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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2011

Walter Kickert

New Public Management (NPM)-style reforms have resulted in unintended effects such as fragmentation, deficient coordination and undermining political control. This book is…

Abstract

New Public Management (NPM)-style reforms have resulted in unintended effects such as fragmentation, deficient coordination and undermining political control. This book is in search of new steering concepts to counter this fragmentation and re-coordinate the public sector. In this chapter, the search for new steering concepts is addressed by looking at a type of public management reform that is an extremely ‘wicked problem’ in terms of steering and coordination, that is, emergent and complex change processes. Such a type of reform process is a complex network of different sub-types of reform with a multitude of actors with different interests and motives. Many decentral actors initiate various reforms at different places from which in the course of time a trend emerges, and several central actors try to coordinate and supervise, but have limited influence. Such an ‘emergent and complex’ type of change process indeed requires fundamentally new steering concepts.

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New Steering Concepts in Public Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-110-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho and Jose Afonso Mazzon

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The goal is to incorporate complexity tools, in particular from the system dynamics field, and the promotion of mindware within a true transdisciplinary paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses literature review to support the proposed theoretical development. It also presents a short case study.

Findings

Most problems that plague our modern societies have a distinctive complex nature that is not amenable to traditional social marketing interventions. Social marketing has simplified the problem of bringing about societal change by thinking that upstream social actors can be influenced in the same way as downstream individuals. This paper shows that this is not the case while proposing a framework to close this gap.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework is a theoretical one. It depends on further refinements and actual application to wicked problems.

Practical implications

Complex social problems – or wicked problems – remain widespread in modern societies. Moreover, they are getting worse over time. The paper presents a proposal to redefine the limits of the social marketing discipline so it can be more useful to tackle such problems. Practical approaches such as measuring the success of mindware in the marketplace of ideas are implied in the proposed framework.

Social implications

The increase in complexity of social problems has not been accompanied by an evolution in the discipline of social marketing. The lack of proper conceptual tools has prevented the discipline from contributing to tackling these problems effectively. Some interventions may actually worsen the underlying problems, as illustrated in the paper.

Originality/value

This paper identifies two major gaps associated with the social marketing discipline, in particular the lack of complexity and systems thinking and the forsaking of ideas (mindware) as a legitimate goal of the discipline. This realization corroborates the claim that boundaries among disciplines are often artificial, hindering the proper understanding of complex social problems. In turn, only the use of adequate conceptual lenses makes it possible to devise interventions and programs that tackle actual causes (instead of symptoms) of complex social problems.

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Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Na Zhang, Mengze Li, Haibing Ren and Yupeng Li

The development of complex products and systems is a continuously iterative process from customer requirements to a mature design. Design changes derived from multisources…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of complex products and systems is a continuously iterative process from customer requirements to a mature design. Design changes derived from multisources occur frequently during the design process. Furthermore, change propagation will impose impacts on design costs and lead times. In view of this, how to predict and control the propagation of multisource design change to reduce the changes impact is an urgent issue in the development of complex product.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a new four-phase routing approach based on weighted and directed complex networks is proposed for multisource design change propagation. Phase I: as the foundation of this research, a product network model is established to quantify describe the complex product. Phase II: the hub nodes are identified based on the LeaderRank algorithm, which can be regarded as multisource nodes of design changes. Phase III: a calculation method for change propagation intensity is proposed, which improves the systematicness and accuracy of the evaluation results. In this paper, change propagation intensity is defined by four assessment factors: importance degree of parts, execution time of design tasks, coupling strength between parts and propagation likelihood. Phase IV: a routing method of multisource design change propagation and ant colony optimization algorithm are proposed in this paper, which can solve the coupling conflicts among change propagation paths and improve the search efficiency by using the parallel search strategy.

Findings

The proposed method and another method are used to search the optimal propagation path of multisource design change of a motorcycle engine; the results indicate that this method designed in this study has a positive effect on reducing the change impact, market response time and product design costs when design change occurs in the products design process.

Originality/value

The authors find a new method (a network-based four-phase routing approach) to search the optimal propagation path of multisource design change in complex products design.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Lars Mjøset and Ådne Cappelen

Norway is a small nation state on the northernmost coastline of Western Europe, integrated in the Western world economy. For centuries Norway's integration in the world…

Abstract

Norway is a small nation state on the northernmost coastline of Western Europe, integrated in the Western world economy. For centuries Norway's integration in the world economy had been based on exports of raw materials such as fish and timber, as well as shipping services. In the early 20th century, furnace-based metals (made possible by cheap hydropower) were added to this export basket. Just as the world economy entered an increasingly unstable phase in 1970s, another natural resource was discovered in Norway: petroleum – that is, oil and natural gas from the North Sea. This chapter analyses the challenges and possibilities inherent in the Norwegian strategy of developing an oil economy in a world economic situation influenced by new and stronger forms of international integration through the four decades between 1970 and 2010.

Details

The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Elizabeth Bradbury

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the experience of the Advancing Quality Alliance's (AQuA) regional Integrated Care Discovery Community created to translate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the experience of the Advancing Quality Alliance's (AQuA) regional Integrated Care Discovery Community created to translate integrated care theory into practice at scale and to test ways to address the system enablers of integrated care.

Design/methodology/approach

Principles of flexibility, agility, credibility and scale influenced Community design. The theoretical framework drew on relevant complexity, learning community and change management theories. Co-designed with stakeholders, the discovery-based Community model incorporated emergent learning from change in complex adaptive environments and focused bespoke support on leadership capability building.

Findings

In total, 19 health and social care economies participated. Kotter's eight-step change model proved flexible in conjunction with large-scale change theories. The tension between programme management, learning communities and the emergent nature of change in complex adaptive systems can be harnessed to inject pace and urgency. Mental models and simple rules were helpful in managing participant's desire for a directive approach in the context of a discovery programme.

Research limitations/implications

This is a viewpoint from a regional improvement organisation in North West England.

Social implications

The Discovery Community was a useful construct through which to rapidly develop multiple integrated health and social care economies. Flexible design and bespoke delivery is crucial in a complex adaptive environment. Capability building needs to be agile enough to meet the emergent needs of a changing workforce. Collaborative leadership has emerged as an area requiring particular attention.

Originality/value

Learning from AQuA's approach may assist others in structuring large-scale integrated care or complex change initiatives.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Joris van der Voet, Ben Kuipers and Sandra Groeneveld

Public organizations often need to implement organizational change. Several authors have argued that the specific characteristics of public organizations make the…

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2558

Abstract

Purpose

Public organizations often need to implement organizational change. Several authors have argued that the specific characteristics of public organizations make the implementation of organizational change in public organizations distinct or even more difficult. However, this issue has received little empirical investigation in both public management and change management research. Public organizations typically operate in an environment characterized by checks and balances, shared power, divergent interests and the political primate. The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge about how the implementation of change and its leadership is affected by the complex environment in which public organizations operate.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is adopted. A merger of three government departments in a Dutch city is selected as a case. This merger took place in an environment that became increasingly complex as the implementation process advanced. The main method of data collection was interviewing the managers that were involved in the organizational change. In all, 23 interviews were conducted and fully transcribed. The interviews were then coded using Atlas.ti software.

Findings

The analysis indicates that a high degree of environmental complexity forces public organizations to adopt a planned, top-down approach to change, while the effectiveness of such an approach to change is simultaneously limited by a complex environment. In addition, typical change leadership activities, such as defining the need for change, role modeling and motivating employees to implement the change, are not sufficient to implement change in a complex environment. In order to overcome environmental dependencies and maintain momentum in the change process, public managers must engage in more externally oriented leadership activities.

Originality/value

The paper provides empirical evidence about the relevant and rapidly growing research topic of organizational change in public organizations. The paper concludes with hypotheses that can be tested in follow-up research, and as such provides a starting point for future research concerning change management in public organizations.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Mandus Frykman, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Åsa Muntlin Athlin, Henna Hasson and Pamela Mazzocato

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork.

Design/methodology/approach

Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used.

Findings

The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced.

Practical implications

The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period.

Originality/value

By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

John C. Reed and George Edward Higgins

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of officers’ perceptions of complexity in merging organizational change components (culture, mission, values…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of officers’ perceptions of complexity in merging organizational change components (culture, mission, values, decentralization, policies and procedures, administrative reporting practices, weapons, contract, pay, benefits, patrol boundaries, equalization of workload, size of boundaries, communications, 10-codes, and car numbers) during a major metropolitan police department consolidation.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study utilizes data collected from 390 sworn officers from two agencies in Kentucky that were merged, the Louisville Division of Police and the Jefferson County Police Department. Statistical inquiry included factor analysis and a series of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis (controlling for demographic measures).

Findings

Results revealed a noteworthy, positive effect on support for consolidation related to the complexity of three factors: benefits, mission, and policies.

Originality/value

To date, the relevance of complexity on support for organizational change and, more specifically, police consolidation, is unknown. With this study, the authors aim to add to the discussion.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

C.L. Yang, A. Mohammed, Y Mohamadou, T. I. Oh and M. Soleimani

The aim of this paper is to introduce and to evaluate the performance of a multiple frequency complex impedance reconstruction for fabric-based EIT pressure sensor…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to introduce and to evaluate the performance of a multiple frequency complex impedance reconstruction for fabric-based EIT pressure sensor. Pressure mapping is an important and challenging area of modern sensing technology. It has many applications in areas such as artificial skins in Robotics and pressure monitoring on soft tissue in biomechanics. Fabric-based sensors are being developed in conjunction with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for pressure mapping imaging. This is potentially a very cost-effective pressure mapping imaging solution in particular for imaging large areas. Fabric-based EIT pressure sensors aim to provide a pressure mapping image using current carrying and voltage sensing electrodes attached on the boundary of the fabric patch.

Design/methodology/approach

Recently, promising results are being achieved in conductivity imaging for these sensors. However, the fabric structure presents capacitive behaviour that could also be exploited for pressure mapping imaging. Complex impedance reconstructions with multiple frequencies are implemented to observe both conductivity and permittivity changes due to the pressure applied to the fabric sensor.

Findings

Experimental studies on detecting changes of complex impedance on fabric-based sensor are performed. First, electrical impedance spectroscopy on a fabric-based sensor is performed. Secondly, the complex impedance tomography is carried out on fabric and compared with traditional EIT tank phantoms. Quantitative image quality measures are used to evaluate the performance of a fabric-based sensor at various frequencies and against the tank phantom.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates for the first time the useful information on pressure mapping imaging from the permittivity component of fabric EIT. Multiple frequency EIT reconstruction reveals spectral behaviour of the fabric-based EIT, which opens up new opportunities in exploration of these sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Elvira Kaneberg

The purpose of this paper is to analyse supply chain network management (SCNM) in the context of emergency preparedness management (EPM). The results of this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse supply chain network management (SCNM) in the context of emergency preparedness management (EPM). The results of this study revealed that civil-military relations are essential for EPM to function as a coordinated approach to safety and security, and are necessary to respond effectively to complex emergencies and mitigating threats to developed countries. Civil-military relations are still a concern in the context of communication, the exercise of authority, and the coordination of emergency supplies (ES) to emergency operations.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study is based on field observations, with attention focused on the EPM of Sweden, Finland, and Poland. The analysis of a broader SCNM through EPM was supported by semi-structured interviews among civil-military actors in Sweden, information collected from informal conversations known as “hanging out”, and secondary materials. Empirically, the analysis included a variety of civil-military relationships and identified implications for management, policy, and planning that are applicable to developed countries.

Findings

The management of civil-military relations is a meaningful resource when used as an overall approach for safety and security. The integration of civil-military relations in EPM in the planning of ES is a long-standing and complex matter. The management of Swedish civil-military relations in EPM is recognising that implications for management are imbedded in continuous policy changes in, for example, the Swedish policy history. Civil-military relational complications that arise in the field of operations are impossible to anticipate during emergency planning, as those complications are grounded in policy changes.

Originality/value

Escalating threats to developed countries are highlighted. The study underlines the primary measures used in studying military involvement in EPM. An understanding of SCNM as a choice for management can be obtained in future research that focuses on a broader role of the military in EPM. Sweden has emphasised a clearer role for the military by reactivating total defence planning and by evolving common practices and processes with civil actors in civil defence. Meanwhile, Poland and Finland are increasing their focus on supporting the management of civil-military policies on safety and security regarding communication, authority, and developing coordination. Consistent with findings from previous reports on SCNM, civil-military relations are essential for EPM. This study confirmed the importance of civil-military coordination, the management and practice of authority, and shared forms of communication.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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