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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Rajnish Kumar Rai

Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that

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13354

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that comprehensively explains the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management in organizations. This paper endeavors to develop a theoretical integrative framework for organizational knowledge management and organizational culture.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper. It modifies the “competing value framework” by adding a new dimension representing ethical and trusting culture, and then integrates it with the SECI model of knowledge creation and conversion by identifying the conceptual parallels between the two frameworks and then analyzing the interaction effects among the dimensions.

Findings

Based on the congruity between the modified competing values framework and the knowledge creation and conversion framework, the paper formulates six propositions about the propensity of organizations of different dominant cultural styles to engage in the four processes of knowledge creation and conversion.

Research limitations/implications

The dynamic nature of the framework presented in the paper points to the importance of longitudinal and comparative research in understanding the effects of organizational culture on organizational knowledge management systems in organizations.

Practical implications

The proposed integrative framework would facilitate organizational learning and lead to the improvement of knowledge management practices in organizations as it helps managers to understand the linkages between culture and knowledge management.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new framework linking organizational culture to knowledge management. It moves away from analyzing culture only in terms of its positive and negative influences on knowledge management. Instead, it suggests a typology of the kind of knowledge management processes that organizations are likely to focus on depending on the culture that prevails in an organization.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Malik Ikramullah, Jan-Willem Van Prooijen, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal and Faqir Sajjad Ul-Hassan

– The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the effectiveness of performance appraisal (PA) systems by using a competing values approach.

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16328

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the effectiveness of performance appraisal (PA) systems by using a competing values approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The review employs a three-step approach: first, the paper discusses the existing criteria to determine the effectiveness of PA systems, and presents criticisms of these criteria. Second, the paper reviews the literature on the competing values model of organizational effectiveness. Third, the paper integrates the PA system in the competing values model to develop a comprehensive framework for the effectiveness of PA systems.

Findings

A practical model is developed, taking into account the processes and procedures involved in PA systems.

Originality/value

The paper is designed to provide a guideline for managers to consider the effectiveness of a PA system. The paper suggests that assessing the effectiveness of a PA system on any single criterion ignores various important aspects of the system. Moreover, the effectiveness of a PA system should be based on the values and preferences of all major stakeholders of the system, i.e., appraisers, appraisees and the organization.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Evert Lindquist and Richard Marcy

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the competing values framework (CVF) could be used by public service leaders to analyze and better understand public sector…

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5655

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the competing values framework (CVF) could be used by public service leaders to analyze and better understand public sector leadership challenges, thereby improving their ability in leading across borders and generations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies the CVF, originally developed for understanding leadership in the private sector and shows how it can be adapted for analyzing and developing skill in addressing different leadership challenges in public sector contexts, including setting out specific learning exercises.

Findings

The paper has four parts. The first provides an overview of the origins, logic, and evolution of the CVF. The second part shows how the CVF is relevant and useful for assessing management and leadership values in the public sector. The third part identifies specific leadership challenges and learning exercises for public sector leaders at different stages of development. The final part concludes by reflecting on the CVF and similar frameworks, and where future research might go.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, propositions within the paper should be tentatively applied.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidance for the better understanding of complex leadership challenges within the public sector through the use of the CVF.

Social implications

The social implications of the paper could include the more widespread use of the CVF within the public sector as a tool to lead more effectively.

Originality/value

This paper adapts and extends an analytical tool that has been of high value in the private sector so that it can be used in the public sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Larry W. Howard

The competing values model (CVM) describes organizational culture in terms of what appear to be mutually exclusive value dimensions: structural control vs. flexibility…

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1949

Abstract

The competing values model (CVM) describes organizational culture in terms of what appear to be mutually exclusive value dimensions: structural control vs. flexibility, focus on internal vs. external stakeholders, and means vs. ends. The apparent paradox in simultaneously expressing competing values has implications for a variety of organizational phenomena, including leadership, decision making, and strategic management. The CVM thus offers promise for providing a common metric for multi‐level, trans‐organizational, and cross‐cultural analyses. To date, however, underlying assumptions regarding the competing values framework as a characterization of culture have not been fully validated. This research provides a test of the competing values model with methodology that is conceptually consonant with the paradoxical nature of the theory. Using a sample drawn from 10 U.S. organizations, a Qsort and multidimensional scaling analysis produce qualified support for a structure of organizational cultural values consistent with the CVM. Further, this study elaborates the CVM by suggesting a mechanism whereby the apparent paradox of competing values might be more effectively managed.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Paula Kwan and Allan Walker

The topic of organizational culture has attracted the attention of numerous researchers from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. A review of the literature…

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834

Abstract

The topic of organizational culture has attracted the attention of numerous researchers from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. A review of the literature shows that the quantitative assessment of organizational culture has been dominated by studies adopting the competing values framework developed by Quinn and his colleagues. The use of this model embraces the notion that the 4 cultural types depicted by the framework can be used not only to represent the culture of an organization but also to serve as a basis upon which one organization can be differentiated from others. Various attempts have been reported to support the validity of the framework for describing the culture of an organization; however, the claim that one organization can be differentiated from another on the basis of the 4 cultural types is yet to be empirically supported. The study reported here set out to show that the competing values model can be used to differentiate organizations from one another. Based on a survey administered to all academic staff in 7 out of the 8 government‐funded higher education institutions in Hong Kong, the study successfully confirmed the validity of the competing values model as a tool in differentiating organizations.

Details

Organizational Analysis, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1551-7470

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

David H. Tobey and B. Yasanthi Perera

The purpose of this paper is to posit a framework that predicts and explains the success and sustainability of MNC‐driven corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in…

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1133

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to posit a framework that predicts and explains the success and sustainability of MNC‐driven corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in West Africa, based on the degree of overlap or differentiation among existing value systems of various stakeholders (economic orientation and temporal orientation).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes previous works on competing values, stakeholder perspective of CSR, and cultural values to posit the value alignment framework.

Findings

It is found that synthesis yields a value alignment framework and four propositions for empirical testing.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical research on the framework is needed. The synthesis of the propositions leads to two future research questions, “What is the impact of the degree of agreement on CSR values on corporate social performance?” and “What is the effect of culture on the effect of CSR values on performance?”

Practical implications

The framework presents those responsible for implementing CSR programs with a basis for reflecting upon broad factors that may mean the difference between CSR program success or failure.

Originality/value

This paper provides a theoretical model and assessment guidelines for considering local context when designing and delivering CSR initiatives and why CSR efforts may succeed or fail. Thus, it may assist in deriving sustainable social benefits from expatriate multinational investments in CSR.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Sune Dueholm Müller and Peter Axel Nielsen

The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and…

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1381

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and an adopted process model required? How can the level of congruence between an organizational culture and the values and assumptions underlying an adopted process model be assessed?

Design/methodology/approach

The competing values framework and its associated assessment instrument are used in a case study to establish an organizational culture profile of a software development business unit within the case company. The instrument is supplemented with a technique to produce culture profiles of texts such as process models like the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) and the case company's quality management system. The different profiles are subsequently analyzed and compared.

Findings

The culture profile of the CMMI confirms previous research and depicts a result‐oriented, formalized, and structured organization. A comparison with the company's quality management system shows congruent culture profiles suggesting that the case company has succeeded in capturing underlying assumptions of the CMMI when updating the quality management system. The analysis also reveals the organizational culture profile of the business unit to be incongruent with the quality management system's profile. This disconfirms previous research claiming that congruence is a prerequisite. Further analysis reveals that actions were taken by managers in the case company to address the cultural challenges and successfully implement new processes. It is, therefore, concluded that cultural incongruence is not an insurmountable barrier to SPI. By comparing cultural profiles, some SPI implementation challenges become evident and that in turn allows for effective SPI management action.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a single case study and that is sufficient to disconfirm existing research. Additional research is, however, needed to validate both the proposed text analysis technique as well as the proposed process for assessing and managing cultural challenges confronting SPI projects.

Practical implications

SPI managers are provided with a more complex view of organizational culture in which congruence is not a necessity. SPI managers can choose to compare culture profiles and decide how to address incongruences. To that end the text analysis technique is offered as a web service that allows for analysis of all text‐based process models and standards, and of internal process documentation.

Originality/value

The proposed culture management process, including the text analysis technique, is a cost‐efficient approach to analyzing and providing the basis for managing cultural challenges during SPI in a specific company. The process provides understanding and guidance in dealing with the specific challenges faced by software companies during SPI.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Mustafa Avcın and Hasret Balcıoğlu

This study contributes to the existing literature that corporate governance consist of internal and external governance behavior which refers to the complementarity of the…

Abstract

This study contributes to the existing literature that corporate governance consist of internal and external governance behavior which refers to the complementarity of the elements of (1) competing values framework and (2) corporate legality framework theories and proper orientation in the provisions of the elements leads to a good corporate power in the modern legal environment. A questionnaire is designed, a survey is conducted based on the constructed corporate governance model in the study, which investigates the evolutionary background of the elements with the view of establishing the right corporate culture and corporate legality behavior. The empirical results revealed that there is a positive linear relationship between the elements of corporate culture provisions with internal governance behavior and a significant positive association between the elements of corporate legality provisions with external governance behavior. The model does not take into account long-term external factors. Therefore, measuring corporate governance may not be an easy task and may not be suitable for specific countries that have strong legal systems and corporate ownership. The elements in the model are practical to implement and facilitates corporate to improve shareholder involvement and governance reporting and hence prevent failure. The constructed model span almost every attribute embedding high quality corporate social responsibility and corporate governance for corporate to identify areas for improvement and contributes to existing corporate governance literature that, connecting corporate culture and corporate legality behavior positively affect financial markets and firm performance.

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Colin Talbot and Jay Wiggan

Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) have become increasingly active in recent years in carrying out “performance audits” of various public bodies. But how does SAIs report…

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2474

Abstract

Purpose

Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) have become increasingly active in recent years in carrying out “performance audits” of various public bodies. But how does SAIs report on their own performance? The purpose of this paper is to report on a study (commissioned by the UK National Audit Office (NAO)) of how SAIs report on their own performance and explores a possible conceptual framework – a synthesis of work on “performance regimes”, “public value” and “competing values” approaches – which might provide a basis for enhancing such reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based first on a review of self‐reporting of performance by SAIs in Australia, Canada, the USA, New Zealand and with a specific focus in more detail on the UK's NAO. In Section I, it explores existing self‐reporting practices of a number of SAIs based on their published reports. Section II of this paper is more conceptual. Drawing on notions of “performance regimes”, “public value” and “competing values”, it seeks to re‐conceptualise how SAIs in general, and the NAO specifically, might usefully report on their performance for multiple external audiences.

Findings

The conclusions drawn from the first part of the paper include that multiple measures of SAI performance have evolved, including impacts on governments; financial savings; impact on parliament; media impact, etc. The second part concludes tentatively that a synthesis of “public value” and “competing values” might provide a conceptual framework for making more sense of such multiple reporting.

Practical implications

The immediate practical value of this paper should be for SAIs in providing a possible framework for analysing and developing their own performance reporting policies to address multiple dimensions of achievement and meet the needs of multiple stake holders. More widely, this framework can be applied to other public agencies.

Originality/value

There are few, if any, current studies of comparative SAI self‐reporting of performance, so this paper makes a substantial contribution in this area. The conceptual framework developed in the second half of the paper is also unique in synthesising two important streams of thinking about “public value” and “competing values” which has far wider applicability than the study of SAIs.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Karla Ordaz, Kelvin Tan, Sarah Skett  and Irene Marie Herremans

This study aims to provide insight into the question of whether graduate students who deliver environmental education workshops/residencies to elementary school children…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide insight into the question of whether graduate students who deliver environmental education workshops/residencies to elementary school children will develop environmental sustainability leadership qualities in themselves: a goal set in the University of Calgary’s Institutional Sustainability Strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey research was undertaken in a case study setting. The researchers collected and analyzed data related to environmental leadership qualities, using the theory of planned behavior and an adaptation of the competing values framework. Graduate students participating in the co-curricular program responded to questions about the effect that the activity had on their knowledge, awareness and leadership characteristics.

Findings

Graduate students demonstrated considerable leadership potential in environmental sustainability. The survey results showed that their participation in a community educational program impacted their attitudes and awareness favorably in developing stronger competencies for leadership. In addition, they gained real-world knowledge about environmentally sustainable practices and skills to influence pro-environmental behavior changes in the community.

Originality/value

Through a partnership between a non-profit organization and the university, graduate students in an interdisciplinary sustainable energy development program used their formal education and previous work experience to adapt and deliver engaging and educational environmental content to younger children. This informal co-curricular activity brought together local educational institutions, educational content providers, graduate students, and elementary school children in an effective experiential learning platform to develop leadership characteristics both in the graduate students and elementary school children.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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