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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Victor Andrej Schliwa and Raluca Ciornea

This paper aims to review numerous known drivers and antecedents of compromise behavior, proposing a basic categorization of the various contributions. This is done with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review numerous known drivers and antecedents of compromise behavior, proposing a basic categorization of the various contributions. This is done with the goal to integrate drivers and antecedents, previously largely discussed in isolation of one another, into a single conceptual model. This sheds light on the issue of previously overstated or understated relevance of individual drivers. The picture is completed by the proposition of new potential drivers of the compromise effect like lay rationalism and approval motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a conceptual approach in reflecting on prior findings from the field of compromise effect research and adjacent fields to develop a number of propositions aggregated in a conceptual model.

Findings

A number of previously overlooked, but potentially highly relevant interaction effects among known drivers of the compromise effect are proposed along with the proposition of several new drivers.

Originality/value

This conceptual paper offers a novel, broadly applicable categorization of compromise effect research. Further, it seems to be the first paper dedicated to an extensive review of established drivers of the compromise effect to examine the interdependence and possible interaction effects and of those drivers. Additionally, completely new potentially relevant drivers are discussed in detail and integrated into a conceptual model.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Elisa Montaguti and Alessandra Zammit

This paper aims to examine how pioneering advantage interacts with the compromise effect generated by new product entries. Building on prior work on pioneering advantage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how pioneering advantage interacts with the compromise effect generated by new product entries. Building on prior work on pioneering advantage and extreme aversion, this research moves toward understanding how the choice share of a pioneer realigns as a consequence of new product entries generating compromise-like scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors run three experiments to test their propositions. The authors present one study which documents the effect. The second study provides process evidence. The third study suggests how brands can neutralize the adverse effect on their share generated by the followers’ entry/positioning.

Findings

In three studies, the authors showed that when a pioneering product becomes intermediate in a choice set, its share is more adversely affected than when it becomes extreme. The authors show that this depends on consumers’ propensity to use non-compensatory decision rules in the presence of a pioneering alternative. The authors also document that the relative disadvantage of the intermediate pioneer can be overcome when the reasons for selecting an intermediate alternative based on a compensatory decision rule are restored.

Practical implications

The research provides guidelines for managers wanting to enter product categories where a pioneer already exists. The authors show that opting for an extreme position that renders the pioneer intermediate can be rewarding. In contrast, being the second extreme player in a market where the pioneer becomes extreme reduces the expected share of this last entrant.

Originality/value

The authors’ contribution is in showing that this decision strategy can clash with the rule consumers generally use in a compromise setting and that this clash generates two different effects when the pioneer becomes intermediate or extreme.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Moon-Yong Kim and Byung Il Park

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of country of origin (COO) information as an important/salient categorical attribute on choice context effects

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of country of origin (COO) information as an important/salient categorical attribute on choice context effects. Specifically, this research examines whether the introduction of a unique COO in the choice set will have a differential influence on context effects depending on the relative position of the third option (the asymmetrically dominated option vs the extreme option).

Design/methodology/approach

Five experiments were conducted in this research. Study 1 had a 2 (set size: two-option core set vs three-option asymmetric dominance set)×2 (competitor’s COO: common vs unique) between-subjects design. Study 2 had a 2 (set size: two-option core set vs three-option extreme option set)×2 (competitor’s COO: common vs unique) between-subjects design. To address the robustness of the effects, Studies 3-5 replicated the results of Studies 1 and 2. The data were analyzed by χ2 tests and logistic regression analyses.

Findings

The current research demonstrates that the attraction effect is attenuated by the introduction of a unique COO information in the competing option, whereas the tendency to prefer a middle option is not significantly affected.

Originality/value

The present research adds to the current understanding and the practical relevance of COO effects and context effects in marketing by examining the impact of COO as an important/salient categorical attribute on context effects.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2008

Melanie Cao and Jason Wei

Stock ownership and incentive options are used by companies to retain and motivate employees and managers. These grants usually come with vesting features which require…

Abstract

Stock ownership and incentive options are used by companies to retain and motivate employees and managers. These grants usually come with vesting features which require grantees to hold the assets for certain periods. This vesting requirement makes the grantee's total wealth highly undiversified. As a result, as shown by previous researchers, grantees tend to value these incentive securities below market. In this case, grantees will have a strong desire to hedge away the firm-specific risk. Facing the restrictions of direct hedges such as shorting the firm's stock, employees may implement a partial hedge by taking positions in an asset highly correlated with the firm's stock, such as an industry index. In this chapter, we investigate the effects of such a partial hedge. Using the continuous-time, consumption-portfolio framework as a backdrop, we demonstrate that the hedging index can enhance the employee's optimal portfolio holding and increase his intertemporal utility. Consequently, his private valuations of these grants are higher than that without the partial hedging. However, because the partial hedge makes the employee's total wealth less sensitive to the firm's stock price, it will also undermine the incentive effects. Therefore, the presumed incentive effects of these restricted assets should not be taken for granted.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-549-9

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Shouwang Lu, Gong (Gordon) Chen and Kanliang Wang

This study aims to explore the effect of two digital nudging technologies that is overt digital nudging (ODN) and covert digital nudging (CDN), on consumers’ choices of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the effect of two digital nudging technologies that is overt digital nudging (ODN) and covert digital nudging (CDN), on consumers’ choices of nudged options in the context of online customization systems (OCS).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper designed a 2 (ODN: yes/no) by 2 (CDN: yes/no) full factor between-subject lab experiment in the context of online travel package customization. This paper collected and analyzed the number of nudged options (the intermediate options) of choices among consumers in these four scenarios.

Findings

ODN and CDN have positive effects on consumers’ choices of nudged options in online customization (OC). In addition, mixed nudge (a combination of ODN and CDN) has a more significant effect on consumers’ choices of nudged options in OC than using CDN only.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused only on the choice behavior of consumers in the customization context and did not analyze their attitude change. The present study used vendor recommendation as the proxy variable of ODN and default option as the proxy variable of CDN. A future study could explore other instances of ODN and CDN.

Practical implications

This study explores the effects of digital nudging technologies in the context of OCS. The study provides clear guidance for customization vendors on whether to use digital nudging tools and their combinations, and which tools should be preferred.

Social implications

Vendors can adopt digital nudging technology to persuade consumers to choose nudged options. This nudging effect can make consumers’ choices predictable and less uncertain, thus adding profits for vendors.

Originality/value

First, the study focuses on the impact of digital nudging on consumers’ choices and enriches the understanding of the impact of customization system design on consumers’ choices. Second, this paper put forward a new classification method for digital nudging and proposed, respectively, the effect mechanisms on consumers’ customization choices. Third, this study explores the effect of combining multiple nudging tools in OC context on consumers’ choices, which deepens the understanding of the interactive effects of different types of nudging tools.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Ahmad Saquib Sina and Juanjuan Wu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of product display based on colour, discount and brand on retail pleasure, arousal, flow, perceived merchandise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of product display based on colour, discount and brand on retail pleasure, arousal, flow, perceived merchandise quality, time spent, satisfaction and patronage intentions in both 3D and 2D interfaces. This study uses the flow theory and stimulus-organism-response framework to understand the effects of product coordination methods and interface dimensions on consumers’ emotional, cognitive and behavioural outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a 2 (interface: 3D and 2D) × 3 (product coordination method: colour, discount and brand) between-subjects experimental design. The coordination of display refers to the way products are arranged based on similar properties, such as similar colour, discount or brand. 3D stores were designed using Mockshop, a 3D virtual retailing software. A total of 144 US female college students from various universities participated in the study.

Findings

The findings showed that the 3D interface produced higher flow, satisfaction, time spent and patronage intention than the 2D interface. Also, among the six display scenarios, participants who were in the colour-coordinated 3D store showed the highest levels of emotional, cognitive and behavioural outcomes except for retail pleasure and arousal.

Originality/value

This study investigates product display based on colour, discount and brand in both 3D and 2D interfaces. Although product coordination methods have been tested in 3D stores in previous studies, they have not been compared with their effects in the 2D interface such as online shopping sites. Therefore, this study fills in this gap in the literature, which can guide retailers in making the right decisions for visuals.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2015

Sotaro Katsumata and Junyi Song

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the country-of-origin (COO) effect on product evaluation to determine the different effects of COO in Asian nations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the country-of-origin (COO) effect on product evaluation to determine the different effects of COO in Asian nations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on automobiles as the target product category and conduct consumer surveys in three Asian countries – China, Japan, and South Korea – and the USA. Since these four countries are the major global production bases and consumption markets, the authors can examine the reciprocal effects of COO across countries. The authors propose a hierarchical conjoint analysis and estimate parameters. For the attributes of conjoint analysis, the authors incorporate both the COO of products and other functional aspects such as price and fuel consumption to compare their effects on consumer evaluation.

Findings

The authors find different tendencies in each country’s COO effect. Further, the authors discuss the factors affecting consumer evaluation in each country based on the country’s culture and general product images.

Originality/value

The authors’ contributions to the literature are as follows. First, in the research design, the authors incorporate COO information as an attribute of automobiles. This enables us to compare the COO effect with the effects of other functional aspects. The authors find that the COO effect is substantially the same as the effect of other functional attributes. Second, the authors assume a hierarchical structure in the conjoint analysis and discuss the different preferences in each country. This hierarchical structure enables to extract the reciprocal effects of COO across countries.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Lionel Bobot

The purpose of this paper is to present and test a conceptual framework, where relationship quality is: directly affected by both the conflict management approach used and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and test a conceptual framework, where relationship quality is: directly affected by both the conflict management approach used and the type of conflict found within the relationship, and enhanced or diminished by conflict management approach's moderating affect on the impact of type of conflict on relationship quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit of analysis for this study was purchasing retailers who interact with industrial salespeople. Data used for this research were collected through interview questionnaire surveys aimed at the French retailers association during February 2009. A total of 320 French retailers were sampled to fill out the questionnaire. A total of 131 retailers completed and returned the survey for a response rate of 41 percent. The measures were developed and analyzed using the two‐step approach recommended by Gerbing and Anderson with LISREL 8.3.

Findings

This study finds that functional conflict positively affects the quality of the retailer‐supplier relationship and this effect is amplified when retailers use a collaboration conflict management approach. However, the positive effects of functional conflict are mitigated by retailers engaging in accommodating and compromising approaches. Dysfunctional conflict did not positively or negatively affect the overall relationship quality in this study. Its management determines whether it will have a positive or negative effect on relationship quality.

Research limitations/implications

While the results presented here in general support the basic premises of the research, several limitations must be noted and there are several areas of future research that could be conducted using the current data set. First, an identical instrument could be administered to a sample of suppliers. This change might give some indication of the differences in suppliers' and retailers' perceptions of conflict management strategies and their effects on relationship quality. Another relevant addition to the understanding in the retailer/supplier arena might include the effect of teams instead of individual retailers on manifest conflict and relationship quality.

Originality/value

The survey results provide new insights on how retailers can use conflict management behaviors to cope better with functional and dysfunctional conflict and improve relationship quality with suppliers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Leila Canaan Messarra, Silva Karkoulian and Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the relationship between personality and conflict handling styles.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted using a sample of 199 employees working in the electronic retail sector in a non-Western culture. The five-factor model of personality traits is used to measure personality, while conflict styles are measured using Rahim’s Organizational Conflict Inventory II.

Findings

Results indicate that generations X and Y moderate the relationship between specific personality traits and conflict handling styles.

Research limitations/implications

This study investigated the moderating effect of generations X and Y on a sample of employees within the electronic retail service sector in Lebanon. It is recommended that future research examine such a relationship in other sectors and cultures for generalizability. Since generation Z (born in the late 1990s) will soon be entering the job market, further studies should include this cohort when investigating the relationships. Finally, for a deeper understanding of the relationship, it is advisable to use both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.

Practical implications

The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice regarding his/her choice of conflict resolution styles is of great use to supervisors in general and human resource managers in particular. This will assist in developing training programs that help employees acquire the appropriate skills necessary to control their impulses in a conflict situation. Training should comprise conflict resolution and communication skills that could help bridge the gap between generations. Effectively managing generational conflict in the workplace can positively contribute to the level and frequency of future conflicts, which in turn, can lead to favorable organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

Earlier research that examined the relationship between personality and conflict management styles have found varying results ranging from weak to strong relationships. The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice of which management style he/she chooses is of great use for managers in general and human resource managers in particular. This study showed that the inconsistency could be the result of some factors that moderate this relationship. The age of individuals contributes to the strength or the weakness of the various relationships between personality and conflict handling styles. Findings suggest that generations X and Y do not moderate the relationships among the personality traits and the dominating and obliging conflict styles. They do, however, have varying moderating effects on the relationships between specific personality traits and the integrating, avoiding, and compromising styles.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Chih-Hui Shieh, Yingzi Xu and I-Ling Ling

This paper aims to investigate how location-based advertising (LBA) elicits in-store purchase intention. To deepen the understanding of LBA’s effect on consumers’ purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how location-based advertising (LBA) elicits in-store purchase intention. To deepen the understanding of LBA’s effect on consumers’ purchase decision, the research examines the role of consumers’ time consciousness in click intention in pull or opt-out LBA approaches. The study also explores how consumers react to LBA with an asymmetric dominance decoy versus a compromise decoy message.

Design/methodology/approach

Two field experiments were conducted, and a total of 363 volunteers within 3 km of a shopping mall participated. The participants were asked to turn on their global positioning system and then informed that a convenience store was planning to launch a mobile coupon subscription service. Data collected were analysed using analysis of variance, regression analysis, bootstrapping and spotlight tests.

Findings

The results demonstrate that consumers had a higher intention to click pull LBA than to click opt-out push LBA. Consumers with high time-consciousness had greater click intentions for pull LBA than for opt-out push LBA. Consumers with low time-consciousness, however, showed no difference in click intention for either LBA approach. Further, click intention mediates the effect of LBA on in-store purchase intention, and the asymmetric dominance decoy message is a more powerful strategy for LBA to increase the likelihood of in-store purchase.

Originality/value

This research provides insight into location-based services marketing by revealing how time-consciousness and decoy promotional messages affect consumers’ reaction to LBA and in-store purchase intentions. The findings offer practical suggestions for retailers on how to reach and engage with consumers more effectively through the use of LBA.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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