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This article traces the development of ideas and policies linked to the shifting definitions of crime reduction, prevention and community safety. The conceptual changes…
This article traces the development of ideas and policies linked to the shifting definitions of crime reduction, prevention and community safety. The conceptual changes are often difficult to define due to imprecision and breadth. Community safety is sufficiently broad to be concerned with a range of harms and hazards beyond crime and disorder, which may become the focus of the emerging new forms of government.
This article considers the issues of ‘street prostitution’ and ‘community safety’ in terms of the discursive construction of each. It argues that in the late‐modern age…
This article considers the issues of ‘street prostitution’ and ‘community safety’ in terms of the discursive construction of each. It argues that in the late‐modern age, concepts such as ‘community’ and ‘safety’ are problematic and their meaning cannot be taken for granted. The discussion then probes discursive constructions of ‘the prostitute’ and explores the causes of prostitution, its legal regulation and the apparent resilience of street sex markets to various forms of intervention in different places and at different times. The article concludes by considering prostitute women as members of the community and reflects on what this might mean in terms of community safety strategies.
The role of the community safety practitioner is a newly emerging expertise in local government. A survey conducted with local authorities reveals a relatively fluid and…
The role of the community safety practitioner is a newly emerging expertise in local government. A survey conducted with local authorities reveals a relatively fluid and unstructured profession of highly educated or experienced individuals with heavy workloads. Practitioners inhabit a contested policy terrain in which they express a preference for a social regeneration agenda rather than narrower crime specific strategies.
The purpose of the paper is to explore some dimensions of the community policing strategy of the Slovene police, which emphasizes establishment, reinforcement and…
The purpose of the paper is to explore some dimensions of the community policing strategy of the Slovene police, which emphasizes establishment, reinforcement and maintenance of good relations with local communities and new organized ways of setting of priorities in crime prevention and provision of local safety at the local level (i.e. local safety councils). In addition, the paper seeks to present the development of local safety and security efforts in Slovenia based on ideas of making local communities responsible and on partnership in setting priorities in safety/security efforts, prevention of everyday criminal offences and public disorder.
The authors have conducted a study on a sample of 178 representatives of local safety councils in several Slovenian towns. The study focused on the functioning of local safety councils in Slovenia and dealt with advantages and obstacles related to the work of such councils. The authors also reflected on the councils within a broader concept of democratisation and inclusion of citizens in crime prevention and partnership‐oriented local problem solving.
Findings show the development of some dimensions of community policing safety, especially democratic ways in setting priorities in local safety and crime prevention efforts. Despite some obstacles, the main advantages of such councils are as follows: democratisation of formal social control and control over the police; cooperation of (responsible) citizens and knowing one another; development of more active cooperation between all local key persons; facilitating of “safety consciousness” and discussions on local problems and “communities that care” mentality.
The present research used both quantitative and qualitative approaches, which gave a relatively clear overview of the situation studied. A possible problem in studying priorities in crime prevention and safety provision can be related to the population, which attended the local safety council meetings. They do not necessarily represent the public opinion of local citizens but opinions of local élites dealing with crime and public security issues.
The main implications of the paper for policy makers and practitioners are challenges to the further development of local crime prevention efforts, which should be based on partnership, good knowledge (information‐ and knowledge‐based decision making), clear rules or legal framework, financing and accountability.
The paper presents the first such study conducted in a post‐socialist country, and presents some ideas for the development of common efforts in local (communal) crime prevention and efforts for a safer life in local communities.
The contribution of neighbourhood structure to residents’ perceptions towards built environment is becoming recognised. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists…
The contribution of neighbourhood structure to residents’ perceptions towards built environment is becoming recognised. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists to support the idea that natural surveillance is related to perceptions of safety, the empirical literature on examining the effect of neighbourhood structure and residents’ attitude towards their neighbourhood on perceptions of safety is limited, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships between natural surveillance, perceived disorder, social cohesion and perception of safety in a gated community.
A total of 250 households from Babolsar, Iran, participated in this study. The structural equation modelling technique was employed to examine the research model.
The results indicate that natural surveillance is negatively related to disorder and is positively related to social cohesion and perception of safety. The model also shows no significant relationship between social cohesion and perception of safety in the study area. Residents perceived relatively high levels of social cohesion, but their perceptions of safety were moderate.
Findings emphasise the importance of neighbourhood structure and active roles of local communities in enhancing neighbourly relations and perceptions of safety.
The definition of community safety is broad and the role of community safety officers has reflected that breadth. This article points to examples of the variety of structures and responsibilities that have emerged since 1998. It argues for a better definition of the role of the community safety officer to enhance the professionalism of the practitioners.
This article subjects rural community safety to critical scrutiny. It reviews the background to this rural governmental infrastructure, considers how well it is working and identifies the barriers to the effective development of rural community safety. It concludes with an agenda for rural community safety.
The article proposes a schematic model of how community safety is related to changes in local housing markets ‐ particularly those characterised by low demand and market…
The article proposes a schematic model of how community safety is related to changes in local housing markets ‐ particularly those characterised by low demand and market failure. The model is presented as an example of strategic planning for ‘joined‐up’ working in civil and neighbourhood renewal.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the rationale for and approach to enhancing community participation in traffic safety initiatives. It describes a process that…
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the rationale for and approach to enhancing community participation in traffic safety initiatives. It describes a process that practitioners can use to engage members of the public in the development of community-based solutions to traffic safety problems. The approach used draws on contemporary social theory, historical antecedents, and demonstrated best practices for effective engagement efforts.
The implications of the ideas developed in this chapter include the need for traffic safety and related agencies to develop and deploy new or expanded capacities as they implement community-level traffic safety initiatives. One such capacity is the development of greater interdisciplinary understanding of sociopolitical dynamics that support and/or inhibit the effectiveness of behavior change efforts. Another is the ability to employ practical participatory processes that engage community members so as to draw out the tacit but critical knowledge about barriers to and avenues for supporting behavior change strategies. These increase the likelihood of developing traffic safety strategies that are effective within the specific and unique culture of each community.
This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While…
This study explored the neighbourhood‐level personal safety concerns experienced by older people living in socioeconomically deprived communities in South Wales. While there is a wealth of criminological literature focusing on whether older people experience high levels of fear of crime, much of it conflicting in its conclusions, such studies tell us little about the social and physical cues for feelings of fear that are evoked in older people on a community level. To provide a richer understanding of these issues the study adopted a predominantly qualitative approach to identify community characteristics that shaped older people's views of personal safety. This was supplemented by quantitative data regarding their actual experiences of crime. The main finding was that personal safety concerns were overwhelmingly related to the social connotations of specific community locations, such as those associated with the presence and behaviour of perceived 'undesirable others', rather than specific locations themselves or their physical characteristics. This raises questions and challenges about the development of appropriate and effective crime and fear reduction strategies that enable older people to feel safer in their communities, and so facilitate their community engagement and social inclusion.