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Book part
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Daniel C. Feldman, Thomas W.H. Ng and Ryan M. Vogel

We propose that off-the-job embeddedness (OTJE) be reconceptualized as a separate and distinct, albeit related, construct from job embeddedness. We conceptualize OTJE as…

Abstract

We propose that off-the-job embeddedness (OTJE) be reconceptualized as a separate and distinct, albeit related, construct from job embeddedness. We conceptualize OTJE as the totality of outside-work forces which keep an individual bound to his/her current geographical area and argue that this construct includes important factors which do not fall under the umbrella of “community embeddedness.” Moreover, we propose that these outside-work forces may embed individuals in their jobs either directly or indirectly (through the perceived or expressed preferences of spouses, children, and extended family). This paper identifies the key components of OJTE, addresses the measurement of OTJE, explains the relationships between job embeddedness and OTJE (and their respective components), highlights how OTJE can either amplify or counteract the effects of job embeddedness, and illustrates the direct and indirect effects of OTJE on both work-related and personal outcomes.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-172-4

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Dilek G. Yunlu, Hong Ren, Katherine Mohler Fodchuk and Margaret Shaffer

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model that examines the influences of expatriate community relationship building behaviors on community embeddedness and community

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model that examines the influences of expatriate community relationship building behaviors on community embeddedness and community embeddedness on expatriate retention cognitions. The authors further investigate the moderating role of organizational identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 127 expatriates in the USA were collected and analyzed. The authors used multiple (moderator) hierarchical regression analyses to test the hypotheses. In addition, simple slopes analyses were conducted to further understand the interaction effects.

Findings

The results demonstrate that community relationship building behaviors positively influence expatriate community embeddedness, and the latter is associated with stronger retention cognitions. In addition, the paper finds that, for individuals who have lower levels of organizational identification, community embeddedness is particularly important.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on cross-sectional and self-report data, which limits the ability to draw definitive conclusions about causality. Thus, more multi-source and longitudinal data from different expatriate populations would increase the validity and the generalizability of findings. The theory and empirical evidence indicate the importance of community embeddedness, particularly when organizational identification is low, for expatriates’ retention cognitions.

Practical implications

This study examines the important role of community relationship building behaviors on community embeddedness, and the role of community embeddedness in expatriates’ intention to stay.

Originality/value

This paper integrates the unique view of personal resources associated with different social contexts (i.e. community and organizational contexts) in expatriate studies.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Maike Andresen

– The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine job embeddedness as antecedent of job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of expatriates.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine job embeddedness as antecedent of job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 194 expatriates from 39 nationalities were recruited through various expatriate organizations, which provided expatriate groups they had access to with a link to the online survey in English. To test the hypotheses, the author used bivariate analyses and multivariate regressions were calculated to control for alternative explanations.

Findings

As hypothesized, community embeddedness was positively related to job performance and both organizational embeddedness and community embeddedness were positively related to OCBs. Moreover, community embeddedness and organizational embeddedness showed to be positively related. In addition, organizational embeddedness partially mediated the positive relationship between community embeddedness and job performance for organizational expatriates (moderated mediation) as well as the positive relationship between community embeddedness and OCBs.

Originality/value

This is one of the first study to address the differential effects of organizational and community embeddedness on job performance in an expatriation context.

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Chao-Min Chiu, Chia-Yun Fu, Wei-Yu Lin and Chieh-Fan Chen

The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how to promote members’ beneficial behaviors toward other members and toward the virtual community (VC)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of how to promote members’ beneficial behaviors toward other members and toward the virtual community (VC). The authors extend Ray et al.’s (2014) framework by developing a more precise definition of community embeddedness, and determining how such embeddedness relates to social support and community engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the proposed research model using data collected from 333 users of online social support communities/groups dedicated to sharing knowledge about pregnancy and child care. Partial least squares is used to analyze the measurement and structural models.

Findings

The study shows that embeddedness and engagement are significant determinants of willingness to help others and willingness to help the community. Embeddedness has a strong, positive effect on engagement. Social support positively affects community identification and embeddedness. However, community identification does not have a significant effect on engagement.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the findings, such as the relative importance of embeddedness in fostering willingness to help the community and the relative importance of engagement in fostering willingness to help others, might not be generalizable to VCs where members join for fun and sharing interests.

Practical implications

Although knowledge contributors could self-derive some drivers of embeddedness and engagement, managers or hosts of VCs should develop strategies and mechanisms to provide or enhance the value they add to knowledge sharing and other beneficial behaviors, even though such added value might be largely intangible.

Social implications

Social support plays an important role in shaping an individual’s embeddedness within a VC. Managers of VCs should develop strategies to stimulate exchanges of support among members.

Originality/value

The authors believe that community embeddedness plays a more important role than engagement in shaping the VC’s success and effectiveness. However, the extant VC literature has indicated a relatively weak understanding of the notion of community embeddedness. This study intends to fill that void.

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Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Xiao Deng, Bo Gao and Lei Chen

Exploring the antecedents of members community participation is extremely important for virtual communities (VCs) research and practice. As an important social…

Abstract

Purpose

Exploring the antecedents of members community participation is extremely important for virtual communities (VCs) research and practice. As an important social characteristic of individuals, social embeddedness has been proved as an important antecedent of many individual behaviors; however, few research has investigated the influence of virtual community members social embeddedness on virtual community members’ participation. To fill this gap, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between social embeddedness and community participation in VCs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted empirical study to test the hypotheses. Based on existing scales, this research designed the questionnaire and used a web-based survey to collect the data from VCs in China. To avoid the common method bias, this study collected data at two different times. The final sample included 96 virtual community members from seven communities (community size ranging from 10 to 25) of Baidu Tieba, which is the largest Chinese online communication platform. And this paper used regression models to analysis the data.

Findings

Based on social network theory, this paper found that virtual community members’ social embeddedness in their virtual community has a curvilinear (i.e. inverted U-shaped) effect on their community participation behaviors. And members’ perceived autonomy mediates the curvilinear (i.e. reversed U-shaped) relationship between social network embeddedness and community participation. Furthermore, member instability moderates the curvilinear (i.e. inverted U-shaped) main effect, such that the curvilinear relationship is weakened when member instability is high.

Originality/value

Departing from previous virtual community studies that examine antecedences of participation in linear logic, this study applied social network theory to create a complex, curvilinear, moderated mediation model. The result reveals a curvilinear (i.e. inverted U-shaped) relationship between virtual community members’ social embeddedness in the virtual community and their community participation. And this study also introduce autonomy as mediator and member instability as moderator. By testing the whole model between community members’ social embeddedness and community participation, this study contributes to deepen the understanding of social embeddedness and virtual community participation.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Bernadeta Goštautaitė, Ilona Bučiūnienė, Wolfgang Mayrhofer, Karolis Bareikis and Eglė Bertašiūtė

The purpose of this paper is to explain why entry-level job applicants intend to leave their home country to work abroad by adopting the framework of country embeddedness

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain why entry-level job applicants intend to leave their home country to work abroad by adopting the framework of country embeddedness (i.e. career and community embeddedness).

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are tested using survey data of a sample of prospective healthcare entry-level job applicants (i.e. last year medical students) using hierarchical regression analyses and bootstrapping procedures.

Findings

Results show that, first, home country career and community embeddedness are negatively associated with self-initiated expatriation intention (SIE-intention). Second, developmental feedback reduces SIE-intention. This relationship is at least partly due to increased home country career embeddedness. Third, national identity reduces SIE-intention. The relationship is at least partly due to increased home country community embeddedness.

Originality/value

This paper advances the understanding of SIE by focusing on home country factors associated with the decision to work abroad, whereas the majority of current research mainly considers host country variables.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2018

Emmanuel Twumasi Ampofo, Alan Coetzer and Paul Poisat

This exploratory study adopts a stakeholder perspective on organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the job embeddedness (JE)–life…

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study adopts a stakeholder perspective on organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the job embeddedness (JE)–life satisfaction relationship, moderating roles of gender and community embeddedness and mediating role of innovative behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a snowballing approach, data were collected from 549 participants employed in organisations located in four major metropolitan centres in South Africa.

Findings

Analyses revealed a positive relationship between JE and life satisfaction. Gender moderated the JE–life satisfaction relationship, such that the relationship was stronger among females than males. Community embeddedness moderated the organisation embeddedness–life satisfaction relationship, such that the relationship was stronger when participants were highly embedded in their community. Finally, innovative behaviour mediated the relationship between organisation embeddedness and life satisfaction.

Practical implications

Managers could enhance employees’ life satisfaction through practices that increase on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness. Furthermore, organisations could encourage employees’ innovative behaviours through workplace supervisors’ supportive responses to innovative employees.

Originality/value

JE researchers have yet to focus on the personal benefits of embeddedness for employees. Results of the study provide several contributions to this research direction. The study uses JE as a composite construct to confirm its relationship with life satisfaction. It also expands the JE–life satisfaction relationship by examining moderators of the relationship and a mediating variable in the relationship.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Pattanee Susomrith and Albert Amankwaa

The purpose of this paper is to enable management decisions to develop innovation within an organisation by examining the relationship between job embeddedness (JE) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enable management decisions to develop innovation within an organisation by examining the relationship between job embeddedness (JE) and innovative work behaviour (IWB) while also considering the moderating effect of life satisfaction upon this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 213 employees of small- and medium-sized organisations in Thailand. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the reliability of the measures and validity of the constructs. Multiple regression and PROCESS Macro techniques were used to test the direct and moderation effects.

Findings

The two components of JE, organisational and community embeddedness, were found to positively predict IWB. Additionally, life satisfaction was found to moderate the relationship between organisational embeddedness and IWB, but not the relationship between community embeddedness and IWB. At low levels of life satisfaction, the JE and IWB relationship was non-existent.

Practical implications

Organisations can potentially foster employee innovation by adopting strategies that seek to strengthen employee embeddedness in the organisation and in their community.

Originality/value

Studies on the effect of JE on IWB, particularly in small and medium enterprises and the influence of life satisfaction is sparse. This study redresses this imbalance in the knowledge base.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Chris Storey, Canan Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, Sinéad Roden and Ko de Ruyter

The complexity of supplier-partner networks in the information technology (IT) sector where large suppliers utilize thousands of authorized partners requires that…

Abstract

Purpose

The complexity of supplier-partner networks in the information technology (IT) sector where large suppliers utilize thousands of authorized partners requires that organizations reconsider their approach to governing and managing the relationships involved. Traditional dyadic approaches to governance are likely to prove inadequate. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between network governance mechanisms and relationship performance. Specifically, the authors examine the contingent effect of certification of partners and the use of partner communities (as formal and informal mechanisms of network governance, respectively), on complex and embedded networks of relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A model examining the effect of formal and informal network governance on the relationship between embeddedness (structural and relational) and relationship performance is developed. Data were collected from a sample of partners of leading IT suppliers in the UK and Ireland. Three-way interactions assess the contingent effect of certification and partner communities on the relationship between embeddedness and relational performance.

Findings

Results support the use of a combination of certification and partner communities to strengthen the link between network structure (structural embeddedness) and relational embeddedness, as well as relationship performance. Certification requires the sharing of explicit knowledge with partners whereas partner communities aid the creation and dissemination of more tacit, contextual knowledge. Furthermore, partner communities reinforce positive perceptions of fairness in suppliers’ network management practices, overcoming any perceptions of lock-in or coercive control that certification may suggest.

Practical implications

Certification, despite all its procedural and reputational benefits, damages partner relationships and needs to be supported by partner communities, which themselves show particularly strong benefits in enhancing network relationships.

Originality/value

Despite the emerging prevalence of certification and partner communities in business-to-business relationships, to date there is a paucity of research on their effects on partner relationships and performance. Organizations with an extensive network of similar partners may suffer network overload. This research shows that such organizations can manage their partner network more effectively through network governance mechanisms, thereby addressing the challenge of overload.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Emmanuel Twumasi Ampofo, Alan Coetzer and Paul Poisat

The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships between organisation embeddedness and life satisfaction, and community embeddedness and life satisfaction. The study…

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1583

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships between organisation embeddedness and life satisfaction, and community embeddedness and life satisfaction. The study also examined relationships between each sub-dimension of organisation embeddedness and community embeddedness and life satisfaction. These sub-dimensions are “links”, “fit” and “sacrifice”.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 549 employees in organisations located in four major business centres in South Africa. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

Both organisation embeddedness and community embeddedness were positively related to life satisfaction. Regarding the sub-dimensions of organisation embeddedness, only organisation fit and sacrifice were positively related to life satisfaction. As regards the sub-dimensions of community embeddedness, only community fit was positively related to life satisfaction.

Practical implications

Adopting practices which embed employees in the organisation and communities where they live is potentially beneficial for both organisations and employee well-being.

Originality/value

The bulk of research on job embeddedness (JE) and work-related outcomes has focussed on benefits for the organisation. The effects of embeddedness on employee well-being have been largely overlooked. The current study is an attempt to redress this imbalance in JE research.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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