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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster

Literacy demands have changed over the years and for success in society it is necessary to handle a wide range of texts and written information. The school has been…

Abstract

Literacy demands have changed over the years and for success in society it is necessary to handle a wide range of texts and written information. The school has been criticized for not giving their pupils the necessary abilities to handle the kind of information they are faced with in society. One important dimension of literacy is reading comprehension, but even though much written information has the form of tables, drawings, graphs, etc. such presentations are most often accompanied by written text. This chapter focuses the comprehension of different kinds of written information, and data from different tasks are evaluated in light of the simple view of reading. A total of 132 grade 6 readers were given four reading comprehension tasks concurrently with a decoding task and a listening comprehension task. It was found that the sum of decoding and listening comprehension accounted for a larger part of the variance in all the reading comprehension tasks than the product of decoding and listening comprehension. The pupils' results on a naming task and morphological tasks from preschool accounted for significant parts of the variance in the comprehension of both plain text and text combined with tables and graphs over and above the concurrent decoding and listening comprehension results. Speed of orthographic identification in 2nd grade accounted for an additional, significant part of the variance in the plain text reading tasks. These results show that processing speed and linguistic knowledge, such as morphological knowledge, are important contributors to the comprehension of different kinds of written information. Even if speed of orthographic identification is especially important for comprehending plain texts, a broad linguistic and cognitive perspective seems to be important when preparing pupils to comprehend different kinds of written material.

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Literacy and Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-777-6

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2012

Jerry L. Johns, Susan K. L’Allier and Beth Johns

Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the major components of informal reading inventories (IRIs) and how they can be administered to answer…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the major components of informal reading inventories (IRIs) and how they can be administered to answer specific questions about students’ reading behaviors. The focus then shifts to how IRIs can be used to help teachers target instruction to better meet students’ instructional needs.

Methodology/approach – The authors describe how educators can use the results of IRIs to analyze a student's strengths and areas of need, align those findings with research about six types (clusters) of readers (Valencia & Buly, 2004), and select one or more of the strategies recommended in the chapter to provide instruction related to that student's specific areas of need.

Practical implications – In addition to the numerous instructional recommendations provided for the six clusters of readers, the chapter includes a detailed scenario of how one teacher used the results of an IRI to plan instruction for a struggling reader, a process that could be replicated by educators who read the chapter.

Social implications – The chapter suggests how small groups of educators could work together to determine which of their students to assess with an IRI and, after assessing, to discuss how they will use the results to target instruction for those students.

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Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-630-0

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2006

Ana Miranda, Manuel Soriano and Rosa García

The present study analyzed the performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when carrying out reading comprehension and written composition…

Abstract

The present study analyzed the performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when carrying out reading comprehension and written composition tasks. Thirty children with ADHD and 30 normally developing children without ADHD, matched on age, IQ, word retrieval and spelling, were selected. All of the subjects were evaluated using four types of reading comprehension tasks (literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, a fragment ordering task, and recall of story content), and a composition writing task. The results indicate that the two groups (ADHD and without ADHD) do not differ on literal comprehension or inferential comprehension. Nevertheless, our results show that children with ADHD perform significantly worse than the group without ADHD on the fragment ordering task, the recall of story content, and on different indicators of written language production, which depend primarily on self-regulation abilities necessary for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. The findings suggest that the deficit observed in reading comprehension and written composition skills in children with ADHD may reflect deficiencies in executive processes. The methodology used in this research on the reading comprehension and written composition problems of children with ADHD presents a series of strengths and weaknesses. The reflections on the limitations identified in the study serve as a basis for establishing directions for future research.

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Applications of Research Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-295-5

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Allan Wigfield, Amanda Mason-Singh, Amy N. Ho and John T. Guthrie

We describe the development and various implementations of a reading comprehension instruction program called Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). CORI was…

Abstract

Purpose

We describe the development and various implementations of a reading comprehension instruction program called Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). CORI was designed to enhance students’ reading motivation and reading comprehension, and has been implemented at both elementary and middle school, with a particular focus on science information text reading.

Design/methodology/approach

We overview Guthrie and Wigfield’s (2000) reading engagement model, which provides CORI’s theoretical framework. Then we present the major implementation of CORI at elementary school and middle school.

Findings

CORI teachers in elementary school focused on five teaching practices to foster motivation: (1) providing thematic content goals; (2) optimizing choice; (3) hands-on activities connected to reading; (4) providing interesting texts; and (5) fostering collaboration. Teachers also taught six reading strategies recommended by the National Reading Panel. Results of several studies showed that CORI students had higher reading motivation and better reading comprehension than students receiving only strategy instruction or traditional reading instruction. We next describe three implementations of CORI at middle school. The motivational instructional practices at this level included (1) thematic contact goals; (2) emphasizing the importance of reading; (3) showing how reading is relevant to student lives; (4) fostering collaboration; (5) optimizing choice; and (6) enabling success. Results of several studies again documented CORI’s success at boosting students’ motivation and comprehension.

Originality/value

The studies carried out show the success of CORI and the paper closes with suggestions about the next steps for the program.

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani, Omid Rezaei and Milad Masoomzadeh

This paper reports on a quasi-experimental research performed in the field of reading comprehension and translation quality. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reports on a quasi-experimental research performed in the field of reading comprehension and translation quality. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the comparative effect of explicit vs implicit reading comprehension skills on translation quality of Iranian translation students at BA level.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of this research was quasi-experimental in nature. This design was preferred in this study, as it was impossible to assign random sampling to the subjects and apply a true experimental design. The research in hand was also a comparative group design research in a sense that it was supposed to compare two reading comprehension methods (explicit vs implicit) with different treatments.

Findings

In light of this research, some conclusions can be drawn. It can be concluded that there is a positive and direct relationship between reading comprehension and translation, as the first step of translation is to understand the content of the source text (Reid, 1993).

Research limitations/implications

The reading comprehension ability of translation students should be enhanced in their undergraduate classes so that they can better understand the source text and produce a more fluent translation. In order to teach reading comprehension skills, both implicit and explicit techniques can be applied; however, it is better if the subjects receive explicit instruction, as this technique may have more positive results.

Originality/value

Various researchers have explored explicit and implicit instructions on such areas as reading, speaking and listening (see, e.g. Jalilifar and Alipour, 2007; Vahid Dastjerdi and Shirzad, 2010; Negahi and Nouri, 2014; Khanbeiki and Abdolmanafi-Rokni, 2015; Khoii et al., 2015; Mostafavi and Vahdany 2016; Rahimi and Riasati, 2017). Although the results of these studies have shown the positive impacts of both explicit and implicit teaching, explicit has more positive impacts. However, the review of the literature shows that explicit and implicit reading comprehension skills have not been investigated in relation to teaching translation and their possible impacts on translation quality.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

K.L. Chan and Alan H.S. Chan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the understanding of industrial safety signs and messages by registered and non‐registered safety officers in Hong Kong with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the understanding of industrial safety signs and messages by registered and non‐registered safety officers in Hong Kong with ten different user factors, and examine the relationship between cognitive sign features and sign comprehensibility.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology includes the survey development and appropriate statistical analyses. In total, 92 Hong Kong Chinese participated voluntarily in the study. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information about demographics, personal experience on safety and health issues, experience of reviewing safety sign information, comprehension scores, and the ratings of sign features for 30 industrial safety signs used in Hong Kong. The effect of ten user factors on sign understanding for the design of highly usable safety signs was examined.

Findings

Of the ten factors tested, only the factor of possession of registered safety officer (RSO) status was a significant predictor of comprehension performance. As expected, comprehension scores varied with the cognitive sign features of familiarity, concreteness, simplicity, and meaningfulness.

Research limitations/implications

The currently used industrial safety signs should be redesigned as soon as possible, with careful consideration of cognitive sign features. To make the results more generally applicable, further research is needed to collect more data, particularly from females.

Practical implications

This research suggests that an effective education program for promoting the intended messages of industrial safety signs in various industries and work environments should be conducted as soon as possible. Safety officers, especially those who work in the construction industry need to play a more prominent role in ensuring workplace safety, and in transferring safety knowledge to the workers.

Social implications

There is a need to enhance RSOs' risk perception and to increase awareness of the importance of safety signs through training programs, so as to improve workplace safety and organizational safety culture. The redesigned safety signs need to be launched with a public education program.

Originality/value

The paper's findings emphasize the need to create awareness of the importance of industrial safety and promote understanding of safety sign meanings amongst people in their work environments. Useful information for the design and use of safety signs was generated.

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Miguel Angel Zúñiga, Ivonne M. Torres and Mihai Niculescu

This paper aims to show that high ethnic identifying Hispanics and Whites pursue different routes discussed in the Elaboration Likelihood Model when processing single…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show that high ethnic identifying Hispanics and Whites pursue different routes discussed in the Elaboration Likelihood Model when processing single meaning versus polysemous slogan ads. The authors found that high ethnic identifying Hispanics used the peripheral route (processing fluency) to a higher extent compared to Whites who used the central route (comprehension) to process ads.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 310 undergraduate students of a Southwestern university were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (slogan: single meaning vs polysemous) in a between-subjects experimental design. Subsequently, participants responded to statements measuring constructs of interest and demographics. Participants were debriefed at the end of the survey.

Findings

It was found that high ethnic identifying Hispanics used the peripheral route (processing fluency) to a higher extent compared to Whites who used the central route (comprehension) to process advertisements. Results suggest that while polysemous slogans are similarly interpreted by subject independent of their ethnic identification score, for single-meaning slogans, the impact of comprehension on attitudes toward the advertisement (AAD) is significantly different for low (vs high) ethnic identification individuals.

Research limitations/implications

A future study needs to study brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Additionally, strategies in developing advertisements that influence comprehension or processing fluency need to be studied.

Practical implications

This paper ' s contribution to the processing fluency literature is to propose that ethnic identification and slogan meaning are variables that have great potential in influencing consumers’ perceptions about advertisements. Advertisers will have these variables to control to maximize the persuasiveness of advertisements.

Originality/value

Minimal research focusing on polysemy in marketing exists. In advertising, comprehension is commonly studied, leaving processing fluency out. This research addresses the issue by focusing on how single-meaning and polysemous slogans are processed (via comprehension or processing fluency) by consumers and how their ethnic identification affects their AAD.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Evan Ortlieb and F.D. McDowell

Reading comprehension levels of elementary students have not significantly improved in the twenty-first century, and, as a result, the need for systematic and intensive…

Abstract

Purpose

Reading comprehension levels of elementary students have not significantly improved in the twenty-first century, and, as a result, the need for systematic and intensive reading interventions is as high as ever. Literacy clinics are an ideal setting for struggling readers to experience success through the implementation of a cyclical approach to individual assessment, planning, instruction and evaluation. Yet, additional research is needed to create current and relevant models of literacy clinics for today’s diverse learners. This paper aimed to measure the effects of an experimental approach to reading comprehension instruction for third graders within an off-campus literacy clinic; the intervention involved a scope and sequence of comprehension strategies in which students had to demonstrate skill mastery before progressing to the next skill.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation used a classic controlled experiment design by randomly assigning half of the literacy clinic participants (30) to either a control or experimental group. The previous year-end’s Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores of the participants were used as indicators (or base lines) of each participant’s preexisting level of reading achievement.

Findings

There was a statistically higher achievement rate in the experimental group as measured by the CRCT statewide assessment with a Cohen’s effect size value (d = 0.79) suggested a moderate to high practical significance.

Practical implications

This study’s findings are relevant to those involved in literacy remediation, including literacy clinic directors, preservice educators and curriculum directors.

Originality/value

This paper is one of a kind in that it is the first to trial a scope and sequence of evidence-based comprehension strategies for comprehension improvement in primary school students. The findings call for major changes to thinking about how we improve students’ reading skills by focusing on depth rather than breadth.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Michael Faggella-Luby and Patricia Sampson Graner

In response to the urgent national need to implement evidence-based literacy supports for adolescent struggling readers (ASRs), this chapter provides a framework for…

Abstract

In response to the urgent national need to implement evidence-based literacy supports for adolescent struggling readers (ASRs), this chapter provides a framework for addressing reading comprehension instruction. Schools face significant challenges in the education of ASRs including how to address the achievement gap that emerges between proficient readers and a variety of poor reader subgroups predicted by the Simple View of Reading. The authors present current research in the components of reading comprehension (e.g., text structures, vocabulary, prior knowledge, cognitive strategies, and motivation) and explicit pedagogical practices associated with improving outcomes for ASRs, including a school-wide framework called the Content Literacy Continuum. Two specific interventions with supporting research are presented as model practices to improve outcomes for ASRs.

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Literacy and Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-777-6

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Book part
Publication date: 2 January 2013

Lisa V. McCulley, Sarah Katz and Sharon Vaughn

Students with learning disabilities characteristically demonstrate unexpected underachievement and continued learning challenges in spite of appropriate instruction…

Abstract

Students with learning disabilities characteristically demonstrate unexpected underachievement and continued learning challenges in spite of appropriate instruction. Because reading is fundamental to competency of all future endeavors, reading interventions have been the focus of considerable public and professional attention. Intensive interventions that reflect students’ cognitive processing challenges, address the need for feedback, and take into consideration the learning environment have been associated with improved student learning outcomes.

While elementary and secondary struggling readers differ, the targeted reading skills are the same. At all levels, fundamental skills such as phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension are crucial to reading success. At the elementary level, phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle are best taught through direct and explicit instruction; vocabulary instruction emphasizes word recognition. Fluency problems can be addressed through such activities as repeated or timed readings.

As students progress to the secondary levels, vocabulary demands become increasingly related to content acquisition, and a combination of generative and non-generative approaches to vocabulary instruction is recommended. At the secondary level, fluency practice is best coupled with comprehension instruction, which can include the explicit teaching of strategies and opportunities for students to work collaboratively. While there are no simple solutions to the challenges experienced by struggling learners, appropriate, differentiated, and intensive interventions can increase the likelihood of improved learning outcomes for these students.

Details

Learning Disabilities: Practice Concerns And Students With LD
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-428-2

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