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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

Richard Parrott, Nigel Tilley and John Wolstenholme

This article describes the changes in the population of people with learning disabilities in Sheffield and the associated demand for specialist learning disability

Abstract

This article describes the changes in the population of people with learning disabilities in Sheffield and the associated demand for specialist learning disability services, primary and acute health services and the wider public realm. It comments particularly on people with the most complex needs. The study to produce this data was in two parts: an analysis of changes in the overall number of people with a learning disability which included a projection of how the number might change over the next ten years, and an analysis of the health and support needs of young people with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), and how these might change in the future. The findings are compelling. The overall number of people with a learning disability in Sheffield increased by 25% in the 10 years from 1998 to 2008, the number of children and young people with a learning disability increased by nearly 120% and young people with PMLD were found to have an unprecedented level of health and social care need, which will increase further as they enter adulthood. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for further research are offered.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2009

Beverley Dawkins

Valuing People Now (DH, 2009) recognises that some people, particularly those with complex needs, have been missing out. It has made ‘including everyone’ a priority for…

Abstract

Valuing People Now (DH, 2009) recognises that some people, particularly those with complex needs, have been missing out. It has made ‘including everyone’ a priority for the next three years. With reference to Tom's story, this paper will consider the reasons why people with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) remain among the most marginalised people in society today, what has changed since Valuing People (DH, 2001) and what needs to change in the next three years of delivering Valuing People Now (DH, 2009) if we are to rise to the challenge of ‘enabling extraordinary people to live ordinary lives’ (McConkey, 1998).

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Judith Samuel and Marie Pritchard

This paper describes how one specialist learning disability health service has attempted to increase its focus on meeting the complex needs of people with profound…

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Abstract

This paper describes how one specialist learning disability health service has attempted to increase its focus on meeting the complex needs of people with profound learning disability (PLD) both with and without additional physical, sensory and medical impairment. Through individual assessment and intervention, carer consultation, training and supervision, research, and audit and advice to management, a multi‐disciplinary group has influenced the development of more proactive community teams for people with learning disability. This is in the context of both the publication of Signposts for Success (NHSE, 1998) and of a changing organisational culture which has embraced essential lifestyle planning, person‐centred teams, supported living and direct payments. The challenge remains of ring‐fencing sufficient resources (of time, skill and equipment), given the high‐profile and competing demands of people with milder learning disabilities but with complex mental health needs and/or challenging behaviour.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Erica Elaine McInnis

The purpose of this paper is to report effectiveness of disability psychotherapy with a male adult with a mild intellectual disability presenting with complex emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report effectiveness of disability psychotherapy with a male adult with a mild intellectual disability presenting with complex emotional and behavioural problems.

Design/methodology/approach

An individual case study was used with repeated analytic, quantitative and qualitative measures. This reported progress from individual weekly disability psychotherapy of psychodynamic orientation within an emotional disability framework.

Findings

Disability psychotherapy led to a reduction in emotional and behavioural problems, reduction in emotional disability and facilitated protective psychological growth. In total, 88 sessions resulted in cessation of problem behaviours when other approaches did not. Given this therapy is likely to be reserved for the most complex and severe of cases, this study suggests more sessions of psychotherapy are needed than inferred from previous studies of effectiveness (Beail et al., 2007). This is to promote a sense of self which facilitates psychological well-being.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of a single case study include generalisability, controlling other factors in real life settings and subjectivity from inclusion of analytical measures. Further studies and follow-up would determine longevity of benefits. Nevertheless disability psychotherapy can be effective and should be available in a culturally appropriate service to meet the diverse needs of people with intellectual disabilities.

Originality/value

This case study adds to the limited body of evidence on effectiveness of psychotherapy for people with intellectual disabilities. It is novel to report formal outcomes from an emotional disability model (Frankish, 2013a) and the use of analytic and attachment outcome measures.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Steve Carnaby

The purpose of this paper is to serve as a commentary on the work reported by Hilary Johnson and her colleagues, which used partnership working as a lever for developing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to serve as a commentary on the work reported by Hilary Johnson and her colleagues, which used partnership working as a lever for developing community inclusion for people with complex communication needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The commentary uses the wider literature on social inclusion as well as narrative from current policy in England on the development of “Transforming Care Partnerships” to explore some of the issues raised by the research.

Findings

The conclusion is that physical integration is only the starting point for a vision where people with the most complex needs live the “included life” which evolves by developing partnership working and reciprocal relationships between people with and without disabilities.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to highlight relevant key research in the area of social integration as a way of reviewing the likely impact of recent policy on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities and the most complex needs.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Anne MacDonald

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary from a Scottish perspective on some of the issues raised in the paper “Variation in rates of inpatient admission and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary from a Scottish perspective on some of the issues raised in the paper “Variation in rates of inpatient admission and lengths of stay experienced by adults with learning disabilities in England”.

Design/methodology/approach

The policy context in relation to people with learning disabilities in Scotland is reviewed, alongside an update about a current Scottish Government project focussed on understanding and addressing the issue of people with learning disabilities whose discharge from hospital is delayed.

Findings

As regards to people with learning disabilities who are inpatients in hospitals in Scotland, there are similar themes in common with those in the paper by Elaine James and colleagues; however Scottish policy has developed differently from that in England in this area.

Originality/value

This commentary adds to the discussion by contributing a Scottish perspective on issues and outlines work being done to address the need for people with learning disabilities and complex needs in Scotland to live within their local communities.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Alina Zajadacz

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a critical analysis of the disability models developed to date and of how they function in practice. Furthermore, it…

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12835

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a critical analysis of the disability models developed to date and of how they function in practice. Furthermore, it aims to answer the following question: which model of disability (MD) will provide the most suitable foundation for any course of action undertaken in the process of planning accessible tourism development in the future?

Design/methodology/approach

In the first stage of the study a critical analysis of the MDs described in the literature as well as in selected reports and expert opinions relating to people with disability (PwD) was performer. These findings then became the basis for the second stage of the study which focuses on identifying attitudes within society towards the types of tourism on offer connected to the analysed MDs. The applied research methods include an analysis of a survey (2013, 2014) carried out face-to-face and on the SurveyMonkey web site. The study group consisted of 619 people (from Poland, Russia, Germany, Portugal, Slovakia, Canada, Tunisia and Great Britain).

Findings

The great diversity of disabilities makes finding a universal solution in the creation of accessible tourism supply a complex task. This supports the need for a flexible “mix of various models” aimed at finding optimal solutions and the personalisation of tourism. In this context the greatest potential in the development of accessible tourism are models which are a synthesis of many determiners of disability such as the biopsychosocial or the geographical model of disability. The dynamics of accessible tourism development is likely to be increasingly influenced by the economic model, reflecting current trends for the personalisation of tourism supply.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was carried out mainly within the European Community, the exception being respondents from Irkutsk in eastern (Asian) Russia. In order to gain a global view of the development of accessible tourism, research should be performed in countries representing all continents or tourist regions. Additionally, reflecting the definition of accessible tourism its beneficiaries – PwD – should participate in decision-making processes. Tourism service providers who are directly engaged in tourism supply also have a role to play. Their opinions and attitudes towards the development of accessible tourism determine its very nature in reality.

Practical implications

The survey on attitudes in society regarding the organisation of tourist trips for PwD confirmed conclusions from the analysis of the practical implications of various disability models in the creation of tourism supply that a single universal, optimal solution does not exist. All of the described MD can be applied in the development of a diverse tourism supply. The proposed model “diversification of supply […]” is the theoretical basis for the conscious development of accessible tourism in practice which in accordance with changes observed in the tourism market is undergoing increasing diversification and personalisation.

Social implications

In each of the tourism supply for PwD types the economic model of disability based on the identification of PwD needs and surrounding society is important. The number of PwD and the scope of necessary services, social support (PwD often travel accompanied by one to three people) is determined by income in all the sectors identified in the structure of tourism supply. From the economic point of view, awareness of different types of disability and the diverse models describing it are significant aids in the segmentation of tourism supply and placement of products accessible to PwD on the tourism market.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new, critical perspective on the selected MD, the key to which is the search for optimal solutions in the development of accessible tourism. The analysis performed indicated the need for a synthesis of paradigms at the core of the conceptualisation of particular models, including those often regarded as being contrary (medical and social). The results of studies would give tourism providers important data on an increasingly competitive tourism market, and also affect changes in how PwD, the elderly, are viewed, from the category of “relatively poor” to “attractive, using a wide range of services”.

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Jonathan Mason, Kate Crowson, Mary Katsikitis and Michael Moodie

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the initial experiences of Australia’s National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). It highlights some of the main challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the initial experiences of Australia’s National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). It highlights some of the main challenges being faced by participants, service providers and government, and demonstrates how research can contribute to the ongoing implementation and success of the scheme.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical basis for the need for a new approach to disability funding in Australia is explored. The opportunities that exist and the difficulties that are being encountered by those entering and working within the new scheme are discussed.

Findings

Several problems were identified including difficult transitions between existing support frameworks to new “NDIS plans”, and the risk of market failure. Both the problems and their solutions are discussed and it is hoped that collaboration between the Commonwealth Government, service users, their families, service providers and universities can lead to a number of lasting improvements.

Practical implications

The new funding framework provides exciting opportunities for increasing the funding of people with intellectual and physical disabilities in Australia. Developments in technology, service provision in rural and remote areas and the opportunity to meet aspirational life goals exist alongside a number of challenges, including the need to ensure that those with multiple and complex disabilities retain existing levels of support.

Originality/value

The implementation of the NDIS is still underway, and opportunities exist to implement changes to the scheme where required. Research findings have an important role to play in the national debate regarding how best to improve quality of life for people with a disability in Australia.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Owen Barr and Bob Gates

The importance of effective education for staff working in services for people with learning disabilities has been highlighted regularly as a key strategy for improving…

Abstract

The importance of effective education for staff working in services for people with learning disabilities has been highlighted regularly as a key strategy for improving the quality of care and services. However, there has also been debate about how this could be taken forward for unqualified staff, within and across professional boundaries. This paper explores the perceived need for education to make a reality of the visions of future services that have been presented in the current learning disability policies in the United Kingdom. It is argued that increased attention needs to be given to recruitment, selection and retention, revised curriculum to reflect policy objectives, shared learning, and partnership between educational and service providers. It is also noted that it is not enough to prepare people who can work competently in existing services; they must also have a contemporary combination of knowledge, skills, values, motivation and commitment that will enable them to develop services over the next 10‐15 years, in line with the vision of existing service policy documents.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Abstract

Details

New Narratives of Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-144-5

1 – 10 of over 10000