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Purpose – This chapter focuses on notions of community as related to the discourse around “community living” for people with labels of developmental disabilities…
Purpose – This chapter focuses on notions of community as related to the discourse around “community living” for people with labels of developmental disabilities, especially as they emerged during and after deinstitutionalization. Following Foucault, this chapter asks whether institutionalization and community living should be conceived of as two separate epochs or as governed by similar logic. The second focus of the chapter is in the ways notions of “community” were evoked by various stakeholders such as parents of children with labels of mental retardation, professionals in the field of developmental disability, and those of formerly institutionalized peoples themselves.
Methodology/approach – This chapter employs the methodological aspects of the work of Michel Foucault and constructs a genealogy of notions of community in relation to deinstitutionalization and the field of developmental disabilities.
Findings – “Community” has been discursively produced in several forms: as a binary opposite of “institution,” as a set of human relationships, and as a paradigm shift in relation to the way developmental disabilities should be conceptualized. It remains unclear whether we have truly moved from an institutional model to a “community-based” model for those with developmental disabilities.
Originality/value of the chapter – Reconceptualizing deinstitutionalization and community living as discursive formations aids in the understanding of the difference between abolition of institutionalization as a mindset and other formulations of the concept of “community” in the field of developmental disabilities.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of strategy in the field of heritage conservation, with a focus on a new conservation approach that promotes the…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of strategy in the field of heritage conservation, with a focus on a new conservation approach that promotes the empowerment of local communities and sustainable development: a living heritage approach.
The approaches to heritage conservation are outlined: a material-based approach defines the principles of western-based conservation, a values-based approach expands these principles, while a living heritage approach clearly challenges the established principles. These approaches are, then, analysed from the perspective of strategy, and a living heritage approach is seen as an example of strategic innovation. The process by which ICCROM develops a living heritage approach at an international level is also examined.
Choosing the “appropriate” conservation approach depends on the specific conditions of each heritage place. Yet, for the cases of living heritage in particular (with communities with an original connection with heritage) a living heritage approach would be more preferable. Living heritage approach can be seen as an example of a strategic innovation in the field of heritage conservation: it proposes a different concept of heritage and conservation (a new WHAT), points at a different community group as responsible for the definition and protection of heritage (a new WHO), and proposes a different way of heritage protection (a new HOW).
A living heritage approach (presented in the paper) may potentially influence the theory as well as the practice of heritage conservation in a variety of parts and heritage places in the world, especially in terms of the attitude towards local and indigenous communities.
Developing a new approach is, in a sense, developing a new strategy. In this context, the paper aims at bringing the insight of business strategy into the field of heritage conservation.
Purpose – Ecological cohousing communities, or ecovillages, are emerging as contemporary housing models that attempt to recreate a sense of community and encourage an…
Purpose – Ecological cohousing communities, or ecovillages, are emerging as contemporary housing models that attempt to recreate a sense of community and encourage an environmentally sustainable lifestyle. This chapter analyzes a rural ecovillage (Ecovillage at Ithaca – EVI) to find out how the community conceptualizes and practices sustainability. The chapter also examines whether and how the community incorporates issues of equity and social justice into its activities.
Design/methodology/approach – The chapter uses a multi-method approach. It is a case study; however, participant observation was conducted at the site. In addition, interviews with residents were conducted and archival materials from the community's newsletters as well city government documents were also used.
Findings – As practiced at EVI, the green lifestyle emphasizes comfortable living that is both esthetically appealing and good for the environment. In making the decision to focus on building a community for the middle class, residents have limited their engagement with social justice issues and have struggled with incorporating minorities and the poor into their community.
Originality/value – This is one of the first papers to analyze the ecovillages from an environmental justice perspective. It shows where there are overlaps between the ecovillage and environmental justice movements. The chapter also fits into a growing body of scholarship that examines the concept of sustainability from a social justice perspective also.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate different approaches to effective campaigning in support of the Living Wage and so this paper contributes to the broader debate…
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate different approaches to effective campaigning in support of the Living Wage and so this paper contributes to the broader debate over the nature of the union movement’s engagement with community groups in pursuit of workplace and social issues.
The paper presents a systematic comparison of a union-led and a community-led campaign, drawing primarily upon interview and survey data.
Though different, both campaigns met with a measure of success in improving employee pay and in increasing union membership suggesting a pragmatic approach to the building of union-community relationships.
The paper shows the need for campaigners to adopt a strategic approach in identifying the target for their campaign, and also the importance of shaping a persuasive argument.
The paper reaffirms the importance of traditional union-led campaigning alongside campaigning through engagement with community groups and so offers a broader framework for exploring the relationships between union and community groups.
This article starts with a brief overview of the history of housing for people with intellectual disability in Austria. The system of care and Austrian disability policy…
This article starts with a brief overview of the history of housing for people with intellectual disability in Austria. The system of care and Austrian disability policy are also examined, focusing on implementation of deinstitutionalisation and community living. The following analysis of services provided in the field of housing for people with intellectual disabilities shows that support is provided in undistinguished, generalised service packages based on a competency model. Academic research on community living is quite rare in Austria, and fails to take into account the subjective perspective of people with intellectual disabilities.
In March this year the European Coalition for Community Living published Wasted Time, Wasted Money, Wasted Lives… A Wasted Opportunity? This reported on how the current…
In March this year the European Coalition for Community Living published Wasted Time, Wasted Money, Wasted Lives… A Wasted Opportunity? This reported on how the current use of European Union Structural Funds perpetuates the social exclusion of disabled people in central and eastern Europe by failing to support the transition from institutional care to community‐based alternatives. This paper summarises its key findings and recommendations.
The paper aims to improve consumer awareness of the complexities of community living. It does this by clarifying how living in a managed community is different from a…
The paper aims to improve consumer awareness of the complexities of community living. It does this by clarifying how living in a managed community is different from a “traditional” neighbourhood; and identifying matters that can become disputes.
The paper builds on research by other authors into strata scheme disputes by examining recent Queensland cases.
Many disputes appear to result from a lack of understanding of the complexities of community living. Matters that should be able to be easily resolved are therefore escalated to formal disputes.
The paper considers law and cases from Queensland. The types of matters considered, however, are relevant for any managed community and therefore the research is relevant for all jurisdictions. The research will be of particular interest to jurisdictions looking to boost living density by increasing the development of managed communities.
The research will assist in consumer transactions by providing guidance as to the matters to be considering prior to moving into a managed community. More informed decision making by prospective residents will lead to a decreased likelihood of disputes arising.
The paper is an up‐to‐date consideration of the issues arising from community living. It highlights the benefits arising from increased consumer awareness of the complexities of community living and the potential for consumer education to reduce the number of disputes.
The replacement of long‐stay hospitals by Care in the Community provides an opportunity to reflect on the quality of people's lives in the community and use of resources…
The replacement of long‐stay hospitals by Care in the Community provides an opportunity to reflect on the quality of people's lives in the community and use of resources. New ways of assisting people with learning disabilities to live in their own homes are emerging. These ‘supported living’ arrangements do not offer a model but rather some guiding principles for finding out how people want to live, and the design, development and co‐ordination of informal and formal supports. The conditions working for and against developing supported living as a mainstream option are reviewed, and what is being learnt about person‐centred planning; supporting people with complex needs; managing costs and service effectiveness; and the enabling role of purchasers.
The central argument of this paper is that supported living — enabling people with learning disabilities to live in their own homes, with appropriate support — has a…
The central argument of this paper is that supported living — enabling people with learning disabilities to live in their own homes, with appropriate support — has a potential strategic role in addressing some of the current shortcomings in community‐based residential services. These shortcomings are described, along with the possible contribution of an approach in which housing and support are separated. Finally some of the current concerns about supported living are briefly addressed.
In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years…
In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years to community-based campaigns targeting local government. These mobilizations have received considerable attention from scholars who see this emerging community orientation as a significant strategic innovation. This study, alternatively, focuses on the subjective and ideological consequences of such mobilizations for those engaged in protest. In particular, it seeks to extend social movement theory regarding the transformative impact of collective action by asking: how do distinct forms of collective action bring about particular kinds of consciousness and identity among participants?
Scholars rooted in a variety of traditions – from theorists of “post-industrial” society and “new” social movements to state theorists and geographers – have suggested that identities fostered at the local level are characterized by a “defensive,” “introverted,” or “retrospective” quality. This study examines a local mobilization, the case of a living wage campaign in Chicago, which deviates from these expectations. Through an analysis of interviews with participants, I find that instead of spurring defensiveness the campaign engendered a citizenship identity that was both active and inclusive. In explaining why my findings diverge from existing theories of identity formation, my analysis highlights three conceptual deficiencies in the literature with respect to (1) the distinction between local versus transnational collective action, (2) the relationship between social movement goals/tactics and outcomes, and (3) the prioritization of “new” social movements over the labor movement. Examining the citizenship identities that developed during Chicago's living wage campaign is instructive, finally, for understanding the sources of counter-hegemonic subjectivity within a broader context of eroding citizenship rights and a dominant market fundamentalist ideology. More generally, this analysis paves the way for a more productive engagement among theories of social movements, citizenship, labor, and globalization.