This study examined the relationship among perceived job characteristics, job evaluation factors, and salary in twenty jobs from two job families. The Job Diagnostic…
This study examined the relationship among perceived job characteristics, job evaluation factors, and salary in twenty jobs from two job families. The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and the Job Characteristics Inventory (JCI) were used to assess job characteristics. The results revealed high agreement across the 445 individuals who described their jobs, but substantial divergence between pairs of common dimensions across instruments in their relationship with job worth. While the major findings are consistent with previous research on the relationship between job characteristics and job worth, it is proposed that job‐level explanations for the motivating properties of jobs are conceptually limited The concept of job‐role differentiation (Ilgen & Hollenbeck, 1991) was offered as a potentially useful explanatory mechanism for understanding the structure of work, particularly those concepts pertaining to motivation and satisfaction.
In the aftermath of the Enron scandal, the critics of free enterprise have blamed this system for inflated and out of control executive salaries, particularly those of the…
In the aftermath of the Enron scandal, the critics of free enterprise have blamed this system for inflated and out of control executive salaries, particularly those of the chief executive officer (CEO). The present paper defends the marketplace against these charges. In section I we argue that the market has passed the Enron test with flying colors. Section II gives the background of the financial situation relating to CEO salaries. Sections III and IV are devoted to, respectively, the tax court and the appellate court; section V looks at the reaction of the former to the latter; and in section VI we defend the “independent investor” test. We look at this issue from a political economic perspective in section VII and conclude in section VIII.
Looks at the evolution of the workforce within the retailing industry and considers the victims of pay discrimination which now exist. Discusses various theories for the pay discrimination among women and minorities. Suggests some remedies that may minimize these inequalities. Concludes that the application of affirmative actions and diversity programmes should continue to serve as fundamental sources of workforce diversity and that new legislation/regulation may be required to protect those disadvantaged.
An understanding of the relationship between male and female wages in Australia can best be understood by examining the decisions of tribunals in the industrial arena. The decisions of the tribunals have reduced the gap between male and female earnings, however, they have not yet been able to provide for pay equity. A gap still exists which cannot be explained through differences in the human capital of the male and female workforces. At one level this gap can be explained in terms of the impact of differences in the occupational and industrial distribution of the male and female workforces, their hours of work and positions in organisational hierarchies. However, this explanation is too superficial, being unable to explain why these differences in employment behaviour occur. Neither is it able to explain the ways in which women's wages are influenced by social values, tribunal doctrines and practices, the activities of trade unions and policies in the broader social and political arena.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate wage differentials and wage discrimination among 9,035 male and female Israeli managers. In our sample, female managers earn on…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate wage differentials and wage discrimination among 9,035 male and female Israeli managers. In our sample, female managers earn on average 64 per cent of their male counterparts. Using a statistical method originally developed by Ronald Oaxaca, we found that out of 36 per cent wage difference, 7.2 per cent were “legitimate”, stemming from differences in human capital characteristics, while 28.8 per cent were “illegitimate”, due to wage discrimination, in the form of different rates of return to the various characteristics. As wage differentials stem mainly from discrimination, affirmative action and comparable worth can serve as a partial remedy.
Analyses the relationship between motivation, organizationalstructures and work design. Advocates the work teamapproach rather than bureaucratic management and…
Analyses the relationship between motivation, organizational structures and work design. Advocates the work team approach rather than bureaucratic management and introduces the triple‐tier, dual‐concept organizational structure. Describes the features of an effective payment system. Concludes that, to motivate employees, it is first necessary to study job content with a view to enriching it.
Assesses whether consumer segments based on relational aspects, service aspects, or price aspects have different preferences concerning these three key decision‐making…
Assesses whether consumer segments based on relational aspects, service aspects, or price aspects have different preferences concerning these three key decision‐making variables when buying a car. In addition, assesses consumer segments resulting from simultaneously incorporating relationships, service package, and price. Investigates a large sample of Mitsubishi drivers in The Netherlands emphasizing consumers’ trade‐off between dealer relationship, service package and price. Conjoint analysis showed that dealer relationships (as opposed to price) represent a very important decision‐making variable when buying a car and consumer preferences concerning relationships provide a useful instrument for segmenting markets. Cluster analyses on the basis of three aspects simultaneously revealed that some consumers do value relationships, while others emphasize the service package in their purchase, both opposed to the third segment that is most probably not inclined to be loyal to a car dealer at all. Clearly indicates that different consumer segments can be distinguished on the basis of preferences for relationships and service packages rather than on the basis of price. This knowledge enables car dealers to use their resources more effectively.
Five years ago a friend whose business has the word “women” in its title began referring to me requests she received for information about a large area encompassing…
Five years ago a friend whose business has the word “women” in its title began referring to me requests she received for information about a large area encompassing women's issues, herstory, Women Studies, feminism, nonsexist education, nontraditional employment, reentry persons, comparable worth, health, portrayal of women in literature, scientific developments by and affecting women, etc. They came from feminist and sexist people of all ages throughout the world. Most, however, were American women attempting to bridge the information gap and to counteract misinformation and lack of information about and affecting females. This eventually evolved into a non‐profit service through which I responded directly to inquiries.
The Directory of Selected Women's Research and Policy Centers deals with activities and research directions of 28 centres. The 24 page directory discusses current and recently completed research projects. They are organised by centre and by subject. For a copy send $4 to WREI, 204 Fourth Street SE, Washington, DC 20003, USA.
Joan Acker's scholarship and activism has affected the study of equality, diversity, and inclusion in many ways. The purpose of this paper is to present an interview with…
Joan Acker's scholarship and activism has affected the study of equality, diversity, and inclusion in many ways. The purpose of this paper is to present an interview with Joan Acker in which she shares some of the individual and societal influences on her work.
This article is based on an interview with Joan Acker conducted on 22 September 2006.
Joan Acker's observations of and questioning of inequality began when she observed racial inequality as she grew up in the Midwestern USA in the 1940s. As she matured, Acker continued observing and questioning inequality based on race, gender, and class. As a scholar and activist, and now Professor Emeritus at the University of Oregon (USA), Acker's work continues to influence scholars and activists.
This article provides insights into the influences that have shaped Acker's work on gender, race, class, and inequality and should be inspiring to others working in the field.