Search results1 – 4 of 4
1992 was the year of the Single European Market. By 31 December1992, agreement should have been reached on some 286 directives, whichaimed to dismantle physical, technical…
1992 was the year of the Single European Market. By 31 December 1992, agreement should have been reached on some 286 directives, which aimed to dismantle physical, technical and fiscal barriers to trade. In so doing, it was expected that community businesses would become more integrated, allowing them to compete on more equal terms as Eurobusinesses with the global players of the US and Japan. It was predicted that greater intra‐Community competition would be a necessary precursor of this outcome, and that this will lead to industries restructuring through mergers and joint ventures to increase market share and economies of scale by reaching a “minimum efficient size”. Examines the trends in cross‐border mergers/acquisitions and joint ventures for the period 1986 to 1989 and concludes that, for both small and large firms, such activity has increased. Further, an analysis of EC material on the subject reveals that firms′ reasons for such developments appear to have become more market‐oriented over time.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between clientelist relationships and economics in public relations practice in European Mediterranean countries…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between clientelist relationships and economics in public relations practice in European Mediterranean countries and Latin America. It considers the cases of Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico.
This paper uses a critical-conceptual method through a re-conceptualization of themes from secondary qualitative analyses of existing qualitative data sets and reviews of published qualitative papers.
The public relations practice in these two regions is similar. The characteristics of the public relations landscape in these countries must be understood in relation to a broader history of clientelism and economics emphasizing government relationships at the expense of other publics, as well as the lack of scale economies. Persuasive models are prevalent, although a number of forces – including integration in supranational organizations, democratization, and globalization – have strengthened the use of symmetrical models.
This is not an empirical survey, there is a need of quantitative studies among practitioners and government officials that can measure empirically the nature of their relationships in a number of countries. This essay opens a door for future studies and cross-cultural comparisons about the role that clientelism plays in the PR practice of cultures and countries.
The paper offers useful background information, such as the primacy that media relations still have in the public relations practice, for foreign public relations executives, agency heads, and managers of public relations who are directly involved with or managing international public relations campaigns in these countries.
Clientelism is a cultural concept that translates to the work of organizations and consequently public relations as a form of organizational behavior.
This paper brings to the table the importance of the concept of clientelism in the PR practice as well as the existence of a similar PR culture between countries that are on different continents.
In today's global economy, a country's level of competitiveness has emerged as an important policy tool for business leaders and the impact of many economic and…
In today's global economy, a country's level of competitiveness has emerged as an important policy tool for business leaders and the impact of many economic and institutional “hard” factors on competitiveness have been studied. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact that diversity, a “soft” factor, has on a country's level of competitiveness.
Using a sample of 102 countries, a multiple regression analysis is performed in which the relationship between a country's competitiveness, as proxied by the global competitiveness index, and diversity, as proxied by ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity, are tested while controlling for other factors known to affect competitiveness. Further, a cluster analysis is performed in an effort to illuminate global patterns in competitiveness.
The results indicate that greater levels of ethnic diversity negatively and significantly affect a country's competitiveness, but greater levels of linguistic diversity positively and significantly affect competitiveness while religious diversity has no effect.
The reasons behind for the analysis results still need further research. For example, why do greater levels of linguistic diversity positively affect country competitiveness?
The IMF, World Bank, and other investors of capital need to understand whether diversity will help or hinder aid and loan programs and corporations need to consider diversity when conducting global business and foreign investment.
This study is the first to examine the relationship between diversity and country‐level competitiveness and has value to global business managers and investors.