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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Jun Xiu Low, Poi Ngian Shek and Mahmood Md Tahir

Composite slabs are gaining wide acceptance in many countries as they lend themselves to faster, lighter and more economic in construction buildings. The strength of…

Abstract

Composite slabs are gaining wide acceptance in many countries as they lend themselves to faster, lighter and more economic in construction buildings. The strength of composite slabs system relies on the bonding action between the concrete and the steel deck, the shear connections and the cross-sectional resistance of steel beam. However, structural behaviour of composite slab is a complex phenomenon and therefore experimental study is often conducted to establish the actual strength of the structure under ultimate load capacity. The main objective of this study is to determine the structural behaviour of composite slab system until ultimate limit state. Total of two specimens are examined in order to obtain failure mechanism of the composite structure under full load capacity. A new design approach of composite slab for roofing system are proposed in this study to construct a composite slab system that can float in the water but not wash away by flood. The lightweight materials in this composite construction are cold-formed steel and foam concrete. The system focuses on the concept of Industrialised building system (IBS) to reduce the cost and construction time.

Details

Improving Flood Management, Prediction and Monitoring
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-552-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2011

S. Vali-Shariatpanahi, S. Noroozi and J. Vinney

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured…

Abstract

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured laminates. This study involved a detailed experimental program to determine the material properties. The material properties were used for the failure analysis of a new type of fastener joint for composite laminates, which has a potential use in the aerospace industry. Twenty shear tests were carried out using a minimum of 6 specimens for every lay-up. Although some thickness tolerances issues were caused by using different laminate lay-ups, all other geometric parameters were kept similar. Ply failures were observed for 45°/90°, 45°, 90° specimens. An FE model was also developed for each particular lay-up and compared against the test data. It was also used to determine why each coupon failed in a certain way. The FE model uses 2D unsymmetrical material properties with shell elements representing the thickness. In terms of boundary conditions the model was constrained at one end of the specimen and in two directions with a compressive load applied at the other end.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Mohannad Naser and Venkatesh Kodur

This paper aims to present results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading. A finite…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading. A finite element-based numerical model was developed to trace the thermal and structural response of composite girders subjected to simultaneous structural loading and fire exposure. This model accounts for various critical parameters including material and geometrical nonlinearities, property degradation at elevated temperatures, shear effects, composite interaction between concrete slab and steel girder, as well as temperature-induced local buckling. To generate test data for validation of the model, three composite girders, each comprising of hot-rolled (standard) steel girder underneath a concrete slab, were tested under simultaneous fire and gravity loading.

Design/methodology/approach

The validated model was then applied to investigate the effect of initial geometric imperfections, load level, thickness of slab and stiffness of shear stud on fire response of composite girders.

Findings

Results from experimental and numerical analysis indicate that the composite girder subjected to flexural loading experience failure through flexural yielding mode, while the girders under shear loading fail through in shear web buckling mode. Further, results from parametric studies clearly infer that shear limit state can govern the response of fire exposed composite girders under certain loading configuration and fire scenario.

Originality/value

This paper presents results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 November 2022

Zhou Shi, Jiachang Gu, Yongcong Zhou and Ying Zhang

This study aims to research the development trend, research status, research results and existing problems of the steel–concrete composite joint of railway long-span…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to research the development trend, research status, research results and existing problems of the steel–concrete composite joint of railway long-span hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the investigation and analysis of the development history, structure form, structural parameters, stress characteristics, shear connector stress state, force transmission mechanism, and fatigue performance, aiming at the steel–concrete composite joint of railway long-span hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge, the development trend, research status, research results and existing problems are expounded.

Findings

The shear-compression composite joint has become the main form in practice, featuring shortened length and simplified structure. The length of composite joints between 1.5 and 3.0 m has no significant effect on the stress and force transmission laws of the main girder. The reasonable thickness of the bearing plate is 40–70 mm. The calculation theory and simplified calculation formula of the overall bearing capacity, the nonuniformity and distribution laws of the shear connector, the force transferring ratio of steel and concrete components, the fatigue failure mechanism and structural parameters effects are the focus of the research study.

Originality/value

This study puts forward some suggestions and prospects for the structural design and theoretical research of the steel–concrete composite joint of railway long-span hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge.

Details

Railway Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2755-0907

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Mohammad Hajjar, Elie Hantouche and Ahmad El Ghor

This study aims to develop a rational model to predict the thermal axial forces developed in shear tab connections with composite beams when subjected to transient-state…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a rational model to predict the thermal axial forces developed in shear tab connections with composite beams when subjected to transient-state fire temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element (FE) models are first developed in ABAQUS and validated against experimental data available in the literature. Second, a parametric study is conducted to identify the major parameters that affect the behavior of shear tab connections with composite beams in the fire. This includes beam length, shear tab thickness, shear tab location, concrete slab thickness, setback distance and partial composite action. A design-oriented model is developed to predict the thermal induced axial forces during the heating and cooling phases of a fire event. The model consists of multi-linear springs that can predict the stiffness and strength of each component of the connection with the composite beam.

Findings

The FE results show that significant thermal axial forces are generated in the composite beam in the fire. This is prominent when the beam bottom flange comes in contact with the column. Fracture at the toe of the welds governs the behavior during the cooling phase in most FE simulations. Also, the rational model is validated against the FE results and is capable of predicting the thermal axial forces developed in shear tab connections with composite beams under different geometrical properties.

Originality/value

The proposed model can predict the thermal axial force demand and can be used in performance-based approaches in future structural fire engineering applications.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2022

Mojtaba Labibzadeh, Mohsen Bagheri, Abdolghafour Khademalrasoul and Khandaker M.A. Hossain

This paper aims to study, the effects of opening shape, size and position as well as the aspect (height-to-length) ratio on the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study, the effects of opening shape, size and position as well as the aspect (height-to-length) ratio on the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of triple-skin profiled steel-concrete composite shear wall (TSCSW) and investigate and compare them to those of concrete-stiffened steel plate shear walls (CSPSW). Two kinds of opening, circular and square, with different sizes and positions and two aspect ratios of 1:1 and 3:1 are considered in the simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a novel TSCSW and compares its behavior with the existing CSPSW under the effect of monotonic and cyclic loadings. TSCSW is composed of three corrugated steel plates filled with concrete. The two external side plates are connected to the concrete core by means of several intermediate fasteners and the third one is an inner steel plate embedded within the concrete panel. The internal plate is a buckling restrained plate surrounded by concrete. This is the main superiority of TSCSW over other kinds of existing composite shear walls.

Findings

The results show that the shear capacity and the energy dissipation capacity of the proposed composite wall, TSCSW, are respectively about 16 and 12% higher than those of CSPSW when there is no opening. If an opening is considered in the wall, as the size of the opening is increased, the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and absorbed energy of the two walls are decreased similarly. The destructive effect of square openings on the performance of the walls is more than that of circular openings.

Originality/value

This is an original work.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

M.F. Boseman, Y.W. Kwon, D.C. Loup and E.A. Rasmussen

In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one end section with all glass fibers and the opposite end section with all steel fibers. As a result, it contains a transition section in the middle of the hybrid composite changing from glass fibers to steel fibers. The purpose of this paper is to examine interface strength at the glass to steel fiber transition section, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid composite as a joining technique between a polymer composite structure and a metallic structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The present micromechanical study considers two types of glass to steel fiber joints: butt and overlap joints. For the butt joint, the end shape of the steel fiber is also modified to determine its effect on interface strength. The interface strength is predicted numerically based on the virtual crack closure technique to determine which joint is the strongest under various loading conditions such as tension, shear and bending. Numerical models include resin layers discretely. A virtual crack is considered inside the resin, at the resin/glass‐layer interface, and at the resin/steel‐layer interface. The crack is located at the critical regions of the joints.

Findings

Overall, the butt joint is stronger than the overlap joint regardless of loading types and directions. Furthermore, modification of an end shape of the middle fiber layers in the butt joint shifts the critical failure location.

Originality/value

The paper describes one of a few studies which investigated the interface strength of the hybrid joint made of fiberglass and steel‐fiber composites. This joint is important to connect a polymeric composite structure to a metallic structure without using conventional mechanical joints.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

B. Das, S.K. Sahu and B.C. Ray

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Design/methodology/approach

This involves experimental investigation of FRP composites with woven roving fibers and matrix. Different types of composites, i.e. glass: epoxy, glass: polyester and (carbon+glass): epoxy are used in the investigation with change in percentage of constituents. The variability of fiber content of the composite is in the range of 0.55‐0.65 weight fractions. The matrix dominated property, like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) has been studied by three point bend test using INSTRON 1195 material testing machine with increasing five cross head velocities.

Findings

The variation of ILSS of laminates of FRP composites is significant for low loading speed and is not so prominent for high speed. The variation of ILSS are observed to be dependent on the type and amount of constituents present in the composites. The laminates with carbon fiber shows higher ILSS than that of glass fiber composites. The laminates with epoxy matrix shows higher ILSS than polyester matrix composites for the same fiber. There is no significant variation of ILSS beyond loading speed 200 mm/min and this can be used for specifications of testing. Matrix resins such as polyester and epoxy are known to be highly rate sensitive. Carbon fiber are relatively rate independent and E‐glass fibers are rate sensitive. Woven roving carbon glass fiber reinforced polymer shows small rate dependence and woven roving glass fiber reinforced polymer shows significant rate sensitivity.

Originality/value

The findings are based on original experimental investigations in the laboratories of the institute and can be used for characterization of composites.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Mica Grujicic, S Ramaswami, Jennifer Snipes, Vasudeva Avuthu, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

Fiber-reinforced armor-grade polymer-matrix composite materials with a superior penetration resistance are traditionally developed using legacy knowledge and…

272

Abstract

Purpose

Fiber-reinforced armor-grade polymer-matrix composite materials with a superior penetration resistance are traditionally developed using legacy knowledge and trial-and-error empiricism. This approach is generally quite costly and time-consuming and, hence, new (faster and more economical) approaches are needed for the development of high-performance armor-grade composite materials. One of these new approaches is the so-called materials-by-design approach. Within this approach, extensive use is made of the computer-aided engineering (CAE) analyses and of the empirically/theoretically established functional relationships between an armor-grade composite-protected structure, the properties of the composite materials, material microstructure (as characterized at different length-scales) and the material/structure synthesis and fabrication processes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, a first step is made toward applying the materials-by-design approach to the development of the armor-grade composite materials and protective structures with superior ballistic-penetration resistance. Specifically, CAE analyses are utilized to establish functional relationships between the attributes/properties of the composite material and the penetration resistance of the associated protective structure, and to identify the combination of these properties which maximize the penetration resistance. In a follow-up paper, the materials-by-design approach will be extended to answer the questions such as what microstructural features the material must possess in order for the penetration resistance to be maximized and how such materials should be synthesized/processed.

Findings

The results obtained show that proper adjustment of the material properties results in significant improvements in the protective structure penetration resistance.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to apply the materials-by-design approach to armor-grade composite materials in order to help improve their ballistic-penetration resistance.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Sheng-cai Li and Guo Lin

The purpose of this paper is to study the seismic performance of the energy-saving block and invisible multi-ribbed frame composite walls (EBIMFCW), changing the shear

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the seismic performance of the energy-saving block and invisible multi-ribbed frame composite walls (EBIMFCW), changing the shear-span ratio as the test parameter, the low-cycle reciprocating loading tests of six 1/2 scale wall models were carried out.

Design/methodology/approach

The test design method and analysis are used for the seismic performance of the EBIMFCW.

Findings

With the increase of shear-span ratio: the walls tend to occur bending failure even more, the initial stiffness of the wall decreases, the overall ductility of the wall is improved and the walls tend to occur bending failure.

Originality/value

The previous studies do not involve the seismic performance of EBIMFCW under different shear-span ratios. Therefore, the paper studies the hysteresis behavior, ductility, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation performance of EBIMFCW under different shear-span ratios.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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