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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1993

Avi Rushinek and Sara F. Rushinek

Whilst the development of a crime‐proof computer operating systemseems very unlikely, more could be done to deter, discover, litigate andpunish computer criminals. Because…

Abstract

Whilst the development of a crime‐proof computer operating system seems very unlikely, more could be done to deter, discover, litigate and punish computer criminals. Because of the limited sophistication of security devices, experts shy away from them, while managers and attorneys (unaware of their limited sophistication) refrain from using security devices either because of their high cost or in the erroneous belief that computer crime is a low risk. To control computer crime, the computer experts should assist both management and the legal community, especially where management loosely carries out the existing policies, procedures, and preventive controls, giving a false impression of high security which makes it even more difficult to discover and gather evidence of crime.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 8 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Justin T. Davis

The purpose of this study is to examine the perceived needs of local law enforcement investigating crimes characterized by a cyber component.

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1933

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the perceived needs of local law enforcement investigating crimes characterized by a cyber component.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 263 surveys were mailed to local law enforcement from across the state of North Carolina. Responses were received from 127 agencies – municipal police departments and county sheriffs' offices – comprising 71 of 100 North Carolina counties being represented.

Findings

Results indicate that local law enforcement continues to lack adequate training, personnel, and equipment to investigate crimes with a cyber component. Additionally, perceived levels of preparation and police agency size are positively related. Data also confirm a significant association between an agency's jurisdiction population size and the number of investigations for these crimes.

Research limitations/implications

In a snapshot manner, this study solely examines the perceived investigative needs of law enforcement in the state of North Carolina. Additional data is needed to determine not only the prevalence of computer‐related crimes in other jurisdictions, but levels of preparedness. The lack of a universal definition of computer crime has implications on the data within as they are often estimated or perceived by respondents.

Practical implications

With numerous issues in need of attention, leadership from both government and law enforcement must begin to recognize the problems associated with computers and crime to effectively implement strategies that will enhance computer crime control.

Originality/value

This study is valuable as prior studies have largely been conducted at the national level and have predominantly discounted smaller agencies from their research. This research adds empirical evidence to the issue of law enforcement preparedness in investigating crimes with a cyber component.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

R.E. Bell

Criminals have always exploited technological advances and therefore the advent of the gun, the telephone and the car created new opportunities for crime. Similarly, the…

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1118

Abstract

Criminals have always exploited technological advances and therefore the advent of the gun, the telephone and the car created new opportunities for crime. Similarly, the increasingly widespread use of computers in society has led to computer‐related crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Craig S. Hannaford

Computer crime and the abuse of computer and telecommunicationssystems have become a serious threat to the integrity of informationsystems. The Organization for Economic…

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1621

Abstract

Computer crime and the abuse of computer and telecommunications systems have become a serious threat to the integrity of information systems. The Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development has addressed this problem as has Interpol. National governments such as Canada have enacted specific laws against this type of crime. Information technology security principles can prevent the commission of computer crimes. Refers to basic information technology principles and gives some examples of computer crimes and how application of IT security principles may have prevented these crimes.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Sameer Hinduja

As computer and Internet‐related crimes continue to increase in prevalence and scope, some law enforcement agencies have developed specialized task forces to address the…

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2509

Abstract

As computer and Internet‐related crimes continue to increase in prevalence and scope, some law enforcement agencies have developed specialized task forces to address the issue. Because of the relative newness of high‐tech deviance, however, it is not clear how to best proceed with the efficient, productive, and strategic allocation of resources, the provision of assistance to other departments, and the general development of policy. Research on a national level has provided some insight as to the requirements of law enforcement in dealing with computer crime, and has suggested deeper inquiry on a state and local level. Accordingly, survey research was conducted across Michigan to empirically assess the needs of state and local law enforcement resulting from the commission of these offenses. Some questions addressed the types of computer crimes most frequently encountered, the extent of training received, and the specific types of formal instruction desired by personnel to increase proficiency in investigations. It is hoped that the results will provide a basis of comparison to the national findings, and serve as an instructional tool for other agencies in other states and even other countries in their efforts to shape and direct fruitful computer crime control initiatives.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Da‐Yu Kao and Shiuh‐Jeng Wang

Cyber technology is an extremely complicated field and the internet is being increasingly used as a place to commit crimes using personal computers, as well as…

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3626

Abstract

Purpose

Cyber technology is an extremely complicated field and the internet is being increasingly used as a place to commit crimes using personal computers, as well as network‐based computers. Although cyber investigation is still in the early stages of its development, the burgeoning use of the internet has increased the necessity for digital investigations. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the latest in digital comparison for cyber‐crime investigation with the studies of IP‐address and time in computer systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to improving a cyber‐crime investigation is proposed in three stages: independent verification of digital clues, corresponding information from different sources, and preparation of a valid argument.

Findings

If the police and other authorities do not stay on top of this problem, they may lose the battle to control this cyber‐crime explosion. The paper discusses how Taiwanese police investigate cyber‐crime and the experience is able to propagate when analyzing IP‐address and time with crime‐case. It is believed that this proposed approach creates a comprehensive guide that provides support and assistance to crime investigators.

Practical implications

IP‐address and time, both indicated in this paper, are the key ingredients to identify the suspect in the beginning of investigation works. As the study shows: there is no guarantee that there always will be the “right” evidence to prove everything; investigators should try their utmost to avoid making mistakes; criminal investigators must find additional clues and proof to validate their suspicions.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates an approach to the investigation of cyber‐crime in the case of studying IP‐address and time. It is believed that the research can efficiently assist law enforcement officials in dealing with ever‐increasing cyber‐crime by using effective digital evidence.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Roderic Broadhurst

Addresses the rapid expansion of computer connectivity and the opportunities provided for criminals to exploit security vulnerabilities in the online environment.

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18044

Abstract

Purpose

Addresses the rapid expansion of computer connectivity and the opportunities provided for criminals to exploit security vulnerabilities in the online environment.

Design/methodology/approach

International efforts to combat cyber‐crime are reviewed by evaluating the forms of mutual legal assistance (MLA) now in place.

Findings

Cyber‐crime is often traditional crime (e.g. fraud, identify theft, child pornography) albeit executed swiftly and to vast numbers of potential victims, as well as unauthorised access, damage and interference to computer systems. Most detrimental are malicious and exploit codes that interrupt computer operations on a global scale and along with other cyber‐crimes threaten e‐commerce. The cross‐national nature of most computer‐related crimes have rendered many time‐honoured methods of policing both domestically and in cross‐border situations ineffective even in advanced nations, while the “digital divide” provides “safe havens” for cyber‐criminals. In response to the threat of cyber‐crime there is an urgent need to reform methods of MLA and to develop trans‐national policing capability.

Practical implications

The international response is briefly outlined in the context of the United Nations (UN) Transnational Organised Crime Convention (in force from September 2003) and the Council of Europe's innovative Cyber‐crime Convention (in force from July 2004). In addition, the role of the UN, Interpol, other institutions and bi‐lateral, regional and other efforts aimed a creating a seamless web of enforcement against cyber‐criminals are described.

Originality/value

The potential for potent global enforcement mechanisms are discussed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Richard De Mulder and Pieter Kleve

For years now, an argument has been raging over whether products which are the results of new technical developments, such as computer software and data, are adequately…

Abstract

For years now, an argument has been raging over whether products which are the results of new technical developments, such as computer software and data, are adequately protected by legislation drawn up long before such products had become commonplace. The question has arisen whether various forms of undesirable behaviour committed by means of information technology could be prosecuted under existing legislation. It is contended in this paper that, with the possible exception of hacking without causing damage, behaviour popularly referred to as computer crime already falls within the ambit of the existing criminal law code in the Netherlands. Additional legislation, which has now been passed by the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament, is to a large extent irrelevant. It will be interesting to see whether needless complications will ensue when this legislation comes into force.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Nazik S. Roufaiel

Emphasis is placed on the influence of computer crimes onaccounting education and training programmes. Computer‐related crimesand their definition, perpetrators, modi

Abstract

Emphasis is placed on the influence of computer crimes on accounting education and training programmes. Computer‐related crimes and their definition, perpetrators, modi operandi, and methods of prevention and detection, are discussed. Recommendations are given for improving the whole delivery of the accounting education system.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Michael Duncan

It is one thing to investigate a simple theft. It is another thing to investigate a computer‐related crime that transcends national borders with case and speed, that…

Abstract

It is one thing to investigate a simple theft. It is another thing to investigate a computer‐related crime that transcends national borders with case and speed, that presents new legal challenges at every turn, that can be intrinsically linked to organised crime activity, and that may require the special knowledge and expertise of investigators who just happen to be very few in number.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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