerns with the retrieval and transmission of material products of the semiotic faculty and with meaning to concept relations. The alignment of information science with the physical sciences and technology has been criticised and its disciplinary identity questioned. Information science would seem to derive what identity it has from a widely shared concern with computer based retrieval of documentary information. However, a unifying principle for the document and the computer has not been enunciated. For semiotics, written language, and computer programs can be comprehended within the analytical category of the signifier. Automata theory regards the computer as a universal information machine and replaces ideas of energy and motion by logical operations. At the level of discourse of logical operations, there is no distinction between a written expression, or program, and the particular information machine specified by that written expression. Elements in linguistics, not registered in the literature of information science, have departed from the received position that written language is simply a representation of speech and have preferred to regard it as an autonomous system of signs. A specific unifying principle for the document and the computer is then the presence of writing. Revealing such a unifying principle indicates that semiotics can clarify significant issues within the established domains of information science.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Hsin Chi

For the broad understanding of sustainable development, items such as seasonal change, timing of restrained harvesting and the rate of regeneration of natural resources…

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1916

Abstract

For the broad understanding of sustainable development, items such as seasonal change, timing of restrained harvesting and the rate of regeneration of natural resources, as well as the theories of population growth are crucial. Similarly, in the world of computing as a whole and computing simulation in particular, three important components of models are theory, data and program. A model for global sustainability should include sub‐models for different resources and consumers in the ecological system. In this paper, a sample of sub‐models relating to areas such as human population growth, water, soil and land, greenhouse gases and CO2, conservation, forests and harvesting are listed, combined with other models such as pollution, waste treatment and ozone levels. The complexity of such simulations and their relevance to the current debate on sustainability are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 1994

Pertti Vakkari

Abstract

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12024-618-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

A. Savini

Gives introductory remarks about chapter 1 of this group of 31 papers, from ISEF 1999 Proceedings, in the methodologies for field analysis, in the electromagnetic…

Abstract

Gives introductory remarks about chapter 1 of this group of 31 papers, from ISEF 1999 Proceedings, in the methodologies for field analysis, in the electromagnetic community. Observes that computer package implementation theory contributes to clarification. Discusses the areas covered by some of the papers ‐ such as artificial intelligence using fuzzy logic. Includes applications such as permanent magnets and looks at eddy current problems. States the finite element method is currently the most popular method used for field computation. Closes by pointing out the amalgam of topics.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Zdenka Ženko and Jure Marn

In this paper we tried to apply some system theory in the complex problems of intellectual property management by presenting some relevant current issues regarding…

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540

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper we tried to apply some system theory in the complex problems of intellectual property management by presenting some relevant current issues regarding standards and possibilities of computer software protection. Systemic approach to involvement in lucrative business of software is examined, from the point of innovations incorporated within standards and software.

Design/methodology/approach

Two competing concepts are confronted: public accessible standards, and public exclusionary patents, both in the area of software development and software patenting. Actual examples of controversies are presented, and commented.

Findings

Patents are legalized monopolies. Monopolists exact higher prices than free market enterprises. Our results indicate that there needs to be balance between public interest in free access to technological information and monopolies. Owing to the lack of system theory applied in this problem solving processes the issues remain unsolved and also unclear to many involved in the process.

Research limitations/implications

More research in different fields of specialization and selected view points would be needed to present, understand and excellently manage this area of intellectual property to balance the advantage of general public benefits versus inventors. In this paper only some economic and legal views are presented.

Practical implications

Implications for managers strategies are discussed. Managers should take active role in standard setting, and software patenting. Public interest should be in influencing these developments and regulations.

Originality/value

The subject of standards and software is a less studied one and is becoming more important.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Christy M. K. Cheung, Dimple R. Thadani and Zach W. Y. Lee

With growing interest in the uses of hedonic technologies and gamification in system design, the concept of cognitive absorption (CA) has become increasingly salient in…

Abstract

With growing interest in the uses of hedonic technologies and gamification in system design, the concept of cognitive absorption (CA) has become increasingly salient in the information systems literature. However, little effort has been made to evaluate the research status and consolidate the current literature findings. To fill these research gaps, the authors conducted a literature review on CA. The authors then proposed an integrative framework that summarises the key elements of and variables related to CA and their relationships. The major findings of the study are discussed, and an agenda for future research is proposed.

Details

Information Technology in Organisations and Societies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives from AI to Technostress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-812-3

Keywords

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