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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Victor Owusu, Enoch Owusu-Sekyere, Emmanuel Donkor, Nana Ama Darkwaah and Derrick Adomako-Boateng Jr

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour blended with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour blended with wheat flour in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on interviews with 350 consumers in the Ashanti and Eastern Regions of Ghana to assess their awareness, perceptions and WTP for cassava-wheat composite bread. From these consumer interviews, a hedonic regression model was applied to evaluate consumers’ WTP for various attributes of composite flour bread. Price-related and health-related perceptions of consumers on cassava-wheat composite bread were investigated with perception indices. Multi-attribute preference-based contingent ratings that rate product attributes in terms of importance to consumers was employed. The implicit prices of the product attributes representing the contribution of the product attributes to the WTP amount were also computed.

Findings

The paper finds that consumers who are aware of cassava-blended flour bread and who like its taste and texture are willing to pay more than consumers who are unaware. This leads to a policy recommendation advocating increased advertising of the economic and nutritional benefits of cassava-wheat blended composite flour bread.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should explore the choice experiments to examine preferences for the food product.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates consumers’ WTP for composite flour bread produced with a blend of 15-40 per cent cassava flour and wheat flour. Given widespread reliance on imported wheat flour and the simultaneously large volumes of locally available cassava, it is important to consider opportunities for import substitution (and possible cost reduction for consumers) of blended flour products such as cassava-wheat composite flours. Nigeria has imposed a 10 per cent blending requirement for this reason. Ghana has taken important measures recently for the development of high-quality cassava flour, and so research on its potential and actual uptake is welcomed and highly relevant to food security and agribusiness development.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Aderonke Ibidunni Olagunju, Peace Chioma Ekeogu and Oluwaseun Cege Bamisi

Wheat flour (whole grain or white wheat flour) is a major ingredient for production of baked goods and confectionery products in Nigeria. However, due to unfavourable…

Abstract

Purpose

Wheat flour (whole grain or white wheat flour) is a major ingredient for production of baked goods and confectionery products in Nigeria. However, due to unfavourable climatic and soil conditions, there is over-dependence on importation of wheat having a negative impact on the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). This has therefore spurred increasing popularity of partial or full replacement of wheat flour with other flour types for economic or nutritional reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of whole wheat flour with indigenous, underutilized crops.

Design/methodology/approach

Whole wheat flour was partially (0–40%) replaced with acha and/or pigeon pea flours in ratios of 100:0:0 (WAPK), 90:10:0 (WAPL), 80:20:0 (WAPM), 70:30:0 (WAPN), 80:10:10 (WAPO), 70:20:10 (WAPP), 70:15:15 (WAPQ) and 60:20:20 (WAPR). The study evaluated the effects of supplementation on rheological, functional properties of composite flours and nutritional composition of composite bread.

Findings

Results showed that dough development and stability time, values of most pasting properties (peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback and pasting temperature) were significantly higher in the composite flours than in WAPK. However, incorporation of acha and pigeon pea flours resulted in significant decrease in breakdown value. Composite flours produced protein-enriched breads with improved essential amino acids exceeding WHO/FAO reference for adults. Composite flours from blends of whole wheat, acha and pigeon pea flours may serve as a potential raw material suitable for production of nutritious and functional baked products.

Originality/value

The present study confirms effective supplementation of whole grain wheat flour with either acha or both acha and pigeon pea flours. Composite flours showed improved functional and pasting properties; thus, it may be suitable for production of baked products such as bread and biscuits.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Sait Engindeniz and Zhansaya Bolatova

The purpose of this paper is to determine composite flour and bread consumption, and to analyse economic efficiency by comparing Kazakhstan and Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine composite flour and bread consumption, and to analyse economic efficiency by comparing Kazakhstan and Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

The material of the study was analysed through cross-section, χ2 and T-test, data collected from the online questionnaires of 269 families from Kazakhstan (131 families) and Turkey (138 families). The families were classified into four categories on the basis of their income level and into three categories on the basis of their education level and age level.

Findings

According to the study results, Kazakhstan and Turkey families consume different types of flours and breads; the consumption of composite flour per capita has been 2 kg/month, but the bread consumption per capita has been 2 pieces/day. A χ2 analysis has shown that country, family size, age, sex, income and occupation had a significant effect on flour and bread consumption. It was detected that the price of composite flour products and bread is related to the income of a family. According to the survey data, in Kazakhstan and Turkey, the average monthly income of the families have been calculated as $675, and the average income per person have been calculated as $170. Families purchase of composite flour products and bread has been $6. There is an increase amount of flour and bread consumption (p<0.010) in the low-income level, but in families with high-income level, there is a decrease amount of consumption. The price of flour products and bread is associated with the income of a family; these products have seen as reasonable and practical products. The income level and age level affect the consumption of flour and bread. Although the education level and occupation of consumers are varied, flour and bread have been preferred by every age group of consumers as a conventional food, whether it is a healthy food or not. New trend of consumption healthy products as a composite flour and bread influences on consumers purchase.

Originality/value

Flour and bread constitute the main and strategically important food product worldwide. The food security of a country depends on the state of the grain economy and the broad availability of the population. Grain production is the largest branch of agricultural production, and it has an important economic and social significance. The flour and bread were the main economic and political problem thousands of years ago.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Demelash Hailu Mitiku, Solomon Abera, Nugusse Bussa and Tilahun Abera

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour on the nutrient composition and sensory properties of bread.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour on the nutrient composition and sensory properties of bread.

Design/methodology/approach

Sweet potato flour was blended with wheat flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent levels of substitution for bread production. Proximate, minerals and antinutritional factors of the breads were investigated using AOAC methods. Sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of 50 consumers. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated by Tukey’s comparison test at p <0.05. Results were reported as mean ± SD.

Findings

The nutritional and sensory quality of bread made from wheat flour supplemented with sweet potato flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent was investigated. Blending of sweet potato flour with wheat flour had significantly decreased the protein content (4.76–7.78 percent) while the ash (1.35–3.07 percent), crude fiber (0.24–1.03), carbohydrate contents (88.39–90.45 percent), iron, zinc, phosphorus and vitamin A contents were significantly increased ( p<0.05) with increasing sweet potato flour in the formulations. The tannin and phytate contents of the composite breads were low. Sensory evaluation of the breads revealed a mild reduction of the bread’s general acceptability with increase in the substitution level by sweet potato flour.

Originality/value

This study showed that the wheat flour used in making breads could be substituted with up to 15 percent sweet potato flour without compromising its nutritional quality, with only a mild reduction in sensory quality.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Wasiu A.O. Afolabi, Clara R.B. Oguntona and Bilkisu B. Fakunmoju

Reports a study to determine the suitability of beniseed for bread making as well as the chemical composition and acceptability of the bread among Nigerian bread consuming…

Abstract

Reports a study to determine the suitability of beniseed for bread making as well as the chemical composition and acceptability of the bread among Nigerian bread consuming population. Three bread samples were developed from wheat, beniseed, and cassava composite flour using the formulae 85:10:5, 80:15:5 and 75:25:5. Baking characteristics, chemical composition and acceptability tests were carried out on the samples with wheat bread serving as control. Results show that bread produced from beniseed composite flour has similar baking characteristics in terms of appearance, colour and flavour when compared with wheat bread. Consumer acceptability tests indicated that the bread samples were all acceptable, with the sample with formula 85:10:5 ranked first and being the most preferred. Analysis of chemical composition indicated that the bread samples contain higher protein, fat, crude fibre and ash. This study has shown that acceptable bread of higher nutritional value can be produced from beniseed.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Dipika Agrahar-Murugkar and Preeti Dixit-Bajpai

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour, dough and breads with the objective of developing bread with higher calcium content and to investigate whether it maintains quality traits that guarantee its acceptability by consumers by testing textural, scanning electron microscopy and nutritional and sensorial parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Refined flour was fortified with skimmed milk powder (SMP), sesame, moringa leaves and cumin (T1), SMP, sesame and malted finger millet (T2) and SMP and sesame (T3). Refined flour dough and breads served as control (C). The physicochemical, textural, scanning electron microscopy, nutritional and sensory parameters of flour, dough and breads were evaluated.

Findings

Significantly (p < 0.01) higher stickiness values of dough were obtained by refined flour dough-C (50.3 N); refined flour dough fortified with SMP and sesame - T3 (42.2 N); Refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP and malted finger millet -T2 (38.4 N); and refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP, moringa leaves and cumin -T1 (33.5 N). Oven spring in breads was 1.4 in C and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) to T3-1.0, T1-0.9 and T2-0.8. Chewiness values of T3 (4.1) was similar to C bread, whereas T1 and T2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower values. Scanning electron microscopy images of bread microstructure showed fortification of bread resulted in intermittent but more prominent gluten structure in test breads than control. The highest calcium content was observed in T1 (268 mg/100 g), followed by T2 (231 mg/100 g) and T3 (211 mg/100 g). The incorporation of dried moringa leaves and cumin seeds enhanced the appearance, aroma, taste and flavor of T1.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows that texturally and sensorially acceptable nutritious breads can be produced through natural fortification. Nutrients from naturally fortified foods are better absorbed and assimilated by the body. Calcium-fortified breads, each with its own distinctive taste and texture, showed high values in the sensory evaluation test.

Originality/value

The incorporation of calcium and protein-rich ingredients such as SMP, moringa leaves, cumin, malted finger millet and sesame would yield calcium enriched breads superior to the commonly consumed plain refined wheat flour bread with respect to textural, nutritional, functional and sensory attributes and have high potential to alleviate calcium deficiency in vulnerable groups.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Dileep Kumar, Taihua Mu and Mengmei Ma

Clarify the effects of potato flour (PF) addition on dough properties and quality characteristics of pie bread, thus providing a theoretical basis for potato-wheat-yogurt…

Abstract

Purpose

Clarify the effects of potato flour (PF) addition on dough properties and quality characteristics of pie bread, thus providing a theoretical basis for potato-wheat-yogurt pie bread processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The seven pie bread formulations were prepared with addition of different amount of PF (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 per cent) by replacing wheat flour (WF). The influence of replacement of PF with WF on the dough development, gas behavior, microstructural, gluten-starch interaction inside dough matrix and the nutritional and textural properties of pie bread was analyzed.

Findings

Compared to dough with WF, dough height was decreased significantly but total gas volume showed no significant difference with the addition of PF (10-60 per cent), and the dough height was decreased gradually with the increasing addition of PF (p = 0.0012). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that dough with 10-30 per cent PF revealed smooth surface and continuous network structure was also existed between starch and gluten, this was similar to the structure of wheat dough, while the surface was rough and the connection was not continuous when the PF addition was further increased from 40 to 60 per cent. Nuclear magnetic resonance showed dough with 10-60 per cent PF presented larger content of immobilized water compared to the wheat dough, and its content was also increased with the increasing addition of PF (p = 0.0008). Pie bread with 10-60 per cent PF exhibited lower fat, carbohydrate content and energy value compared to the wheat pie bread, and the fat, carbohydrate, energy was further decreased with the increasing addition of PF (p = 0.0012, 0.0002, 0.0007, respectively), while the dietary fiber content increased (p = 0.0011). In addition, specific volume and height/diameter ratio showed no significant difference in pie bread with 0-40 per cent PF, which were 2.1-2.4 cm3/g and 0.16-0.19, respectively (p = 0.004), whereas they were reduced significantly when the PF was increased to 60 per cent (p = 0.001, p = 0.002). In addition, the lightness (L) of pie bread decreased gradually with the increasing amount of PF, and the browning index was increased. Pie bread with 0-40 per cent PF showed similar hardness, springness and chewiness value, which were also increased when the PF was increased to 60 per cent (p = 0.001). The above results indicated that PF could improve the nutritional quality of pie bread, and the appropriate addition amount should be no more than 40 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

The mechanisms of this study should be clarified for further study.

Practical implications

PF was an excellent food ingredient and could be used for pie bread making at 30 per cent replacement level to overcome use of WF.

Social implications

The results of this study can provide a new kind of potato staple food with high nutrition and low energy for market and consumers.

Originality/value

PF was first used to produce yogurt pie bread to improve the nutritional properties of traditional WF yogurt pie bread.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Samuel Ayofemi Adeyeye and John O. Akingbala

This study aims to assess the quality characteristics and acceptability of cookies from sweet potato–maize flour blends and to determine nutritional quality, color and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the quality characteristics and acceptability of cookies from sweet potato–maize flour blends and to determine nutritional quality, color and palatability traits and to compare the effects with that of wheat cookies, so as to suggest a cost-effective production method to bakers and retailers. This would ensure food security, enhanced health, combat malnutrition problems and improve the production of the crops.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were prepared by the method reported by Okaka and Isieh (1990), Abayomi et al. (2013), Onabanjo and Ighere (2014) with modification. Flour (200 g) from each sample of different flour blends was used for the experiment. Sugar (80 g) was creamed with margarine (100 g) until light and fluffy constituency was obtained using Kenwood chef with initial minimum speed, and the speed increased stepwise until the mark of 6 on the chef indicator was attained. Whole egg (60 g) was added, then followed by flour (200 g), powdered milk (20 g), baking powder (0.1 g) and salt (1 g) were added and mixed until a stiff paste (batter) was obtained. The batter was rolled on a floured board using a rolling pin to a thickness of 0.2-0.3 cm. The rolled batter was cut into circular shapes with a cutter and arranged on a greased tray and baked at 1500°C for 20 minutes. The cookies were brought out, cooked and packaged in cellophane bag until used for laboratory analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that substitution of sweet potato flour with maize flour significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the protein from 6.8-4.4 per cent, moisture from 5.3-5.0 per cent, crude fibre from 3.4-2.5 per cent and fat from 9.8-8.5 per cent of the composite flours and the cookies. The ash and sugar contents were increased from 4.3-5.8 per cent for ash and 2.1-3.9 per cent for sugar with increase in sweet potato flour substitution. The calorific value of the cookies decreased from 457-397 cal/100 g as the percentage of sweet potato flour increased in the maize flour cookies. Sensory evaluation results showed that the colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability changed significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in sweet potato flour substitution. The optimum substitution level was 40 per cent; above this, the product becomes less acceptable to the consumer.

Research limitations/implications

Fabrication and production processing machines that use sweet potato will be a great challenge.

Originality/value

This research is of value to the bakery industry or retailers. The optimum substitution level of sweet potato flour was 40 per cent, and it appears to be a promising measure from the view of practicability. The relative ease of getting sweet potato flour makes it superior to other imported flour like wheat and in reducing cost of importation of wheat to Nigeria.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Olufunmilola Olaitan Oladunmoye, Ogugua Charles Aworh, Beatrice Ade-Omowaye and Gloria Elemo

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of substituting semolina with cassava starch in macaroni production at six levels, namely, 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100 per cent, and variation in hydration levels of 45, 50 and 55 per cent and their interaction were studied.

Findings

As substitution of DWS with HQCS increased from 0 to 50 per cent at 45 per cent hydration, amylose content increased from 15.91 to 22.79 per cent. However, beyond 50 per cent substitution level, the amylose content dropped significantly to 20.10 per cent. Yet, this reduction did not affect the extrusion ability of the doughs. Analysis of variance revealed that changes observed in the dough properties were not significant (p > 0.05).

Research limitations/implications

Trial productions of cassava macaroni noodles under factory processing conditions need to be explored. Also, cooking trials and consumer acceptability studies need to be conducted to pave the way for adoption by manufacturers.

Practical implications

Dried noodle products enjoy widespread popularity because of their shelf life, lower glycaemic indices, simplicity of preparation and moderate costs. This study showed the potential of substituting DWS with HQCS with no adverse effect on the dough and macaroni noodle characteristics.

Social implications

The adoption of the process described in this study would result in increased utilization of cassava, broaden existing food base and provide household food security for both rural and urban population.

Originality/value

This paper has shown the suitability of substituting DWS obtained from imported durum wheat, with HQCS: indigenous to Africa, for the economic benefit of macaroni manufacturers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Navnidhi Chhikara, Burale Abdulahi, Claudia Munezero, Ravinder Kaur, Gurpreet Singh and Anil Panghal

Sorghum is quite comparable to wheat, rich source of nutrients with various health benefits, and therefore considered as a grain of future. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Sorghum is quite comparable to wheat, rich source of nutrients with various health benefits, and therefore considered as a grain of future. The purpose of this paper is to review the bioactive active compounds, health benefits and processing of the sorghum. Sorghum is utilized for animal feeding rather than the human food usage. Therefore, this paper focuses on the emerging new health foods with benefits of the sorghum.

Design/methodology/approach

Major well-known bibliometric information sources searched were the Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed. Several keywords like nutritional value of sorghum, bioactive compounds present in sorghum, health benefits of sorghum and processing of sorghum were chosen to obtain a large range of papers to be analyzed. A final inventory of 91 scientific sources was made after sorting and classifying them according to different criteria based on topic, academic field country of origin and year of publication.

Findings

From the literature reviewed, sorghum processing through various methods, including milling, malting, fermentation and blanching, bioactive compounds, as well as health benefits of sorghum were found and discussed.

Originality/value

Through this paper, possible processing methods and health benefits of sorghum are discussed after detailed studies of literature from journal articles.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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