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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Fionnola Kelly and Roy McConkey

The move from congregated living arrangements to more homely, community‐based accommodation is a policy objective in many developed countries but its implementation is…

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425

Abstract

Purpose

The move from congregated living arrangements to more homely, community‐based accommodation is a policy objective in many developed countries but its implementation is rarely monitored. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The National Intellectual Disability Database in Ireland provided the data to explore the changes in provision that occurred from 1999 to 2009 for nearly 8,000 adults resident in either congregated or community‐based accommodation.

Findings

Over the ten years, there was a marked rise in the numbers living in community group homes and by 2009 just under 50 per cent of persons resided in community settings. Although there was a reduction in the number of places in congregated options over the decade, this was not uniform in that increased numbers of persons were living in new forms of congregated provision designated as specialist units. Moreover, the estimated annual turnover of 2.4 per cent vacancies per annum meant that nearly half of the new admissions were to congregated settings. Over the ten years, a few people moved to a different type of accommodation although more people moved from congregated to community settings than vice versa. A few moved to more independent living arrangements. Despite unprecedented increased investment in services in this period, on average only 70 new places were created per annum – a 1 per cent increase on total places.

Research limitations/implications

Outmoded models of residential provision are likely to persist unless there is sustained investment in new forms of provision largely through a planned transfer of resources.

Originality/value

This national study illustrates how policy changes could be monitored in other countries.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2006

Abram Rosenblatt and Laura Compian

Systems of care and evidence-based practice possess distinct histories. Though each developed out of attempts to improve services to youth with emotional and behavioral…

Abstract

Systems of care and evidence-based practice possess distinct histories. Though each developed out of attempts to improve services to youth with emotional and behavioral disorders, they did so from perspectives so different as to appear diametrically opposed. Service systems exist at multiple levels, including the practice, program, and system levels (Rosenblatt, 1988, 2005; Rosenblatt & Woodbridge, 2003). Research on health and mental health service systems similarly varies, often by level of the service system, with the research methods, independent and dependent variables, populations of interest, and ultimately the consumers of the research product interacting differentially in the creation and understanding of what constitutes a knowledge base for service delivery. Systems of care and, with limited exceptions, evidence-based practices exist at different levels of the service delivery structure, require and derive from different research approaches, and speak to overlapping but historically different audiences.

Details

Research on Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-416-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Sibylle Heilbrunn

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational change upon entrepreneurship in communities such as the Israeli kibbutz, which underwent during…

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2577

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational change upon entrepreneurship in communities such as the Israeli kibbutz, which underwent during the last two decades a process of crisis and change. Based on a theoretical model that identifies how cultural orientations of individualism versus collectivism affect the entrepreneurial process, attempt is made to analyze whether and how the move from organizational collectivism towards organizational individualism influences the volume and type of entrepreneurship in community settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive questionnaire has been administered to a sample of 60 kibbutzim in 1997 and in 2004. The questionnaire includes issues of organizational culture, structure and business orientation, as well as reports on the ventures initiated during the relevant years. The data received by means of the questionnaire are analyzed by quantitative statistical methods. In‐depth interviews with office holders in a small number of kibbutzim add understanding of the underlying ongoing processes of change.

Findings

The results of the study show that after processes of organizational change, resource leverage is still characterized by induced strategic behavior, but venture policy is no longer one of nurturing. Market criteria such as profitability and competition at the organizational level promote individualistic‐oriented motivation and economic behavior of entrepreneurs within the community setting.

Research limitations/implications

Using a model of corporate entrepreneurship is the inherent limitation of the design of this study. Future research should consider alternative theoretical models for the analysis of entrepreneurship in community settings, focusing on independent variables such as human and social capital of the community entrepreneur.

Originality/value

The paper provides an investigation into the influence of organizational change upon the volume of entrepreneurship in a community setting.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Anne S. De Groot, Madeline Dilorenzo, Mary Sylla and Joseph Bick

At least 20% of individuals living with HIV pass through prison and jail doors every year, in any nation, worldwide. Therefore, interventions that improve access to HIV…

Abstract

At least 20% of individuals living with HIV pass through prison and jail doors every year, in any nation, worldwide. Therefore, interventions that improve access to HIV testing, HIV care, and education can have a broad impact on public health in every country. The benefits of these interventions in correctional settings have already been well documented. For example, improved access to HIV testing, treatment by an HIV specialist, preventive vaccinations and prophylactic medications, screening for concomitant infections such as HCV, and pre‐release planning services have been shown to decrease HIV‐related mortality and morbidity, to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and to decrease recidivism. Education of at‐risk individuals has also been shown to reduce HIV risk behaviors. Safe distribution of condoms and needle‐exchange programs have also been demonstrated to be safe and effective, although few such programs have been implemented in the United States. While all the available evidence has demonstrated that these public health‐oriented interventions can be and are successful in correctional settings, implementation on a national and international level lags far behind the evidence. The time has come to take an evidence‐based approach to improving HIV management in correctional settings. Implementations of the HIV management interventions described in this article make good medical sense and will have a positive impact on the health of inmates and the communities to which inmates return.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Shihui Feng, Liaquat Hossain and Douglas Paton

Disaster education is considered as a newly emerging area of research and practice, which promotes community-based educational approaches for building resilience. Given…

Abstract

Purpose

Disaster education is considered as a newly emerging area of research and practice, which promotes community-based educational approaches for building resilience. Given the atypical nature of these disturbances, people and communities need to develop the knowledge required to anticipate and understand what they could have to contend with and proactively develop strategies that can minimize their risk and afford ways to cope with and adapt to adverse situations in an effective manner. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that informal education resulting from daily activities related to work, family life, or leisure can be harnessed to develop disaster resilience within community settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper provides the discussion and synthesis of literature covering community resilience, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and informal education. In doing so, this study proposes a conceptual framework and implementation strategies for harnessing informal education in building community resilience.

Findings

To harness informal disaster education for community resilience, the authors suggest a conceptual framework and four implementation strategies with the corresponding implications: cultivate social environment for conversations, discussions, reflections and learning; design social activities for promoting and encouraging informal learning; appropriate interventions by informal educators in social activities; and transparent resources and channels for information and social supports. A compilation of a number of community-based DRR practices involving civil society organizations has been incorporated in the proposed framework for exemplifying informal disaster education for community resilience.

Originality/value

Promoting informal education in community settings is aimed at building community resilience in a collective way, which is especially important in disaster-prone areas. Informal education for community resilience not only educates individuals how to deal with disasters, but also connects individuals together to be more resilient in their ability to cope or bounce back from adverse events in their life.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Angela Roth, Martin Dumbach, Barbara Schliffka and Kathrin M. Möslein

Increasing demographic diversity within societies and workforces causes challenges with regard to the innovation performance of companies. By definition, innovation…

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1163

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing demographic diversity within societies and workforces causes challenges with regard to the innovation performance of companies. By definition, innovation communities nowadays are composed of members with diverse function background and age diversity. The challenging question is how to manage diverse corporate innovation communities. The purpose of this paper is to find out which factors determine the success of corporate innovation communities in times of demographic shifts.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical field to answer the research question are three corporate innovation communities in companies of different industries and size. Multiple case study methodology is applied to gather and analyse the data.

Findings

The study presents an empirically derived framework to structure success factors of diverse corporate innovation communities chronologically in the three phases of preparation, execution and finalization of a community work process. The success factors are described in detail and finally a time sequential guideline for those who are responsible for community management in demographic change is provided.

Research limitations/implications

It is contributed to the literature on innovation communities and it is shown that innovation communities are not only an instrument to solve innovation tasks but are also a promising means to tackle other challenges of recent demographic changes. As limitation must be considered, that the analysed innovation communities only received corporate support for a short period of time and the supporting organizations operate in manufacturing industries in Germany only.

Practical implications

The paper highlights that managers need to be aware that diversity in corporate innovation communities per se does not lead to success. Furthermore, a guideline of success factors for managers of diverse corporate innovation communities is presented which highlights important aspects that managers need to consider during the community work process.

Social implications

Due to demographic shifts in Germany and other European countries, societies in general and workforces in particular have modified. Most pervasive shifts take place with regard to age structures and diversity. Implications how manager could handle diversity successfully are therefore of high relevance for societies.

Originality/value

This study provides a theoretical understanding of the implications of organizational and age diversity on corporate innovation community management. Extant authors have already focussed on success factors in innovation communities and diverse settings isolated, but have not merged these issues.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2016

Terese C. Aceves

The United Nation’s Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006 declared the need for countries to facilitate the right of individuals with disabilities…

Abstract

The United Nation’s Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006 declared the need for countries to facilitate the right of individuals with disabilities to their full inclusion and participation within communities across the globe. The community clearly plays a necessary role in the overall preparation and quality of life of students with disabilities and their families. The present chapter will specifically address the role of the community within instructional programming and parent advocacy. First, the chapter discusses the importance of integrating community experiences within inclusive K-12 preparation for students with disabilities for the purpose of enhancing students’ postsecondary outcomes. Second, the chapter reviews the role of community organizations in supporting parental advocacy for effective inclusive programming while highlighting the work of two specific community agencies. These sections are followed by concluding comments emphasizing the role of schools and community-based organizations in supporting inclusive education, community-based instruction, and family advocacy for students with disabilities.

Details

General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Roles of Professionals Involved
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-543-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Anne W. Snowdon and Deborah Tallarigo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunity for supply chain processes and infrastructure to reduce the risk of medical error and create traceability of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunity for supply chain processes and infrastructure to reduce the risk of medical error and create traceability of adverse events in community care settings. Patient safety has become an important area of focus over the past few decades, with medical error now accounting for the third most common cause of death in Canada and the USA. The majority of patient safety studies to date have focused specifically on safety in hospital settings; however, deaths and harm experienced by patients in the community (home care, long-term care, complex care and rehabilitation settings) are not well understood.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the evidence that adverse events occur at similar, if not more, frequent rates in community care settings.

Findings

The authors propose that above and beyond current efforts to increase awareness and promote a “safety culture” in health-care settings, system infrastructure should be designed in a way that enables clinicians to provide the safest care possible. There is currently no line of sight across the health-care continuum. The authors suggest that improving system infrastructure would reduce the occurrence of adverse events.

Originality/value

Such visibility across the continuum of care holds the potential to transform health-care in Canada from a fragmented system, where information is inadequately captured and transferred from provider to provider, to a system that provides complete, accurate and up-to-date information regarding patient care, procedures, medications and outcomes so as to provide the best and safest care possible. System visibility achieves quality and safe care, which is transparent and accountable and achieves value for patients.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Sally Jacobs, Jane Hughes, David Challis, Karen Stewart and Kate Weiner

Care management has developed in a variety of forms. This diary study explores differences in the approach taken to care management in three distinct social service…

Abstract

Care management has developed in a variety of forms. This diary study explores differences in the approach taken to care management in three distinct social service settings: community‐based older people's teams, hospital social work teams also for older people and community‐based teams for adults with mental health problems. Conclusions are drawn both for social care and for health services developing case management for people with long‐term conditions.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2016

Megan E. Pratt, Michelle Taylor, Lauren van Huisstede and Larissa M. Gaias

Family involvement is traditionally conceptualized as the role parents assume in formal early childhood education (ECE) settings, such as preschool. However, family…

Abstract

Family involvement is traditionally conceptualized as the role parents assume in formal early childhood education (ECE) settings, such as preschool. However, family involvement in early learning is not limited to formal, school-like experiences. For many children, much of their early learning occurs with parents, family members, and other informal caregivers within the home and during outings into their local communities. Therefore, finding innovative ways for communities to engage families in their young children’s early learning process is very important. Public libraries are well-established community resources that are recognized by families as reliable institutions with trustworthy information. This chapter suggests that public libraries hold great potential to provide early education experiences that naturally encourage family involvement in early learning. First, we review how public libraries are well positioned to support family involvement in children’s early learning. We also highlight recent library-based efforts to reach families with research-informed learning experiences that support children’s school readiness. A case study of one public library’s partnership with university researchers to deliver library-based interactive parent-child programming is presented. Finally, we address national efforts to include public libraries within statewide early childhood comprehensive systems and important considerations for building upon the potential of public libraries to support families with young children.

Details

Family Involvement in Early Education and Child Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-408-2

Keywords

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