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Recent models comparing inventory costs under just‐in‐time (JIT) purchasing plans and economic order quantity (EOQ) purchasing plans have tended to favor EOQ purchasing in…
Recent models comparing inventory costs under just‐in‐time (JIT) purchasing plans and economic order quantity (EOQ) purchasing plans have tended to favor EOQ purchasing in situations where annual demand of inventory is moderately large. Contends that these cost models are lacking dynamic cost components inherent in virtually all JIT purchasing plans. Presents a series of inventory purchasing cost models that extend prior methodology by Fazel by including relevant physical distribution cost savings. Additional comparative models are presented to further demonstrate how other relevant costs factors can be included in a comparative EOQ/JIT model. A cost comparison with an existing problem from the literature is used to illustrate the informational efficacy of new models.
This study aims to evaluate the effects produced by a strategy aimed at neutralising one of the “disturbance factors” that may impede the focalisation on “real…
This study aims to evaluate the effects produced by a strategy aimed at neutralising one of the “disturbance factors” that may impede the focalisation on “real (in)efficiency” in relative efficiency assessments within the health‐care sector: the exclusion of indirect costs from these comparative analyses.
The empirical analysis is based on the statistical elaboration of data from a sample group of hospital sub‐units within Italian health‐care trusts. The analysis isolates the effect on efficiency indicator variability (dependent variable) of excluding indirect costs (independent variable).
The analysis conducted has uncovered the likely manipulation of indirect costs to create the impression of having achieved approximately average levels of efficiency performance. The case analysed in this study shows how a defensive orientation in public organizations may arise even without the application of some form of compulsory benchmarking.
The results observed highlight how the exclusion of indirect costs – potentially allocated to attain cross‐subsidization among cost objects – may help to uncover actual cases of (in)efficiency and thus aid in identifying “true” best practices.
Literature has presented a variety of strategies aimed at neutralising some of the “disturbance factors” that impede the focalisation on “real (in)efficiency” in inter‐trust efficiency comparisons. However, until now no studies have supplied evidence of the efficacy of the strategies in question in isolating “real (in)efficiency”.
In Sri Lanka, a limited number of buildings have been certified for incorporation of green features and the reasons are attributed to green building investors who continue…
In Sri Lanka, a limited number of buildings have been certified for incorporation of green features and the reasons are attributed to green building investors who continue to perceive that green buildings are expensive. Further, the green building investors fail to appreciate the subsequent benefits received by those buildings during the operational phase. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compare the life cycle cost (LCC) of green certified industrial manufacturing buildings with a similar form of the conventional buildings to establish the economic sustainability of green buildings.
The study involved a comparative case study analysis of two green buildings and a similar natured conventional building. The data required to perform the LCC analysis were extracted through documentary analysis.
The comparative analysis shows that the construction cost of a green industrial manufacturing building is 37 per cent higher than that of a similar natured conventional building while operation, maintenance and the end life cost of green buildings result in 28, 22 and 11 per cent savings, respectively. This results in an overall cost saving of 21 per cent in green buildings.
The current study provides an assessment of the total LCC of green industrial manufacturing buildings. In Sri Lanka, green industrial manufacturing buildings offer LCC saving of 21 per cent over its lifetime compared to similar natured conventional buildings. Thus, comparative analyses would enable green investors to make informed decisions before commissioning their investment in green facilities and thereby promote sustainable construction in Sri Lanka.
The objective of this monograph is to describe the industrial logistics structure within consumer goods industries and to provide a framework upon which the significance of the integrated industrial logistics system could be determined. The method of approach adopted is to define those problems which may occur within the logistics structure, define an ideal type of organisational structure and to monitor the effect of each type of decision within the established framework. Since all the elements of logistics add cost to a product, throughout the latter half of the discussion there is considerable emphasis upon methods of achieving the minimum cost throughout the channel.
There is need for a new, more precise, more integrated system for logistics costing. The integration of purchasing, transportation (traffic) and storage operations throughout the vertical stream, from source of materials to the consumer is discouragingly complex. It cannot be accomplished by departmentalising logistics functions, performing average and joint commodity costing, and dealing primarily with direct costs. The volume of records may be representative, but there is a very apparent lack of costing systems to facilitate logistics planning. The volume of shipment is the key to logistics cost analysis, just as volume of production is the independent variable in conventional economic analysis. Logistics costs vary with changes in the volume of shipment. Cost per hundredweight is the unit for cost analysis under the Cellular Flow Planning System. It is measured on a specific commodity, between specific points. Purchase price, transport rate, linear increasing costs, constant and single payment decreasing costs are the five classes of costs used to compare competitive volumes of shipment. All significant logistics costs can be so classified. This article presents only the rationale behind the unit for cost measurement, the classification of costs, and the means of comparison.
The reasons for going in for containerised shipment were several. First and foremost, there was the attraction of having a unitised form of through‐transport which enabled us to exercise greater care over loading operations. It offered a larger measure of control, because the fragmentation into a number of different links starting from haulage operator, forwarding agent to shipping company, and again the same number of intermediaries in the country of importation, had been eliminated. The transport chain, with the introduction of the container concept, would be shortened and even if the more tangible rewards of containerisation were not always too apparent, there were at least the psychological advantages for the importer, because the new method of transport at least halved the distance between “us and them”. The bright star in the distribution firmament was that traffic flows would be greatly accelerated, and with combined cost savings and reduced damage, new markets would be opened up.
As part of a new focus on a better balance of investment in innovation activities in developing countries, this study aims to understand the effects of technological…
As part of a new focus on a better balance of investment in innovation activities in developing countries, this study aims to understand the effects of technological attributes (technological complexity and type of technology) on manufacturing technology sourcing (whether firms choose either internal development or external sources).
Multiple-case studies were conducted in the Peruvian manufacturing sector.
The authors found that, across Peruvian manufacturing firms, they develop a certain manufacturing technology related to their capabilities. However, when the total cost of acquisition is lower than internal costs of developing technologies, they will choose external sources, regardless of their capabilities and complexity of the technology. In addition, analysis of the type of technology indicated that the pursuit of simultaneous exploration and exploitation occurs when firms use external sources rather than internal.
This study has the limitation that data have been collected years after the decision-making process; the results are based solely on the authors’ analysis using the case of Peruvian industry, and they do not track the impact on the performance of manufacturing technology decisions.
The findings have important implications for technology managers of South American manufacturing firms that are decision makers in the sourcing of new manufacturing technologies.
The results of this study provide literature with insights into technology sourcing strategy in developing countries and the importance of progress in transitioning to technological innovation and catchup.
Como parte de um novo foco em um melhor equilíbrio do investimento em atividades de inovação nos países em desenvolvimento, este estudo compreende os efeitos dos atributos tecnológicos (complexidade tecnológica e tipo de tecnologia) no suprimento de tecnologia de fabricação (se as empresas escolhem desenvolvimento interno ou fontes externas).
Estudos de casos múltiplos foram conduzidos no setor manufatureiro peruano.
Descobrimos que, em todas as empresas de fabricação peruanas, elas desenvolvem uma certa tecnologia de fabricação relacionada às suas capacidades. No entanto, quando o custo total de aquisição é menor do que os custos internos de desenvolvimento de tecnologias, eles escolhem fontes externas, independentemente de suas capacidades e complexidade da tecnologia. Além disso, a análise do tipo de tecnologia indicou que a busca da exploração e exploração simultâneas ocorre quando as empresas usam fontes externas em vez de internas.
Limitações/implicações da pesquisa
Este estudo tem a limitação de que os dados foram coletados anos após o processo de tomada de decisão, os resultados são baseados exclusivamente em nossa análise usando o caso da indústria peruana e não acompanhamos o impacto sobre o desempenho das decisões de tecnologia de fabricação.
Os resultados deste estudo fornecem à literatura insights sobre a estratégia de fornecimento de tecnologia nos países em desenvolvimento e a importância do progresso na transição para a inovação tecnológica e o catch-up.
Sourcing de tecnologia, Tecnologia de fabricação, Peru
Como parte de un nuevo enfoque en un mejor equilibrio de la inversión en actividades de innovación en los países en desarrollo, este estudio comprende los efectos de los atributos tecnológicos (complejidad tecnológica y tipo de tecnología) en la fuente de tecnología de manufactura (ya sea que las empresas elijan desarrollo interno o fuentes externas).
Se realizaron estudios de casos múltiples en el sector manufacturero peruano.
Los resultados muestran que, en todas las empresas manufactureras peruanas, desarrollan una cierta tecnología de manufactura relacionada con sus capacidades. Sin embargo, cuando el costo total de adquisición es menor que el costo interno de desarrollar tecnologías, elegirán fuentes externas, independientemente de sus capacidades y la complejidad de la tecnología. Además, el análisis del tipo de tecnología indicó que la búsqueda simultánea de exploración y explotación ocurre cuando las empresas utilizan fuentes externas en lugar de internas.
Este estudio tiene la limitante de que los datos fueron recopilados luego del proceso de toma de decisiones, los resultados se basan únicamente en la industria peruana y no analizamos el impacto que tuvieron las decisiones recolectadas.
Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan información sobre la estrategia de abastecimiento de tecnología en los países en desarrollo y la importancia del progreso en la transición a la innovación tecnológica y la puesta al día.
Fuente de tecnología, Tecnología de fabricación, Perú
Considers the different methods used to connect computers into networks. Discusses speeds, costs and sharing issues. Briefly profiles kits using Ethernet cables, USB cables, telephone wires, electric wires and wireless kits including methods of operation, size and basic capabilities.
Introduction The growth and development of an individual business may take several forms, from internal growth to acquisition and merger. If development reaches the stage of a multi‐national corporation then complex central or divisional organisational structures will be formed to provide a suitable basis for management control. When a company uses decentralisation of power through a divisional structure they seek the advantages of being large at the centre and small at the divisional level.
The purpose of this paper is to trace the changes in accounting practice in UK hospitals, focussing on costing, funding and budgetary control, and to place more recent…
The purpose of this paper is to trace the changes in accounting practice in UK hospitals, focussing on costing, funding and budgetary control, and to place more recent accounting changes in their historic context.
The paper is largely chronological and draws from previous research by the author and other secondary sources, both of which are supplemented by reference to government publications, accounting practitioner journals and public records.
The paper argues that contrary to many implicit assumptions in academic accounting studies, our accounting ancestors promoted, and sometimes used, accounting data in pursuit of similar objectives to those advocated in the twenty‐first century. But, although cost information “evolved”, within its historical context, the process of establishing standard costs was slow and sometimes controversial, and the use of such information for funding hospital activity was avoided. In addition, the history of accounting reform in UK hospitals is one littered with disappointing results.
The paper provides an historical context to more recent accounting reforms in UK hospitals and suggests that the long history of “problems” documented in the paper may provide some cautionary counsel to contemporary accounting reformers.