For most working women, being in the job market doesn't pay. Women earn the most in professions where men predominate—operations research, law, engineering, medicine—but they earn less than their male colleagues. Women predominate in the low‐paid occupations—clerical, retail sales, health services—and yet, even in these lower‐paid occupations, they still earn less than men.
Despite significant anti-discrimination laws in most countries, a gender pay gap still remains a substantial concern. The notion of comparable worth has been promoted for…
Despite significant anti-discrimination laws in most countries, a gender pay gap still remains a substantial concern. The notion of comparable worth has been promoted for several years by the International Labor Organization and a few countries to fight against relatively lower female salaries. The purpose of this paper is to review the rationales for comparable worth and explain how gender biases, generally involved in traditional job evaluation, can be prevented.
After reviewing the motives, logics and three major applications of comparable worth logics in pay equity policies, the authors expose an analysis of a French sectorial job classification that the authors carried out as experts for establishing a French Equality Ombudsman’s guide.
The findings show how the redundancy and definition of job evaluation criteria, along with the weighting system, contributes to undervaluation of clerks’ jobs, predominantly held by women. The authors also highlight the main recommendations of the guide to prevent gender bias in job evaluation, that are derived from this case study, among others. The authors conclude on the difficulties of implementing comparable worth in France, in a period of long-lasting economic crisis and of weak union power.
This experience is the first of its kind â€“ promoted by the Ombudsman â€“ in France. It has never been related in an academic journal as far as the authors know.
The facts speak for themselves — women earn 59 cents for every dollar earned by men. Women earn the most in professions where men pre‐dominate—operations research, law, engineering, medicine—but even in these professions, they earn less than their male colleagues. Women predominate in the lower‐paid occupations — clerical, retail sales, health services. And yet, in these lower‐paid occupations, women still earn less than men.
The empirical literature that attempts to study rights is at an impasse. It can demonstrate that big claims about how some rights structure politics are overblown, but it has struggled to go beyond this step. This is in large part because studying rights is much more difficult than is commonly appreciated. A study of rights promises implicitly to be a study of how rights politics differs from other kinds of politics. But rights are so ubiquitous and so diverse in form that it is often unclear what the excluded other is. We examine three books on rights that we admire: two by political scientists, Gerald Rosenberg's The Hollow Hope and Michael McCann's Rights at Work, and one by an anthropologist, Sally Merry's Human Rights and Gender Violence. These books conceptualize rights in diverse ways, in diverse settings, using diverse methodologies; yet they run up against similar difficulties in trying to think beyond the cases they study. At the conclusion, we make some humble suggestions for how researchers might try to overcome these problems.
Legislation is being prepared in both Canada and the USA to force a new social reality on the workplace in which pay systems will be made equitable. The vehicle will be…
Legislation is being prepared in both Canada and the USA to force a new social reality on the workplace in which pay systems will be made equitable. The vehicle will be job evaluation. This article details, in practical terms, how job evaluation techniques can be used as a means of social‐reorientation towards a new era of industrial relations.
Research regarding pay inequities between the sexes is well established; however, internal compensation strategies and perceived labor pools (percentage of gender/minority…
Research regarding pay inequities between the sexes is well established; however, internal compensation strategies and perceived labor pools (percentage of gender/minority applicants) have not been explored in depth. This paper aims to address this issue.
A total of 381 business students and 101 compensation specialists/managers participated in two experimental studies to establish the impact of perceived labor pools' ethnicity and gender on compensable factor weighting.
Results supported hypotheses that significant discriminatory weighting of compensable factors would be established by the perceived ethnicity of the labor pool, the perceived gender of the labor pool, and participant gender.
A limitation of study one could be the population (business students) who may reflect a lack of knowledge of and/or a potential lack of interest in strategic compensation. Many of the students are likely to have had work experience but their exposure to compensation concepts was potentially limited. Accordingly, study two was conducted with experienced compensation specialists/managers in a real‐world setting. While study two was methodologically stronger, evaluators were from an area with high proportions of technology occupations where compensation specialists may be more familiar with external compensation surveys due to rapid changes in jobs.
The ramifications of potential discrimination at the compensable factors weighting stage of defining compensation internal alignment are tremendous. The implications for pay structure, perceived fairness, and motivation can have an immense impact on overall organizational productivity and success. Internal equity discrimination can also have ramifications for vast litigation (the author was consulted by the EEOC in the use of the research for the purposes of class action lawsuits).
As business students generally aspire to become members of the managerial cadre, the dangers of potential explicit or implicit bias in the weighting of compensable factors (and their interactions) can reduce the efficiency of the compensation plan, hamper motivation of those hired to work within its structure, and potentially set the stage for class action litigation. Accordingly, those tasked with teaching job evaluation (be they business professors, consultants, or human resources managers) need to address issues of social bias and encourage the committee to challenge the biases of which they may or may not be aware.
After a groundswell of interest in comparable worth and sex‐related errors in job evaluation in the mid‐1980s, research failed to establish perceived incumbent, applicant, and labor pool ethnicity and ethnocentrism on internal compensation structuring. This study builds on past research by establishing the impact of ethnocentrism on internal compensation structuring in point factor job evaluation, extending workplace ethnocentrism theory by applying it to Title VII in implementation, data collection and interpretation of job evaluation and, most importantly, establishing the impact of perceived labor pools' demographics (and subsequent proportions of racial/ethnic group members associated) on differential compensatory factors weighting.
Responds to “A note on ‘The initial yield revealed: explicit valuations and the future of property investment’” published in an earlier issue of the Journal of Property…
Responds to “A note on ‘The initial yield revealed: explicit valuations and the future of property investment’” published in an earlier issue of the Journal of Property Valuation & Investment. Addresses issues raised and develops and extends the organizations of the original paper, in particular: definitions of certain concepts; the determination of value; the need for explicit valuations; price formation in the property market; and the influence of valuation on price. Reiterates the purposes of the original worked example of valuations; produces a corrected version; and in an appendix presents extended solutions and a fuller discussion of the central issues.
“Feminisation of poverty” is a phrase heard frequentlytoday, not only in the popular press, but also in professional groupsconcerned with women. It suggests that women…
“Feminisation of poverty” is a phrase heard frequently today, not only in the popular press, but also in professional groups concerned with women. It suggests that women living alone with their children bear a disproportionate share of the poverty burden. The following questions are discussed: Is this a crisis for American society? Is the standard of living getting worse for women and children, even as it improves for the general population? If it is, why is it happening? And finally, what could be done about it? Data are examined that show that “feminisation of poverty” is a significant problem in the United States. The reasons women are more likely to be poor include inadequate paying jobs, an expanding labourforce, and unique problems associated with female head‐of‐households. Solutions to feminisation of poverty include raising low income jobs via minimum wage and comparable worth legislation, establishing and enforcing realistic child support and spousal maintenance levels, significantly raising the level of public support programmes for children, making available reasonable education‐training‐retraining programmes for women, emphasising the prevention of poverty, and providing better health education and chemical dependency intervention.
Examines the valuation of property investments let at rents in excess of their estimated rental values. Summarises the conventional and contemporary approaches to market valuation. Exposes the limitations of the models via an examination of some actual valuations taken from the UK property market. Concludes that future rental growth prospects must be dealt with explicitly in these valuations.
Considers why a wage gap still exists between men and women, despite the introduction in the USA of the Equal Pay Act (EPA) in 1963 and the Civil Rights Act (Title VII) in 1964. Details the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s (EEOC’s) interpretations of the two Acts’ provisions relating to employment discrimination on the basis of gender, looking in particular at the EPA’s determinants of job equality. Outlines the circumstances under which wage differentials are permissible, and discusses actions that can be taken in the case of EPA violations, explaining the EEOC’s filing requirements. Reviews the equal pay legislation in California, particularly relating to comparable worth, and provides an example of a successful wage discrimination case in which the Supreme Court looked beyond the EPA and considered a wider interpretation of the Bennett Amendment of Title VII. Suggests that this case sets a precedent for addressing equal employment issues, and urges employers to examine their compensation systems to ensure that no biases exist.