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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Uzoma Vincent Patrick-Agulonye

The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of community-based and driven approaches during the lockdowns and early periods of the pandemic. The study examines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of community-based and driven approaches during the lockdowns and early periods of the pandemic. The study examines the impact and perceptions of the state-led intervention. This would help to discover a better approach for postpandemic interventions and policy responses.

Design/methodology/approach

This article used the inductive method and gathered its data from surveys. In search of global opinions on COVID-19 responses received in communities, two countries in each continent with high COVID-19 infection per 100,000 during the peak period were chosen for study. In total, 13 community workers, leaders and members per continent were sampled. The simple percentile method was chosen for analysis. The simple interpretation was used to discuss the results.

Findings

The study showed that poor publicity of community-based interventions affected awareness and fame as most were mistaken for government interventions. The study found that most respondents preferred state interventions but preferred many communities or local assessments of projects and interventions while the projects were ongoing to adjust the project and intervention as they progressed. However, many preferred community-based and driven interventions.

Research limitations/implications

State secrecy and perceived opposition oppression limited data sourcing for this study in countries where state interventions are performed in secret and oppression of perceived opposition voices limited data collection in some countries. Thus, last-minute changes were made to gather data from countries on the same continent. An intercontinental study requires data from more countries, which would require more time and resources. This study was affected by access to locals in remote areas where raw data would have benefited the study.

Practical implications

The absence of data from the two most populous countries due to government censorship limits access to over a third of the global population, as they make up 2.8 out of 7 billion.

Social implications

The choice of two countries in each continent is representational enough, yet the absence of data from the two most populous countries creates a social identity gap.

Originality/value

The survey collected unique and genuine data and presents novel results. Thus, this study provides an important contribution to the literature on the subject. There is a need for maximum support for community-based interventions and projects as well as global data collection on community-based or driven interventions and projects.

Details

Fulbright Review of Economics and Policy, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-0173

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2018

Jaelan Sumo Sulat, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Rossi Sanusi, Elsi Dwi Hapsari and Budiono Santoso

Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) has been recommended for improving access to prevention, care, and treatment services in at-risk populations. Earlier…

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Abstract

Purpose

Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) has been recommended for improving access to prevention, care, and treatment services in at-risk populations. Earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been undertaken, but due to some methodological limitations, their findings do not yet provide a practical significance. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the recent evidence of the efficacy of community-based HTC approaches on the uptake of HTC in at-risk populations.

Design/methodology/approach

The database of PubMed online, Science Direct, the Lancet Global Health, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were systematically searched using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to obtain empirical papers published between March 2013 and December 2015.

Findings

Of 600 collected papers, there were 6 cluster randomized trials papers which met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the health facilities-based HTC, community-based HTC approaches have been shown to improve the uptake of HIV testing from 5.8 to 37 per cent, and improve HIV testing in men and their partners together from 6.8 to 34 per cent. The community approaches also detected lower HIV-positive cases (0.29 per cent as compared to 4 per cent), improved access to treatment services from 0.3 to 25 per cent, demonstrated higher cluster differentiation 4 count in newly diagnosed patients (median of 400-438 cells/µl), and increased the rate of first-time HIV testing from 9 to 11.8 per cent. With respect to social and behavioural outcomes, community-based HTC increased social norms for HIV testing by 6 per cent (95 per cent CI 3-9), decreased multiple sex partners by 55 per cent (95 per cent CI 42-73), lowered casual sex by 45 per cent (95 per cent CI 33-62), increased knowledge about HIV (83.2 vs 28.9 per cent), improved positive attitudes towards HIV patients (73.0 vs 34.3 per cent), and increased the use of condoms (28.0 vs 12.3 per cent).

Originality/value

Community-based HTC combined with behavioural interventions have been found to be more effective in increasing the uptake of HIV testing as well as other outcomes as compared to the conventional health facilities-based testing and counselling approaches.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Maria Dich Herold, Cecilia Rand and Vibeke Asmussen Frank

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a “holistic approach” is enacted in two interventions accommodating the same target group, young adults with offending…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a “holistic approach” is enacted in two interventions accommodating the same target group, young adults with offending behaviour and drug use experiences, but offered in very different contexts, the Prison Service and the community. The aim is to show how enactments of a “holistic approach”, although similar on paper, differ in welfare institutional practices due especially to organisational and structural conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews and written material from and about the two interventions.

Findings

Different enactments of a “holistic approach”, due to organisational and structural conditions of the interventions, construct different possibilities for institutional identities. These insights could be useful to take into consideration when discussing prevention initiatives (in a broad sense) for young people with complex problems, including co-occurring offending behaviour and drug use experience.

Originality/value

Research with a focus on citizens with complex problems who do not comply with OR conform to standard welfare institutions are limited. The authors contribute to this literature by focussing on young adults with offending behaviour and drug experiences.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2019

Tuuli Kuosmanen, Aleisha M. Clarke and Margaret M. Barry

Evidence on implementing effective adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions in the European context is underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper is…

1142

Abstract

Purpose

Evidence on implementing effective adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions in the European context is underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper is to identify evidence-based mental health promotion and prevention interventions for adolescents that have been developed and/or implemented across the school, community and digital settings in Europe. This review also sought to identify the relevant implementation processes in relation to what works, for whom and under what circumstances.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative synthesis of the evidence was conducted which included two stages: a systematic search of studies assessing adolescent mental health promotion and prevention interventions; and a selection of interventions with the most robust evidence base, using pre-defined criteria, that have been either developed and/or implemented in Europe.

Findings

A total of 16 interventions met the inclusion criteria. The majority of interventions were school-based programmes. The review findings support the delivery of interventions aimed at enhancing young people’s social and emotional learning (SEL) and preventing behavioural problems. Results indicate that the effective delivery of SEL interventions on a school-wide basis could provide an important platform on which other universal interventions such as anxiety and bullying prevention, and targeted depression prevention could be developed in a multi-tiered fashion. There were a limited number of studies providing robust evidence on the effectiveness of suicide prevention, digital and community-based interventions.

Originality/value

This review identifies a number of robust evidence-based promotion and prevention interventions for promoting adolescent mental health. While the interventions have been implemented in Europe, the majority has not been evaluated rigorously and few included detailed information on the quality of programme implementation. Evidence of the effective cross-cultural transferability of these interventions needs to be strengthened, including more systematic research on their implementation across diverse country contexts.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Gaby Ronda, Patricia Van Assema, Erik Ruland, Mieke Steenbakkers and Johannes Brug

Hartslag Limburg, a cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention programme, integrates a community strategy and a high‐risk strategy. The present paper presents the evaluation…

Abstract

Hartslag Limburg, a cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention programme, integrates a community strategy and a high‐risk strategy. The present paper presents the evaluation design for, and baseline data from, the community intervention. The conceptual framework of the community intervention and its evaluation study were based on programme planning and evaluation models. Within this framework, community organization principles and methods and health education theories and methods were applied. Pre‐test/post‐test control group designs were used to study changes at the individual and the organizational level. The baseline results confirm the need to carry out a comprehensive CVD prevention community project, and the appropriateness of the conceptual model that is used for the development of interventions.

Details

Health Education, vol. 103 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Benjamin Mitchell Wood and Per Kallestrup

The purpose of this paper is to describe non-specialised, group-based interventions in displaced populations from reviewed literature, and to explore their outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe non-specialised, group-based interventions in displaced populations from reviewed literature, and to explore their outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted using the PubMed database, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, and defined “grey literature”. Characteristics of the interventions were summarised into a table under key categories such as targeted persons, study setting, level of evidence, outcome measures, assessment tools used and summary of results.

Findings

In total, 11 articles were identified stemming from nine separate interventions. Three of these were considered level 1 evidence as they were randomised controlled trials. The described interventions were markedly heterogeneous in nature and produced diverse findings. There were noted methodological issues in the majority of interventions reviewed.

Originality/value

This original research has demonstrated clear need for research that uses robust methodology accounting for the complex and challenging nature of this context.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Martine Stead, Ross Gordon, Kathryn Angus and Laura McDermott

The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and…

22070

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy‐level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve health and society.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a review of systematic reviews and primary studies using pre‐specified search and inclusion criteria. Social marketing interventions were defined as those which adopted specified social marketing principles in their development and implementation.

Findings

The paper finds that a total of 54 interventions met the inclusion criteria. There was evidence that interventions adopting social marketing principles could be effective across a range of behaviours, with a range of target groups, in different settings, and can influence policy and professional practice as well as individuals.

Research limitations/implications

As this was a systematic paper, the quality of included studies was reasonable and many were RCTs. However, many of the multi‐component studies reported overall results only and research designs did not allow for the efficacy of different components to be compared. When reviewing social marketing effectiveness it is important not to rely solely on the “label” as social marketing is often misrepresented; there is a need for social marketers to clearly define their approach.

Practical implications

The paper shows that social marketing can form an effective framework for behaviour change interventions and can provide a useful “toolkit” for organisations that are trying to change health behaviours.

Originality/value

The research described in this paper represents one of the few systematic examinations of social marketing effectiveness and is based on a clear definition of “social marketing”. It highlights both social marketing's potential to achieve change in different behavioural contexts and its ability to work at individual, environmental and wider policy levels.

Details

Health Education, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Farah Barbir

Community‐based research requires the involvement of both the community and researchers to investigate the influence of existing political, social and structural factors…

1577

Abstract

Community‐based research requires the involvement of both the community and researchers to investigate the influence of existing political, social and structural factors on the health of individuals and communities. In the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, a community‐based intervention is proposed, as part of an EU INCO DEV‐funded project that aims to assess reproductive health care among Bedouin in Lebanon and Jordan. This intervention intends to train Bedouin community health volunteers (CHVs) to spread reproductive and child health knowledge and awareness among the Bedouin community and link them to the existing primary health care centres. The challenges facing this intervention relate to the existing political atmosphere and the difficult process of building and maintaining a partnership between the research team and the Bedouin. Evidence from the data‐collection phase and the current implementation phase of the Bedouin project has shown that the positive outcomes that result from community‐based interventions can be outweighed by the burden of obstacles and challenges that arise. These have to be carefully anticipated and tackled to guarantee a successful intervention. This paper will explore these obstacles and highlight some recommendations for implementing a community‐based intervention on the basis of our experience with the Bedouin.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Ademola Ajuwon, Fawole Funmilayo, Oladimeji Oladepo, Kayode Osungbade and Michael Asuzu

The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community‐based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community‐based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the state were trained as trainers. They were provided seed grants to replicate similar training for health workers, implement and evaluate community‐based AIDS prevention activities. Questionnaires were used before and after the training and the community based projects to evaluate its impact on knowledge of cause of AIDS, routes of HIV transmission, signs and symptoms of AIDS, and precautions to prevent.

Findings

At pre‐test, only 30.8 per cent of trainers could list at least four signs and symptoms of AIDS compared with 70.9 per cent who could do so after the training. The trainers trained 973 health workers; the number trained ranged from 20‐80 with a mean of 32.4. The trainers also implemented community‐based AIDS prevention interventions which reached 2,082 persons including adolescents (48.2 per cent), long‐distance drivers (16.6 per cent), market men and women (15.8 per cent), female sex workers (14.2 per cent), traditional birth attendants (4.6 per cent) and herdsmen and women (5.6 per cent). The evaluation conducted after four months of implementation of the community‐based projects showed improvement in knowledge of HIV among all the target groups. It suggests reduction in reported unprotected sex among drivers (from 44 per cent at pre‐test to 18.9 per cent at post‐test) and increase in reported consistent use of condoms (from 53.4 per cent at pre‐test to 71.4 per cent at post‐test) among female sex workers.

Research limitations/implications

Primary health care workers can successfully implement community‐based HIV/AIDS prevention activities.

Practical implications

Primary health care workers can make important contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts.

Originality/value

Health education interventions delivered by primary health care workers multiplied the effects of HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Javonda Williams and Debra Nelson-Gardell

The purpose of this paper is to detail a project that created a community-based mentoring intervention for sexually abused children and adolescents. The project features…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detail a project that created a community-based mentoring intervention for sexually abused children and adolescents. The project features the use of family and community strengths, trauma sensitivity, current research and ecological theory to develop a curriculum for training mentors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods to create a community-based intervention designed for sexually abused children and adolescents. This model supports the building and maintenance of the often fluid and relationship-driven processes that are characteristic of CBPR. The stages included: identification of research questions; assessment of community strengths, assets and challenges; defining priorities; developing research and data collection methodologies; collecting and analysing data; interpretation of findings; dissemination of findings; and applying findings to address action.

Findings

The results include a recommendation to include community members in interventions for sexually abused adolescents.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study include recommendations for a culturally relevant training curriculum for mentors of sexually abused children and adolescents. Hallmarks of the resulting curriculum included using a hybrid of natural and programme mentors and inclusion of trauma sensitivity in training the mentors. The results from the pilot study are not generalisable since the pilot only included a small number of mentors and the effectiveness of the intervention was not tested. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for further development of a mentoring curriculum for sexually abused children and adolescents. This curriculum promotes several potential benefits, including: incorporation of families and communities in discussion and awareness of sexual abuse and trauma sensitivity; and formal training for individuals who have the potential to remain important in the life of the child or adolescent long after formal services have ceased.

Originality/value

The literature shows a lack of community level interventions for sexually abused children and adolescents. The focus of this project was to expand the traditional ecological context of mentoring from a micro or individual level intervention to a community level intervention.

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