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Article

Daniele Eckert Matzembacher and Fábio Bittencourt Meira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how sustainability integrates the business strategy of Brazilian community supported agriculture (CSA) initiatives, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how sustainability integrates the business strategy of Brazilian community supported agriculture (CSA) initiatives, and to understand the social, environmental and economic benefits to producers and consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was carried out through participant observation, using the techniques of ethnography, in addition to in-depth interviews and access to secondary data. Follow-up was carried out over two years and six months with two CSA initiatives.

Findings

The results indicated that the analyzed CSA activities address, in an integrated way, the social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainability by promoting healthy diet, sustainable agriculture and social transformation to producers and consumers. Producers have their sales guaranteed due to previous consumers’ association; they also receive higher incomes, avoiding the rural exodus. In addition, their work conditions do not harm their health and the diversified production meets the consumption of their family group, increasing farmers’ autonomy. Regarding consumers, there is a strong emphasis on education for sustainability. It occurs primarily through face-to-face contact among participants, at times of basket withdrawal, follow-up visits to production and interaction events at farmers’ place. Exchanges of information, recipes, cooking classes, newsletters and internet interactions are also important. As these outputs, verified in a real situation, integrate the mission and the business proposal of these CSAs initiatives, it is possible to conclude that, in these analyzed situations, sustainability is incorporated into a business strategy. Sustainability is a structural component of the strategy, with practices in different levels of the business activity.

Research limitations/implications

As an exploratory study, the findings cannot be extrapolated to broader populations. To improve generalization, it would be beneficial to broaden the sample and pursue comparative research between countries and regions. Also, studies should examine which incentive structures and programs would relate more to better outcomes in education for sustainability and behavior chances.

Practical implications

From a managerial point of view, this study contributes by presenting emerging businesses in Brazil, which incorporated sustainability in their strategy, contributing with the need pointed out by Robinson (2004) to provide innovative and creative solutions toward sustainability. It also presents some alternatives to achieve objectives of the 2030 Agenda, especially objective 2 (related to food security) and 12 (improve sustainable production and consumption systems). This study also contributes by elucidating alternatives to promote education for sustainable consumption, presenting cases where consumers reported a more sustainable behavior.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by filling the gap pointed out by Arzu and Erkan (2010), Nakamba, Chan and Sharmina (2017), Rossi et al. (2017) and Searcy (2016) about addressing all three dimensions of sustainability in an integrated way, by analyzing CSA initiatives (a need indicated by Brown and Miller, 2008), especially evaluating empirical cases of sustainability insertion in the business strategy, as proposed by Claro, Claro and Amâncio (2008) and Franceschelli, Santoro and Candelo (2018). This study also responded to the need pointed out by Benites Lázaro and Gremaud (2016) to further understand the insertion of sustainability in the context of Latin America.

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Article

Thomas W. Sproul, Jaclyn D. Kropp and Kyle D. Barr

Community supported agriculture (CSA) programs allow consumers to buy a share of a farm’s production while providing working capital and risk management benefits for…

Abstract

Purpose

Community supported agriculture (CSA) programs allow consumers to buy a share of a farm’s production while providing working capital and risk management benefits for farmers. Several different types of CSA arrangements have emerged in the market with terms varying in the degree to which consumers share in the farm’s risk. No-arbitrage principles of futures and options pricing suggest that CSA shares should be priced to reflect the degree of risk transfer. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors evaluate the three most common share types using a cross-sectional data set of 226 CSA farms from New England to determine if there is empirical evidence in support of the theoretical price relationship between share types.

Findings

The degree of risk transfer from farmers to consumers has a significant effect on the share price. There are statistically significant returns to scale and higher prices for organics. Farm characteristics and product offerings predict which type of shares is offered for sale.

Research limitations/implications

The data set does not contain information pertaining to actual deliveries, expected deliveries, variance of expected deliveries, or covariance information; thus differences in share prices could be due to differences in these uncontrolled factors.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence that CSA share prices reflect the degree of risk transferred from the producer to the consumer. It also highlights challenges in conducting empirical work pertaining to CSA contracting.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 75 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Book part

Amy Jonason

As a movement for alternative means of food production and consumption has grown, so, too, have civic efforts to make alternative food accessible to low-income persons…

Abstract

Purpose

As a movement for alternative means of food production and consumption has grown, so, too, have civic efforts to make alternative food accessible to low-income persons (LIPs). This article examines the impact of alternative food institutions (AFIs) on low-income communities in the United States and Canada, focusing on research published since 2008.

Methodology/approach

Through a three-stage literature search, I created a database of 110 articles that make empirical or theoretical contributions to scholarly knowledge on the relationship of AFIs to low-income communities in North America. I used an in vivo coding scheme to categorize the impacts that AFIs have on LIPs and to identify predominant barriers to LIPs’ engagement with AFIs.

Findings

The impacts of AFIs span seven outcome categories: food consumption, food access and security, food skills, economic, other health, civic, and neighborhood. Economic, social and cultural barriers impede LIPs’ engagement with AFIs. AFIs can promote positive health outcomes for low-income persons when they meet criteria for affordability, convenience and inclusivity.

Implications

This review exposes productive avenues of dialogue between health scholars and medical sociology and geography/environmental sociology. Health scholarship offers empirical support for consumer-focused solutions. Conversely, by constructively critiquing the neoliberal underpinnings of AFIs’ discourse and structure, geographers and sociologists supply health scholars with a language that may enable more systemic interventions.

Originality/value

This article is the first to synthesize research on five categories of alternative food institutions (farmers’ markets, CSAs, community gardens, urban farms, and food cooperatives) across disciplinary boundaries.

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Book part

Agnese Cretella

Food, notably its logistics, security, quality, sustainability and social inclusiveness, is increasingly considered as a crucial element in urban settings, deserving…

Abstract

Food, notably its logistics, security, quality, sustainability and social inclusiveness, is increasingly considered as a crucial element in urban settings, deserving specific institutional and strategic instruments. This is testified by the proliferation of urban food strategies, that is municipal strategic documents that various European cities have adopted during the last decade.

This chapter examines the emergence and diffusion of the concept in Europe, contextualizing it in connection with broader thesis on ‘alternative’ food systems, ‘new localism’ and ‘strategic planning’, in order to unpack how the notion has been constructed. The first part of the chapter reviews the existing literature on urban food strategies, by presenting the debate over the definition of the concept and discussing the normative stance of scholars in regard to ‘alternative’ practices.

After providing a working definition of urban food strategies, the second part presents an overview of their diffusion in Europe and briefly maps the historical diffusion of the model since the first appearance in Toronto in 2000.

The fast adoption of urban food strategies in different urban contexts suggests the necessity of further investigations on the motivations behind the cities’ drive towards food governance. In this sense, the chapter argues in favour of a more cautious assessment of food strategies on behalf of scholars, beyond the positive enthusiasm that has been so far connected to them. In particular, the chapter calls for a critique on the political implications of food strategies, which urgently need to be assessed within strategies of city branding, and to be tested on their actual consequences on urban regeneration and development processes.

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Article

Weiping Chen

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to conceptualize a construct of the perceived value in CSA and its dimensions, to operationalize and validate the construct, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to conceptualize a construct of the perceived value in CSA and its dimensions, to operationalize and validate the construct, and to empirically investigate the influence of perceived value in CSA on consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This research begins by reviewing relevant literature that frames the concept of perceived value in CSA and integrates this construct into a nomological network. Operational measures for each component of perceived value in CSA are then developed. The scale is validated, and then used to test the hypothesized model in a sample of 198 consumers of Beijing's five CSA farms using partial least squares (PLS) as an analytical tool.

Findings

Perceived value in CSA is found to be a formative, multi-dimensional, third-order construct. Further, the results suggest that perceived value in CSA has both a direct positive effect on consumer loyalty and an indirect effect mediated through consumer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations and research directions refer to the need to increase the sample size and replicate research in other places, the possibility of conducting longitudinal research, the need to identify antecedents of perceived value, and the opportunity to assess perceived value across a number of CSA member characteristics.

Practical implications

CSA farmers should recognize the importance of value creation to build and maintain long time relationships. This study suggests that CSA farmers can enhance value from two approaches. One approach is to build strategies to facilitate delivery of product benefits, emotional benefits, and social benefits. Another approach is to invest in efforts to reduce inconvenience and lower risk. In addition, the formative model means that CSA farmers can allocate resources depending on the relative weight of each in value perceptions.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to conceptualize perceived value in a CSA setting; it argues that modeling of perceived value in CSA should take a formative approach and finds support for this; and assesses the nomological validity of the perceived value in CSA.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part

Douglas H. Constance, William H. Friedland, Marie-Christine Renard and Marta G. Rivera-Ferre

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common…

Abstract

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common ethos of alterity and (2) context the chapters of the book. AAMs have increased in recent years in response to the growing legitimation crisis of the conventional agrifood system. Some agrifood researchers argue that AAMs represent the vanguard movement of our time, a formidable counter movement to global capitalism. Other authors note a pattern of blunting of the transformative qualities of AAMs due to conventionalization and mainstreaming in the market. The literature on AAMs is organized following a Four Questions in Agrifood Studies (Constance, 2008) framework. The section for each Question ends with a case study to better illustrate the historical dynamics of an AAM. The literature review ends with a summary of the discourse applied to the research question of the book: Are AAMs the vanguard social movement of our time? The last section of this introduction provides a short description of each contributing chapter of the book, which is divided into five sections: Introduction; Theoretical and Conceptual Framings; Food Sovereignty Movements; Alternative Movements in the Global North; and Conclusions.

Details

Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

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Book part

Domenico Dentoni, Kim Poldner, Stefano Pascucci and William B. Gartner

The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship…

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship. We define consumer entrepreneurship as the process of sharing and recombining resources innovatively to seek opportunities for self-creating user value. Through the illustration of heterogeneous forms of consumer peer-to-peer sharing, we argue that consumer entrepreneurship: (1) differs ontologically from a view of entrepreneurship as creation of exchange value; (2) bridges the notion, established in marketing studies, of consumers as value creators with the field of entrepreneurship; (3) develops mostly when the process of sharing is regulated informally, based on trust relationships; and (4) thrives as groups of sharing consumers discover and enact their values through the experimentation of multiple forms of product and service procurement. On the basis of these points, consumer entrepreneurship contributes to provide a novel perspective on hybrid organizations, that is, a view of hybrid organizations as everyday spaces where consumers create heterogeneous forms of (utilitarian, social, or environmental) value that they personally use as opposed to reward exchanges. Relative to the current definition of hybrid organizations (Pache & Santos, 2013) and organizing (Battilana & Lee, 2014), we argue that consumer entrepreneurship helps better explain “why, when, and how” consumers increasingly engage in peer-to-peer sharing organizations – a fledging and still underexplored way of organizing consumption worldwide.

Details

Hybrid Ventures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-078-5

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Article

Tracy Berno

Since 4 September 2010, the greater Christchurch region has endured a series of destructive earthquakes. As a result, food resilience, as a component of community…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 4 September 2010, the greater Christchurch region has endured a series of destructive earthquakes. As a result, food resilience, as a component of community resilience, has become highly relevant. This paper aims to explore the role of social entrepreneurs and the local food system in building community resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quasi-case study method, four social enterprise food initiatives are presented to illustrate conceptually how these local food systems contribute to community resilience in the post-earthquake context in Christchurch.

Findings

The results suggest that a generation of social entrepreneurs have emerged, giving rise to networked local food system initiatives that share the common goals of building multiple and unique forms of capital (human, social, natural, financial and physical). In doing so, they have contributed to creating conditions that support community resilience as both a process and an outcome in post-earthquake Christchurch.

Research limitations/implications

This research included only four enterprises as the case study, all located in central Christchurch. As such, the results are indicative and may not represent those found in other contexts.

Practical implications

The research suggests that social entrepreneurs make a significant contribution to both enhancing food security and building community resilience post-disaster. How policy infrastructure can empower and enable entrepreneurs’ post-disaster warrants further consideration.

Social implications

Collectively, the four enterprises included in the research were found to have created local solutions in response to local problems. This embeddedness with and responsiveness to the community is a characteristic of resilient communities.

Originality/value

Post-earthquake Christchurch is a living laboratory in relation to understanding community resilience. The processes by which it is occurring, how it is sustained over time and the shapes it will take in the future in such a dynamic environment are not yet understood. This paper contributes to understanding local food systems as part of this process.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article

Christine E. Walsh, Rebecca Seguin-Fowler, Alice Ammerman, Karla Hanson, Stephanie B. Pitts Jilcott, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker and Susan Ennett

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacking contributes to one-quarter of children’s total daily energy intake in the USA, with many snack foods being nutrient-poor and energy-dense. Snacking and sugary beverage consumption have been identified as potential contributors to childhood overweight and obesity and may play a particularly important role among children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households that generally display higher rates of obesity. This exploratory study investigated associations between consumption of snack foods, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and overweight and obesity in children from low-income households.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from households that participated in a multi-state cost-offset (CO-CSA) community supported agriculture intervention in 2016 and 2017 (n = 305) were analyzed. Fixed effect regression models were used to estimate associations between child monthly consumption of salty snack foods; sweet snack foods and SSBs; and child weight status, accounting for demographic characteristics.

Findings

No associations were found between snack or SSB consumption and child overweight. However, household income was significantly, negatively related to all three consumption variables (Salty snacks: ß = −0.09, SE = 0.04, p = 0.02; Sweet snacks: ß= −0.10, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01; SSB: ß= −0.21, SE = 0.05, p = 0.0001). The results suggest that household income may play an important role in children’s snacking and SSB behaviors among more disadvantaged households.

Practical implications

Factors beyond snack food and SSB consumption should be explored to better understand childhood overweight and obesity, and to inform future obesity interventions.

Originality/value

Socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity are an ongoing policy-relevant issue within the USA and internationally. This study provides new information about child snacking behaviors in a unique, low-income population and contributes to the evidence base regarding the role household context in shaping child consumption behaviors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Anthony Worsley, Wei Wang and Stacey Ridley

Agriculture is a major generator of wealth and employment in Australia. However, it faces a range of economic and environmental challenges which require substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

Agriculture is a major generator of wealth and employment in Australia. However, it faces a range of economic and environmental challenges which require substantial community support. The purpose of this paper is to examine Australian adults’ Australian knowledge of, and attitudes towards, Australian agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

Online questionnaire survey of 1,026 adults conducted nationwide during August 2012.

Findings

Most respondents had little knowledge of even the basic aspects of the industry but they approved of farmers’ performance of their roles. Latent class analysis showed that there are two groups of consumers with low and lower levels of knowledge. The respondents’ age, rural residence and universalist values were positive predictors of agricultural knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

This was a cross-sectional, quota-based survey which examined only some aspects of agriculture. However, the findings suggest that more communication with the general public about the industry is required in order to build on the positive sentiment that exists within the community.

Practical implications

More education about agriculture in schools and higher education is indicated.

Social implications

The poor state of knowledge of agriculture threatens the social contract upon which agricultural communities depend for survival.

Originality/value

The study highlights the poor state of general knowledge about agriculture in Australia. The findings could be used as a baseline against which the efficacy of future education programmes could be assessed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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