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We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of industry…
We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of industry-wide value chains, such that different stages are controlled by different firms, rather than being vertically integrated within the boundaries of individual firms. In some cases, vertical specialization may span international boundaries and is associated with complex international production networks. After decades of vertical specialization, firms in the chemical industry are re-integrating stages of the value chain. By contrast, the semiconductor and computer industries have experienced significant vertical specialization during the past ten years. We examine how and why these contrasting trends in vertical specialization have co-evolved with industry maturation and decline, and underscore the importance and role of both industry factors and business strategies necessary for industries to become more specialized. We also consider the effects of vertical specialization on the sources of innovation and the geographic redistribution of production and other activities. We conclude that the evolution of vertical specialization in these three industries has both reflected and influenced the strategies of leading firms, while also displays industry-specific characteristics that are rooted in different technological and market characteristics.
Purpose – The broader aim of this research is twofold. First, we aim to better understand how the business computer was conceptualized and used within U.S. industry…
Purpose – The broader aim of this research is twofold. First, we aim to better understand how the business computer was conceptualized and used within U.S. industry. Second, this research investigates the role of social factors such as relational structure, institutional entrepreneurs, and position in the formation of conceptualizations of new technologies.
Design/methodological/approach – This paper is theoretically motivated in the sense that it responds to the lack of attention to the failure of institutional entrepreneurs to change belief systems. Through detailed archival, network, and descriptive statistical analysis, the paper shows how the failed institutional entrepreneur fits conventional explanations for success. The paper then analyzes two matched cases, comparing the insurance industry's rejection of the institutional entrepreneur with manufacturing's acceptance, in order to identify what is missing in current explanations of institutional entrepreneurs.
Findings – Our analysis reveals that the role of the audience structure in interpreting the institutional entrepreneur's message influences the change outcome. In our case, the institutional entrepreneur's view of the computer as a brain that supported decision-oriented applications did not fit with views of the insurance groups who had centralized authority over interpreting the computer. Because manufacturing had less centralized control in its discourse around the computer, there were fewer constraints on assimilation, allowing the entrepreneur's views to resonate with some of the occupational groups.
Research limitations/implications – This paper develops a theoretical approach to institutional entrepreneurship that situates the entrepreneurial efforts of individual actors within a system characterized by the structure of its audience and subject to distinct historical macro-structural processes that present significant obstacles to the realization of their entrepreneurial projects.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States are going through deep and dramatic changes and are entering a new era. The development of high‐technology…
Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States are going through deep and dramatic changes and are entering a new era. The development of high‐technology industries is considered crucial to help revitalize the economies of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the eastern provinces of Germany (former German Democratic Republic), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the old Soviet Union. Moreover, the current status, operation, and progress of the information processing industry represent the most fascinating areas of old East Bloc industrialization. It is widely known that the majority of industries in these countries are obsolete in comparison with the Western countries. Computer and communications technologies comprise this branch of industry where the technological gap between East and West is the widest. Catching up with western countries would take eastern countries ten years for software and supercomputers, eight years for mainframes, six years for microprocessors, and five years for minicomputers. Western countries consider this necessity to catch up as one of the main obstacles to future European integration.
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to…
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover specific articles devoted to certain topics. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume III, in addition to the annotated list of articles as the two previous volumes, contains further features to help the reader. Each entry within has been indexed according to the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus and thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid information retrieval. Each article has its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. The first Volume of the Bibliography covered seven journals published by MCB University Press. This Volume now indexes 25 journals, indicating the greater depth, coverage and expansion of the subject areas concerned.
Although there are many companies in the computer industry which represent excellent examples of success stories, Apple Computers, Hewlett Packard, and Microsoft, were…
Although there are many companies in the computer industry which represent excellent examples of success stories, Apple Computers, Hewlett Packard, and Microsoft, were chosen because each pioneered specific areas of the computer industry. For Apple computers it was the move from large main frame computer systems to personal computers; Hewlett Packard led the industry in developing both high quality and low cost ink jet and laser printers; and Microsoft launched their multi‐billion dollar business developing software compatible with Apple and IBM computers. Getting to market first helped each one of these companies establish themselves as a leader in the industry, but as all three companies understand, today's products quickly become obsolete in this constantly changing industry.
Both China and Taiwan have pursued aggressive investments in the computer industry over the last five years. Using Michael Porter’s Determinants of National Competitive…
Both China and Taiwan have pursued aggressive investments in the computer industry over the last five years. Using Michael Porter’s Determinants of National Competitive Advantage, the potential of both countries can be analyzed not only separately, but also in terms of the combined resources based on the possibility that Taiwan and China join forces in pursuing a stronger position in the global computer industry. The critical factor in determining the synergies will be the policies of the governments of China and Taiwan.
While there are similarities in the patterns of expansion between the television, semiconductor and computer industries, there are likely to be important differences…
While there are similarities in the patterns of expansion between the television, semiconductor and computer industries, there are likely to be important differences. These will derive from the fact that ten years' experience of overseas marketing and manufacture of the former two industries can now be put to good use in the strategy for international expansion of computers.
Aims to: determine the degree of association between the setting of pricing objectives and the firm’s financial performance in the Scottish computer industry; to determine…
Aims to: determine the degree of association between the setting of pricing objectives and the firm’s financial performance in the Scottish computer industry; to determine the extent of the relationship between prime pricing objectives and the nature of competition; to analyse the relationship between pricing objectives and firm size; and to determine the degree of association between setting pricing objectives and stages of market evolution. Finds that most firms within the Scottish computer industry had some control over pricing decisions. Furthermore, there was no strong evidence to suggest that the setting of pricing objectives varied systematically with financial performance, levels of competition, firm size or stages of market evolution. Finds, however, that the most profitable firms placed more importance on market share, whereas less profitable firms regarded cash‐flow objectives as more important.
Today, due to the rapid change of manufacturing technology, manyfirms have to produce efficiently with minimum cost and best quality inorder to maintain their status in…
Today, due to the rapid change of manufacturing technology, many firms have to produce efficiently with minimum cost and best quality in order to maintain their status in the markets. Having invested a great deal of money in R&D the manufacturing environment is very competitive, using many advanced technologies such as computers, microelectronics, Computer‐Aided Design, Computer‐Aided Manufacturing, Flexible Manufacturing Systems and industrial robots. This means managers must acquire some technical knowledge and workers must be prepared to move from direct manufacturing to the information sector or to professional services because automation requires many professionals and technicians.