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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2011

S. Vali-Shariatpanahi, S. Noroozi and J. Vinney

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured…

Abstract

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured laminates. This study involved a detailed experimental program to determine the material properties. The material properties were used for the failure analysis of a new type of fastener joint for composite laminates, which has a potential use in the aerospace industry. Twenty shear tests were carried out using a minimum of 6 specimens for every lay-up. Although some thickness tolerances issues were caused by using different laminate lay-ups, all other geometric parameters were kept similar. Ply failures were observed for 45°/90°, 45°, 90° specimens. An FE model was also developed for each particular lay-up and compared against the test data. It was also used to determine why each coupon failed in a certain way. The FE model uses 2D unsymmetrical material properties with shell elements representing the thickness. In terms of boundary conditions the model was constrained at one end of the specimen and in two directions with a compressive load applied at the other end.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…

5567

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

B. Das, S.K. Sahu and B.C. Ray

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Design/methodology/approach

This involves experimental investigation of FRP composites with woven roving fibers and matrix. Different types of composites, i.e. glass: epoxy, glass: polyester and (carbon+glass): epoxy are used in the investigation with change in percentage of constituents. The variability of fiber content of the composite is in the range of 0.55‐0.65 weight fractions. The matrix dominated property, like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) has been studied by three point bend test using INSTRON 1195 material testing machine with increasing five cross head velocities.

Findings

The variation of ILSS of laminates of FRP composites is significant for low loading speed and is not so prominent for high speed. The variation of ILSS are observed to be dependent on the type and amount of constituents present in the composites. The laminates with carbon fiber shows higher ILSS than that of glass fiber composites. The laminates with epoxy matrix shows higher ILSS than polyester matrix composites for the same fiber. There is no significant variation of ILSS beyond loading speed 200 mm/min and this can be used for specifications of testing. Matrix resins such as polyester and epoxy are known to be highly rate sensitive. Carbon fiber are relatively rate independent and E‐glass fibers are rate sensitive. Woven roving carbon glass fiber reinforced polymer shows small rate dependence and woven roving glass fiber reinforced polymer shows significant rate sensitivity.

Originality/value

The findings are based on original experimental investigations in the laboratories of the institute and can be used for characterization of composites.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2022

Daouda Kane, Guilherme Gomes, Vanessa Macanhan and Antonio Ancelotti Jr

In laminate composite structure design, it is common to deal with the need of varying thickness to reach project requirement or improve performance. This change of…

Abstract

Purpose

In laminate composite structure design, it is common to deal with the need of varying thickness to reach project requirement or improve performance. This change of thickness can be achieved by terminating or adding plies at different locations over the laminate. Unfortunately, the inherent weakness of this construction is the presence of material and geometric discontinuities at the ply drop region that induce premature interlaminar failure at interfaces between dropped and continuous plies.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, tensile strength tests were performed on tapered laminates with internal ply drop-off using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The laminate based on a new thermoplastic ELIUM® 150 reinforced by a plain weave carbon fabric was manufactured via VARTM. Stress, strain, displacement and tensile strength were analyzed. A 3D finite element analysis (FEA) and design of experiments (DOEs) were carried out for the analysis of effect of position and angle orientation of dropped plies near the thinner section of the tapered laminate. Tsai Wu's criterion was implemented to predict initiation of first ply failure.

Findings

Numerical and experimental results showed that position and angle orientation of ply drop-off near the thinner thickness influence tensile strength of tapered laminate. Tensile static strength increases 12% when drop-off near the midplane is oriented at ±45° instead of 0°. Results showed a trend of improvement in the tensile strength when drop-off is positioned over midplane of the laminate composite. Results obtained through the DOEs were able to adjust the metamodel according to a linear model with great efficiency. They show the significant relevance of the manufacturing variables and the interaction between the factors.

Originality/value

The present work aims to evaluate the effect of ply drop-off on the strength of carbon fiber thermoplastic composite laminates with internal drop-off under tensile load and propose a design guideline about angle orientation and position of dropped plies closer to the thinner section of the laminate.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…

2194

Abstract

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics – material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glass – material and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Bharat Bhushan Mishra, Ajay Kumar, Pijush Samui and Thendiyath Roshni

The purpose of this paper is to attempt the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using the C0 finite element (FE) model based on higher-order shear

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using the C0 finite element (FE) model based on higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) in conjunction with minimax probability machine regression (MPMR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS).

Design/methodology/approach

HSDT considers the third-order variation of in-plane displacements which eliminates the use of shear correction factor owing to realistic parabolic transverse shear stresses across the thickness coordinate. At the top and bottom of the plate, zero transverse shear stress condition is imposed. C0 FE model based on HSDT is developed and coded in formula translation (FORTRAN). FE model is validated and found efficient to create new results. MPMR and MARS models are coded in MATLAB. Using skew angle (α), stacking sequence (Ai) and buckling strength (Y) as input parameters, a regression problem is formulated using MPMR and MARS to predict the buckling strength of laminated composite skew plates.

Findings

The results of the MPMR and MARS models are in good agreement with the FE model result. MPMR is a better tool than MARS to analyze the buckling problem.

Research limitations/implications

The present work considers the linear behavior of the laminated composite skew plate.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best of knowledge, there is no work in the literature on the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using C0 FE formulation based on third-order shear deformation theory in conjunction with MPMR and MARS. These machine-learning techniques increase efficiency, reduce the computational time and reduce the cost of analysis. Further, an equation is generated with the MARS model via which the buckling strength of the laminated composite skew plate can be predicted with ease and simplicity.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Sagar Dnyandev Patil, Yogesh J. Bhalerao and Adik Takale

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the significance of disparate design variables on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate. Four design variables such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the significance of disparate design variables on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate. Four design variables such as stacking sequence, stacking angle, types of resins and thickness of laminate have been chosen to analyze the impact on mechanical properties of the composite laminate. The detailed investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of a carbon layer in stacking sequence and investigate the impact of various resins on the fastening strength of fibers, stacking angles of the fibers and the thickness of the laminate.

Design/methodology/approach

The Taguchi approach has been adopted to detect the most significant design variable for optimum mechanical properties of the hybrid composite laminate. For this intend, L16 orthogonal array has been composed in statistical software Minitab 17. To investigate an effect of design variables on mechanical properties, signal to noise ratio plots were developed in Minitab. The numerical analysis was done by using the analysis of variance.

Findings

The single parameter optimization gives the optimal combination A1B1C4D2 (i.e. stacking sequence C/G/G/G, stacking angle is 00, the type of resin is newly developed resin [NDR] and laminate thickness is 0.3 cm) for tensile strength; A4B2C4D2 (i.e. stacking sequence G/G/G/C, stacking angle is 450, the type of resin is NDR and laminate thickness is 0.3 cm) for shear strength; and A2B3C4D2 (i.e. stacking sequence G/C/G/G, stacking angle is 900, the type of resin is NDR and thickness is 0.3 cm) for flexural strength. The types of resins and stacking angles are the most significant design variables on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate.

Originality/value

The novelty in this study is the development of new resin called NDR from polyethylene and polyurea group. The comparative study was carried out between NDR and three conventional resins (i.e. polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy). The NDR gives higher fastening strength to the fibers. Field emission scanning electron microscope images illustrate the better fastening ability of NDR compared with epoxy. The NDR provides an excellent strengthening effect on the RCC beam structure along with carbon fiber (Figure 2).

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Pankaj V Katariya and Subrata Kumar Panda

The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for laminated curved structure of different geometries using higher-order shear deformation theory to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for laminated curved structure of different geometries using higher-order shear deformation theory to evaluate in-plane and out of plane shear stress and strains correctly. Subsequently, the model has to be validated by comparing the responses with developed simulation model (ANSYS) as well as available published literature. It is also proposed to analyse thermal buckling load parameter of laminated structures using Green–Lagrange type non-linear strains for excess thermal distortion under uniform temperature loading.

Design/methodology/approach

Laminated structures known for their flexibility as compared to conventional material and the deformation behaviour are greatly affected due to combined thermal/aerodynamic environment. The vibration/buckling behaviour of shell structures are very different than that of the plate structures due to their curvature effect. To model the exact behaviour of laminated structures mathematically, a general mathematical model is developed for laminated shell geometries. The responses are evaluated numerically using a finite element model-based computer code developed in MATLAB environment. Subsequently, a simulation model has been developed in ANSYS using ANSYS parametric design language code to evaluate the responses.

Findings

Vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated composite curved panels have been obtained based on proposed model through a customised computer code in MATLAB environment and ANSYS simulation model using ANSYS parametric design language code. The convergence behaviour are tested and compared with those available in published literature and ANSYS results. Finally, the investigation has been extended to examine the effect of different parameters (thickness ratios, curvature ratios, modular ratios, number of layers and support conditions) on the free vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated curved structures.

Practical implications

The present paper intends to give sufficient amount of numerical experimentation, which may lead to help in designing of finished product made up of laminated composites. Most of the aerospace, space research and defence organisation intend to develop low cost and high durable products for real hazard conditions by taking combined loading and environmental conditions. Further, case studies might lead to a lighter design of the laminated composite panels used in high-performance systems, where the weight reduction is the major parameter, such as aerospace, space craft and missile structures.

Originality/value

In this analysis, the geometrical distortion due to temperature is being introduced through Green–Lagrange sense in the framework of higher-order shear deformation theory for different types of laminated shells (cylindrical/spherical/hyperboloid/elliptical). A simulation-based model is developed using ANSYS parametric design language in ANSYS environment for different geometries and loading condition and compared with the numerical model.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Sai Krishna Chitturi, A.A. Shaikh and Alpesh H. Makwana

A growing response in the development of hybrid composites to conquer the deficiency of neat composites has provoked doing this work. Thermoplastic Polycarbonate material…

Abstract

Purpose

A growing response in the development of hybrid composites to conquer the deficiency of neat composites has provoked doing this work. Thermoplastic Polycarbonate material offers better impact toughness with low structural weight. There is a little/no information available over the selected sandwich hybrid composite prepared from woven E-Glass and polycarbonate sheet. The purpose of this paper is to understand the response of the novel hybrid structure under tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear and impact loading conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The hand-layup technique is used for fabricating the hybrid composites in the laminate configuration. The hybrid composites are prepared with a total fiber content of 70 percent weight fractions. The effect of the percentage of reinforcement on mechanical properties is evaluated experimentally as per American society for testing materials standard test methods. The damaged mechanisms of failed samples and fractured surfaces are well analyzed using vision measuring system and scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

A decline in densities of hybrid composites up to 22.5 percent is noticed with reference to neat composite. An increase in impact toughness up to 40.73 percent is marked for hybrid laminates owing to the ductile nature of PC. Delamination is identified to be the major mode of failure apart from fiber fracture/pull-out, matrix cracking in all the static loading conditions.

Originality/value

The response of novel hybrid composite reported has been explored for the first time in this paper. The outcome of experimental work revealed that hybridization offered lightweight structures with improved transverse impact toughness as compared to conventional composite.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Sugavaneswaran M. and Arumaikkannu G.

This paper aims to additive manufacture (AM) the multi-material (MM) structure with directional-specific mechanical properties based on the classical lamination theory of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to additive manufacture (AM) the multi-material (MM) structure with directional-specific mechanical properties based on the classical lamination theory of composite materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The polyjet three-dimensional printing (3DP) process is used to fabricate the MM structure with directional-specific mechanical properties. MMs within a layer are positioned and oriented based on the classical lamination theory to achieve directional-specific properties. Mechanical behavior of the AM structure was examined under various loading conditions to justify the directional-specific properties.

Findings

With MM processing capabilities of the polyjet 3DP machine, AM MM structures with directional-specific mechanical properties were fabricated. From experimentation, it was observed that the AM MM structure with a quasi-isotropic laminate has superior tensile and flexural strength, and the AM MM structure with an angle ply laminate has superior shear strength. Various mechanical properties determined through testing will be useful for the selection of an appropriate layup arrangement within a structure for appropriate loading conditions.

Originality/value

This study presents the innovative methodology for the fabrication of AM MM structures with tailor-made mechanical properties. The developed methodology paves way for using the polyjet 3DP MM structure for applications such as the complaint mechanism, snap fits and thin features, which require directional-specific properties.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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