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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Zhang Lei, Yingshan Chen, Zhiwen Liu, Wenjin Ji and Suqing Zhao

In this study, a highly sensitive and quantitative analysis method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-labeled immunoassay is adopted for bisphenol A bisphenol…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a highly sensitive and quantitative analysis method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-labeled immunoassay is adopted for bisphenol A bisphenol A (BPA) detection in water samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Primarily, an excellent SERS immuno-nanoprobe is prepared, which relays on Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles tagged 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) and labeled with specific antibody against BPA. Second, the coating antigen of 4,4-Bis(4-hydroxyphenol) valeric acid (BVA) coupling poly-L-lysine (PLL) conjugate (BVA-PLL) is fastened on the substrate. Based on competitive immunoassay, the antibody labeled on SERS immuno-nanoprobe will bind with the free BPA and BVA-PLL competitively.

Findings

A calibration curve was obtained by plotting the intensity of SERS signal of 4MBA at 1007 cm−1 versus the concentration of BPA. The results indicated that the limit of detection (LOD) for BPA is 1 ng/mL and present a great capacity for higher sensitivity. Furthermore, the method was able to quantitatively detect BPA in water samples, which was validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Originality/value

The method was developed based on competitive immunoassay, and the conjugate (BVA-PLL) was chosen as the coating antigen. Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles played as the SERS active substrate and were labeled with Raman reporter. The value of this paper is supplying a wide potential for analysis of target analytes in the environmental monitoring and food safety.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Bertold Hock and Martin Seifert

Biomonitoring uses biological responses to assess environmental changes, which are frequently due to anthropogenic pollution. Biomonitoring can be carried out at different…

Abstract

Biomonitoring uses biological responses to assess environmental changes, which are frequently due to anthropogenic pollution. Biomonitoring can be carried out at different levels of complexity: population, species or suborganismic responses may be used as indicators for exposure to pollutants. In the case of tests with whole organisms, their quality is often impaired by the heterogeneity of living organisms, slow responses and the fact that little information can be provided on the pollutants. Although suborganismic tests can provide more specific and fast responses, structure and concentration of pollutants are only revealed by chemical analysis. A novel approach to biomonitoring is introduced, which applies tight coupling of bioassays and chemical analysis and is defined as bioresponse‐linked instrumental analysis. It combines biomolecular recognition, initiating a biological effect and chemical analysis.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Graham R. Lee, Maria C. Fitzgibbon and Paula O'Shea

After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory…

Abstract

Purpose

After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines.

Findings

Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm.

Practical implications

The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably.

Originality/value

The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

Niyom Junnual, Chulaporn Sota and Anun Chaikoolvatana

The smoking rate of male high school students continues to increase. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program on…

Abstract

Purpose

The smoking rate of male high school students continues to increase. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program on self-esteem, attitude, perception and practice regarding smoking behavioral control among male high school students in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The effectiveness of the smoking cessation program was tested by a quasi-experimental pre-posttest and follow-up with a 24-week design. Multistage sampling was used to recruit 70 male high school students, including 35 male students in the intervention group and 35 male students in the control group. The intervention group received a 12-week smoking cessation program based on information-motivation-behavioral skills and stages of change models and follow-up at 12 weeks, whereas the control group did not. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the improvement of subjects’ self-esteem, attitude toward smoking, perceived control over smoking, number of cigarettes per day and urine cotinine test. The descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equation and proportion test were used for data analysis.

Findings

After the program, there were statistically significant differences in mean scores between the group and control groups; the difference of self-esteem was 4.15 (95% CI: 1.95, 6.36), attitude toward smoking was 3.30 (95% CI: 1.89, 5.52) and perceived control over smoking was 6.99 (95% CI: 4.04, 9.94). Thus, all differences in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group. The proportion of non-smokers, measured by the urine cotinine test at follow-up, was 25 percent (95% CI: 0.03, 0.48) significantly higher (p-value = 0.015), in the intervention group. Therefore, the smoking cessation program in this study was effective at changing the behavior of male high school student smokers.

Originality/value

This smoking cessation program increased self-esteem, attitude toward smoking, perceived control over smoking and decreased smoking per day among male high school students. Therefore, schools and parents should focus on developing these factors to encourage students to quit smoking.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Colin Ward and Michael R.A. Morgan

Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to invasion of the body by ‘foreign’ material. Molecules larger than 1000 molecular weight including proteins…

Abstract

Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to invasion of the body by ‘foreign’ material. Molecules larger than 1000 molecular weight including proteins, polysaccharides and lipids are immunogenic. Recognition of the foreign substance by receptors on the surface of B lymphocytes in the blood stimulates the cell to multiply and to produce antibodies capable of binding specifically to the compound. Each lymphocyte clone produces only one antibody, but many different lymphocytes (and thus antibodies) may be stimulated by a single immunogen.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Yuyue Guo and Shudong Lin

This paper aims to investigate the effects on material performance in the epoxy acrylate resin system owing to the existence of the different ring of the cyclic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects on material performance in the epoxy acrylate resin system owing to the existence of the different ring of the cyclic methacrylate. In this paper, cyclic methacrylate as diluents was added into epoxy acrylate (EA) resin by ultraviolet (UV)-cured polymerization to investigate the effects on material performance owing to the existence of the different rings.

Design/methodology/approach

EA and 1-adamantyl methacrylate were synthesized by traditional methods according to previous papers, respectively. After adding different cyclic methacrylate as diluents to the EA oligomers, the system was exposed to the UV-light for polymerization.

Findings

The hydrophobic properties of the cured materials were increased slightly because of the alkyl groups from the methacrylate. The thermal stabilities and mechanical properties of the resins were enhanced by the cyclic diluents with the hard segments. Meanwhile, the crosslink density of the polymer decreased with the bulky group like adamantly owing to its huge structure.

Research limitations/implications

The cyclic methacrylates were introduced into EA oligomers for decreasing the viscosity and increasing the materials performances, which could be recognized as new diluents applied in UV-cued polymerization.

Originality/value

The results of this study will be conducive to fabricate EA resins possessed with high thermal stabilities and mechanical properties by convenient UV-cured polymerization.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Robert W. Bogue

This paper considers the role of biosensors for monitoring the environment. A selection of existing products and competitive techniques such as biochemical assays and…

Abstract

This paper considers the role of biosensors for monitoring the environment. A selection of existing products and competitive techniques such as biochemical assays and laboratory analysis which presently dominate the business are discussed. A number of research activities and themes are considered. Conclusion are drawn on the prospects for environmental biosensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

James P. Smith

Describes the history and development of biosensors and their commercial application.

Abstract

Purpose

Describes the history and development of biosensors and their commercial application.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides background information on different forms of biosensors and how they can be brought to market. This review is edited from a very detailed market research report “Medical and Biological Sensor and Sensor Systems: markets, applications and competitors worldwide”.

Findings

Finds that the commercial potential for biosensors is very large and is expected to reach US$ 2.3 billion worldwide in 2005.

Originality/value

The full market research report provides a detailed insight into biosensors and how they are made and the various application areas, together with discussion regarding a large number of vendor and research companies.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Juliane Hellhammer, Ali‐Reza Waladkhani, Torsten Hero and Claudia Buss

Phosphatidylserine (PS) extracted from both bovine cortex and soya beans has been previously reported to positively affect cognitive functioning, mood, and the capacity to…

Abstract

Purpose

Phosphatidylserine (PS) extracted from both bovine cortex and soya beans has been previously reported to positively affect cognitive functioning, mood, and the capacity to cope with stress. The present paper aims to investigate whether the daily intake of phospholipid concentrate (PL) rich in phosphatidylserine (PS) and sphingomyelin (SM) has similar beneficial effects on working memory, allostastic load and the acute stress response.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 46 healthy men (average 41.5 years) received either placebo or 13.5 g per day PL over a three‐week period. On the 21st day of PL intake, subjects' working memory performance and their psychological and endocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) were tested.

Findings

Compared to placebo‐exposed individuals, there was a tendency for shorter reaction times in the working memory task, suggesting better performance in PL‐treated subjects. The two treatment groups did not significantly differ in their endocrine stress response. However, PL‐treated subjects with a higher stress load showed a blunted psychological stress response.

Practical implications

Results of the present study show beneficial effects of PL intake on cognitive performance. Under acute stress, benefits of PL may only be visible in chronically stressed subjects.

Originality/value

This paper provides new information for practitioners, academics and food supplement industries interested in possible beneficial effects of a milk phospholipid product on memory and mental stress.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 89 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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