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Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Oksana Grybovych

This chapter explores methodological aspects of designing a qualitative multi-case research study to examine the issues of citizen participation, new democratic forms of…

Abstract

This chapter explores methodological aspects of designing a qualitative multi-case research study to examine the issues of citizen participation, new democratic forms of planning, and community tourism planning. The study discussed below took place during the months of June 2007–March 2008 in three North American communities – two in the United States and one in Canada. The purposes of the study were to compare and contrast the current practices of citizen involvement in community tourism planning with the framework of deliberative democracy, to expand the literature on tourism planning, and to contribute to the development of a model of participatory community tourism planning to be adopted by communities and planners pursuing tourism as a development tool. This chapter focuses on methodological intricacies of designing a qualitative multi-case research study, those wishing to explore the project more are referred to Grybovych (2008).

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Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2010

James Hanrahan

Sustainable development may best be achieved by enhancing the commitment of local communities. Stewart and Hams (1991) argue that the requirements of sustainable…

Abstract

Sustainable development may best be achieved by enhancing the commitment of local communities. Stewart and Hams (1991) argue that the requirements of sustainable development cannot merely be imposed but that active participation by local communities is needed. However, the terms ‘community’, ‘host community’ and ‘participation’ can be interpreted in a myriad of ways. Before entering a full discussion of host community participation in tourism planning, it is first necessary to explore the various potential interpretations of these terms and to define their meaning and function. This chapter therefore clarifies some of the issues surrounding the terms community, host, host community and participation. The major typologies and available models in relation to host communities’ participation in sustainable planning for tourism are also reviewed.

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Global Ecological Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-748-6

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Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2011

Sunil Parashar, Anshu Sharma and Rajib Shaw

Urbanization is increasing the vulnerability in mega cities, where poor community often squat on low-lying areas, hilly areas, and hazards prone areas (IDNDR, 1999). The…

Abstract

Urbanization is increasing the vulnerability in mega cities, where poor community often squat on low-lying areas, hilly areas, and hazards prone areas (IDNDR, 1999). The built infrastructures and systems are subjected to natural hazards: floods, earthquakes, landslides, cyclones etc. Thus, cities are vulnerable to disasters (IDNDR, 1999). Moreover, cities are also facing environmental risks due to increasing urbanization (Bhatt, Gupta, & Sharma, 1999). The vulnerability can be reduced by incorporating risk management into urban planning (Bhatt et al., 1999). The risk management includes risk analysis, prevention, and preparedness. Traditionally, risk management was seen as separate discipline to mainstream urban planning (Bhatt et al., 1999). The traditional urban planning is often good at making plans (city beautiful plans, land use plans, strategic plans, development plans) and regulatory controls (Hamdi & Goethert, 1997). However, they fail to deliver benefit at the ground. Only few benefits reach the poor, who are often considered as the most vulnerable in the cities. The urban planning can be improved with an alternative: action planning, which is “problem driven, community based, participatory, small in scale, fast, and incremental, with result that is tangible, immediate, and sustainable” (Hamdi & Goethert, 1997). The action planning is often considered relevant in scaling up its outcome from local level to sectoral and national level. This chapter focuses on linking action planning and community-based adaptation. The community can be defined as “a group of people that are directly linked to each other through a common identity, activity or interest” (Jones & Rehman, 2007). The adaptation here is used in context of climate change, which is already happening, and impacts are growing (IPCC, 2001). The community-based adaptation is process oriented and “based on communities’ priorities, needs, knowledge, and capacities, which should empower people to plan for and cope with the impact of climate change” (Reid et al., 2009). This chapter first briefly discusses the action planning process and its challenges. Further, the chapter discusses the action planning in detail. Later the chapter focuses on framework and tools for community-based adaptation. It also discusses few case studies and challenges and issues. Finally, the chapter tries to build a link between action planning and community-based adaptation.

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Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-319-5

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Doug Arbogast, Peter Butler, Eve Faulkes, Daniel Eades, Jinyang Deng, Kudzayi Maumbe and David Smaldone

This paper aims to describe the transdisciplinary, multiphase, mixed methods, generative design research, participatory planning and social design activities developed and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the transdisciplinary, multiphase, mixed methods, generative design research, participatory planning and social design activities developed and implemented by the West Virginia University Rural Tourism Design Team and associated outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiphase methodology included quantitative and qualitative research in initial stages of the study (key informant interviews, resident attitudes toward tourism survey, visitor preferences survey, economic impact analysis) which informed social design activities at latter stages (asset mapping, landscape design/visualization of opportunities and sites targeted for development and cultural identity design) using generative design tools facilitating co-design with the communities and helping the destination take sequential steps toward achieving their goals and objectives.

Findings

Opportunities and challenges identified through multiple methods were triangulated and pointed to the same conclusions including the need for long term planning and managed growth; protecting community values; underutilized natural, cultural and historic assets; the opportunity to develop nature-based, cultural and historical attractions; and the need for a common vision and collective identity.

Research limitations/implications

This study makes a unique contribution to literature on sustainable tourism planning by incorporating social design activities to visualize findings of more traditional planning methods and provide tangible, visible outcomes of planning activities which can guide local stakeholders in rural destinations more directly to funding for planning recommendations and project implementation.

Practical implications

The transdisciplinary and social/generative/participatory approach provided a scaffolding of outputs to the community with citizen control and active involvement throughout the planning and design process. The incorporation of social design provided tangible outcomes including site designs and a cultural identity. Generative design research gives people a language with which they can imagine and express their ideas and dreams for future experiences.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the role of social design in a transdisciplinary, multiphase project to support sustainable tourism planning.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Carol Ann Amaratunga

This paper aims to discuss a pilot in-progress project to promote community-based research (CBR) as a tool for disaster resilience planning in rural, remote and coastal…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss a pilot in-progress project to promote community-based research (CBR) as a tool for disaster resilience planning in rural, remote and coastal communities. Using trans-disciplinary approaches, this project demonstrates how emergency and foresight planning in five rural Canadian pilot communities can be enhanced through the co-design of a pilot Web 2.0 “virtual community of practice” (VCOP).

Design/methodology/approach

The VCOP initiative was designed with pilot and field site communities to facilitate knowledge generation and exchange and to enhance community resilience. Building a culturally appropriate disaster resilience process is an iterative “process of discovery” and community engagement. Through CBR the project supports practitioners and volunteers to share promising practices and lessons-learned for disaster resilience planning.

Findings

The VCOP is being developed in five rural, remote, coastal pilot sites across Canada. Additional field site work is also underway in three urban centres sponsored by a project partner. This paper provides an overview of the initial concept, design and “proof of concept” work currently underway. The pilot project will end in the Fall 2012.

Research limitations/implications

Inspired by the work of American adult educator Etienne Wenger, the VCOP entails co-design and co-ownership of a knowledge engagement process; one which enables local “thought leaders” to participate in emergency planning, preparedness, response and recovery. The VCOP provides a communication platform and fosters “foresight” planning and “education for critical awareness”. Through the sharing of theory and practice, i.e. praxis, communities are mobilized and empowered to anticipate future risks and threats and plan for resilient recovery.

Practical implications

The VCOP foresight planning paradigm challenges the status quo design and delivery of emergency management protocols from traditional “centres of knowledge and power”, e.g. governments and universities and fosters “bottom-up” community-driven planning to anticipate risks and threats and help enhance local capacity for resilient disaster recovery.

Originality/value

The novel application of a VCOP to disaster emergency planning is in keeping with the spirit and principles of UNISDR's Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. VCOP has potential to demonstrate disaster resilience “foresight” planning as evidenced in the adoption of promising ideas and practices developed by communities, for communities. As Louis Pasteur once said “Chance favours the prepared mind”.

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International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Husam AlWaer, Susan Rintoul and Ian Cooper

Design-led events are known under a range of different titles such charrettes, participatory placemaking, co-design and enquiry by design. Rather than being standalone…

Abstract

Purpose

Design-led events are known under a range of different titles such charrettes, participatory placemaking, co-design and enquiry by design. Rather than being standalone, such events form one single step in a multi-stage collaborative planning process. What comes after them has to be acknowledged as important to their effective contribution to collaborative planning. To date, no coherent body of empirical evidence on the aftermath of events has been published demonstrating critical factors that contribute to their success.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s significance resides in identifying an extended framework for the stages in the collaborative planning process and in highlighting critical issues for ensuring that the aspirations and concerns expressed by stakeholders throughout the process are acted on and delivered, namely, subsequent decision-making and delivery; follow-on support, resourcing and funding; the legal status of events and related governance issues; and appropriate monitoring and evaluation practices.

Findings

The paper provides guidance for professional and local stakeholders who are expected to carry the burden of acting on the outputs arising from such events. To be successful, collaborative planning has to be based on longitudinal stakeholder engagement – both long before but also after such events. It is here that the significance of the results reported here lie.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in its attempt to broaden understanding of what happens in collaborative planning following design-led events, drawing on interviews with professional and lay participants in events held across Scotland over the past decade.

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Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Stephanie Krone Firestone, Laura Keyes and Esther Greenhouse

The purpose of this paper is to share the findings from a learning intervention aimed at facilitating more regular and effective collaboration across the planning and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share the findings from a learning intervention aimed at facilitating more regular and effective collaboration across the planning and aging sectors in order to advance Livable Communities for All Ages (LCA).

Design/methodology/approach

A half-day summit that convened over 250 aging sector professionals and planners. Data from these conversations, as well as a pre-event survey, post-event evaluations, and a six-month post-event follow-up survey provide the findings for the discussion.

Findings

The results revealed that the participants increasingly recognized the value of cross-sector relationships to their work on LCA. Further, the success on current projects was highly attributed to the trust gained from a previous experience of aging and planning professionals working together.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers relied on a purposive sample of respondents already registered to attend the Livable Communities Summit, who were likely to be somewhat knowledgeable about the topic of age-friendly planning. While not generalizable to the broader professional fields of the aging and planning sectors, the results inform on the importance of cross-sector collaboration in the context of planning communities supportive of individuals across the lifespan.

Practical implications

Existing challenges to the local residents in a broad swath of areas including housing, transportation, social isolation, purpose and more, are exacerbated in a rapidly aging world that does not advance policies, practices, and built environments to make communities more livable for residents of all ages.

Originality/value

The intention of this research is to contribute to the limited existing literature on collaboration between professionals in the planning and aging fields and to stimulate the increased and improved cross-sector relationships.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Elanor Warwick

Many of the challenges experienced by the New Town remain the same 50 years on: funding major infrastructure, land acquisition and planning still requires national…

Abstract

Many of the challenges experienced by the New Town remain the same 50 years on: funding major infrastructure, land acquisition and planning still requires national political and policy support. In the scramble to deliver the thousands of new homes needed, the British government is revisiting policy levers and programmes of the past. Ebbsfleet, a large new settlement in Kent, two decades into realisation, shows how subsequent government visions overlay the historic New Town principles, the characteristics underpinning Garden Cities or the newly emerging Healthy New Towns (HNT). Rediscovering New Town design principles has prompted a reinvention of the historic planning mechanisms that delivered them. The influence of policy actors is contrasted to Ebbsfleet Development Corporation’s emergent role as the practical delivery agency. Comparing criteria for recent government new settlement programmes reveals the Housing Ministry’s rapid shift from promoting sustainable development to facilitating private-sector investment in exchange for guaranteed housing delivery. A similar dilution is seen in the HNT Network, where the New Towns’ provision of health-giving environments for populations escaping from city slums has been supplanted by a broader (more diffuse) facilitation of healthy wellbeing. In a fluid policy context, Ebbsfleet’s adoption of these principles could cynically be read as market-led place rebranding not reinvention. Will the historic lessons of the early New Towns have been learnt so that the new wave of Garden Cities or Healthy New Towns fare better?

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Lessons from British and French New Towns: Paradise Lost?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-430-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Tamara Essex

There has been much research focusing on contracting and its effect on individual voluntary sector organisation, and some mapping of the extent of voluntary sector…

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1004

Abstract

There has been much research focusing on contracting and its effect on individual voluntary sector organisation, and some mapping of the extent of voluntary sector participation in joint community care planning. Each of these is a new and formal relationship with the statutory sector, and in many cases the tasks are fulfilled by the same voluntary sector worker (usually the senior paid officer of the agency). But the impact that these two new relationships have on the voluntary organisation’s perception of its dependence and inter‐dependence has received less attention. The paper will draw on structured interviews in three local authorities, with voluntary sector participants in contracts for social care, and with participants in joint community care planning groups, as well as on documentary research. It will explore the impact of the evolving roles for those seeking to operate effectively in the pluralist provision of public services. It will analyse experiences within joint community care planning structures, and will analyse experiences of contractual relationships. The paper will seek to identify the elements present in each research site which influence the culture of joint working within the two statutory/ voluntary relationships.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Heba Saleh Moghaieb

This paper aims to address to what extent local administration is involved in national planning focusing on drafting and reviewing processes of “Egypt Vision 2030”.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address to what extent local administration is involved in national planning focusing on drafting and reviewing processes of “Egypt Vision 2030”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper plan to use focus group discussions and descriptive-analytical approach with representatives of local administration in three governorates.

Findings

Importance of local participation is not any more a question; however, participation concept and methodology are what matters. Participatory approach is not complex-free. It is crucial to consider conflicts of interest groups, ideologies, and political trends, communities’ high expectations, particularly of those who were marginalized and deprived for long time. Definitions should not be unified on national, regional and local levels. Each community needs to agree on its own definitions, needs, dreams and paths toward development. Accordingly, the role of the planner is to expand choices and opportunities for each citizen. Participation in planning for the future must include the coming generation who are opting to live this tomorrow. That requires institutionalization of youth participation in the decision-making processes.

Research limitations/implications

It was difficult to ensure meeting adequate sample; however, the author does believe that the participated sample represents the case.

Practical implications

The impact of public participation in planning on enhancing the planning processes and strategic planning outcomes and implementation is not a matter of questioning anymore, although governments do not pay due attention.

Social implications

Public participation in planning processes named participative planning is crucial for achieving development, social justice, economic development and public trust in governments.

Originality/value

The paper depends on focus-group discussions that were conducted by the author. Analysis and discussions reflect the author’s academic and practical experiences.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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